Observing Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in solar blowout jet.
ABSTRACT: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) is a basic physical process in fluids and magnetized plasmas, with applications successfully modelling e.g. exponentially growing instabilities observed at magnetospheric and heliospheric boundaries, in the solar or Earth's atmosphere and within astrophysical jets. Here, we report the discovery of the KHI in solar blowout jets and analyse the detailed evolution by employing high-resolution data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) satellite launched in 2013. The particular jet we focus on is rooted in the surrounding penumbra of the main negative polarity sunspot of Active Region 12365, where the main body of the jet is a super-penumbral structure. At its maximum, the jet has a length of 90?Mm, a width of 19.7?Mm, and its density is about 40 times higher than its surroundings. During the evolution of the jet, a cavity appears near the base of the jet, and bi-directional flows originated from the top and bottom of the cavity start to develop, indicating that magnetic reconnection takes place around the cavity. Two upward flows pass along the left boundary of the jet successively. Next, KHI develops due to a strong velocity shear (?204?km?s-1) between these two flows, and subsequently the smooth left boundary exhibits a sawtooth pattern, evidencing the onset of the instability.
Project description:On 5 May 2017, MMS observed a crater-type flux rope on the dawnside tailward magnetopause with fluctuations. The boundary-normal analysis shows that the fluctuations can be attributed to nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves. Reconnection signatures such as flow reversals and Joule dissipation were identified at the leading and trailing edges of the flux rope. In particular, strong northward electron jets observed at the trailing edge indicated midlatitude reconnection associated with the 3-D structure of the KH vortex. The scale size of the flux rope, together with reconnection signatures, strongly supports the interpretation that the flux rope was generated locally by KH vortex-induced reconnection. The center of the flux rope also displayed signatures of guide-field reconnection (out-of-plane electron jets, parallel electron heating, and Joule dissipation). These signatures indicate that an interface between two interlinked flux tubes was undergoing interaction, causing a local magnetic depression, resulting in an M-shaped crater flux rope, as supported by reconstruction.
Project description:Ion-to-magnetohydrodynamic scale physics of the transverse velocity shear layer and associated Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in a homogeneous, collisionless plasma are investigated by means of full particle simulations. The shear layer is broadened to reach a kinetic equilibrium when its initial thickness is close to the gyrodiameter of ions crossing the layer, namely, of ion-kinetic scale. The broadened thickness is larger in B⋅Ω<0 case than in B⋅Ω>0 case, where Ω is the vorticity at the layer. This is because the convective electric field, which points out of (into) the layer for B⋅Ω<0 (B⋅Ω>0), extends (reduces) the gyrodiameters. Since the kinetic equilibrium is established before the KHI onset, the KHI growth rate depends on the broadened thickness. In the saturation phase of the KHI, the ion vortex flow is strengthened (weakened) for B⋅Ω<0 (B⋅Ω>0), due to ion centrifugal drift along the rotational plasma flow. In ion inertial scale vortices, this drift effect is crucial in altering the ion vortex size. These results indicate that the KHI at Mercury-like ion-scale magnetospheric boundaries could show clear dawn-dusk asymmetries in both its linear and nonlinear growth.
Project description:A comprehensive analysis of the turbulence structure of relatively deep midlatitude katabatic flows (with jet maxima between 20 and 50?m) developing over a gentle (1°) mesoscale slope with a long fetch upstream of the Meteor Crater in Arizona is presented. The turbulence structure of flow below the katabatic jet maximum shows many similarities with the turbulence structure of shallower katabatic flows, with decreasing turbulence fluxes with height and almost constant turbulent Prandtl number. Still stark differences occur above the jet maximum where turbulence is suppressed by strong stability, is anisotropic and there is a large sub-mesoscale contribution to the flux. Detecting the stable boundary-layer top depends on the method used (flux- vs. anisotropy-profiles) but both methods are highly correlated. The top of the stable boundary layer, however, mostly deviates from the jet maximum height or the top of the near-surface inversion. The flat-terrain formulations for the boundary-layer height correlate well with the detected top of the stable boundary layer if the near-surface and not the background stratification is used in their formulations; however, they mostly largely overestimate this boundary-layer height. The difference from flat-terrain boundary layers is also shown through the dependence of size of the dominant eddy with height. In katabatic flows the eddy size is semi-constant with height throughout the stable boundary-layer depth, whereas in flat terrain, eddy size varies significantly with height. Flux-gradient and flux-variance relationships show that turbulence data from different stable boundary-layer scaling regimes collapse on top of each other showing that the dominant dependence is not on the scaling regime but on the local stability.
Project description:It is important to determine if massive stars form via disc accretion, like their low-mass counterparts. Theory and observation indicate that protostellar jets are a natural consequence of accretion discs and are likely to be crucial for removing angular momentum during the collapse. However, massive protostars are typically rarer, more distant and more dust enshrouded, making observational studies of their jets more challenging. A fundamental question is whether the degree of ionisation in jets is similar across the mass spectrum. Here we determine an ionisation fraction of ~5-12% in the jet from the massive protostar G35.20-0.74N, based on spatially coincident infrared and radio emission. This is similar to the values found in jets from lower-mass young stars, implying a unified mechanism of shock ionisation applies in jets across most of the protostellar mass spectrum, up to at least ~10 solar masses.
Project description:A thorough understanding of the mixing and diffusion of turbulent jets released in porous obstructions is still lacking in literature. This issue is undoubtedly of interest because it is not strictly limited to vegetated flows, but also includes outflows which come from different sources and which spread among oyster or wind farms, as well as aerial pesticide treatments sprayed onto orchards. The aim of the present research is to analyze this process from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, by examining the entrainment coefficient, it is deduced that the presence of a canopy prevents a momentum jet from having an entrainment process, but rather promotes its detrainment. In nature, detrainment is usually associated with buoyancy-driven flows, such as plumes or density currents flowing in a stratified environment. The present study proves that detrainment occurs also when a momentum-driven jet is issued in a not-stratified obstructed current, such as a vegetated flow.
Project description:Sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in mid- to high-latitude oceans have significant impacts on extratropical atmospheric circulations and climate. In the western subarctic Pacific, sharp SST fronts form between the cold subarctic water and the recently found quasi-stationary jets that advect warm waters originating in the Kuroshio northeastward. Here we present a new mechanism of the jet formation paying attention to the propagation of baroclinic Rossby waves that is deflected by eddy-driven barotropic flows over bottom rises, although their height is low (~500?m) compared with the depth of the North Pacific Ocean (~6000?m). Steered by the barotropic flows, Rossby waves bring a thicker upper layer from the subtropical gyre and a thinner upper layer from the subarctic gyre, thereby creating a thickness jump, hence a surface jet, where they converge. This study reveals an overlooked role of low-rise bottom topography in regulating SST anomalies in subpolar oceans.
Project description:Turbulent curtains of smoke rise initially as flat plumes and, above a certain height, they become round plumes. The same evolution of cross-sectional shape is exhibited by jets issuing from flat nozzles. Here we predict based on principle that all such flows should evolve their cross-sectional shapes from flat to round (and not the other way) at a critical distance downstream, which is predictable. The principle is that the prevailing flow architecture provides greater access to the flow of momentum from the moving core (plume, jet) to the still surroundings. For turbulent plumes and jets, the transition distance scales with the long dimensions (L) of the two-dimensional (flat) heat sources and nozzles that drive them. For laminar jets, the transition distance scales with L Re, where Re is the Reynolds number based on nozzle velocity and the smaller dimension of the nozzle cross section. These predictions are confirmed by full numerical experiments of the three-dimensional flow fields of turbulent and laminar jets covering the Re range 10-10(4).
Project description:The most recent "grand minimum" of solar activity, the Maunder minimum (MM, 1650-1710), is of great interest both for understanding the solar dynamo and providing insight into possible future heliospheric conditions. Here, we use nearly 30 years of output from a data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar corona to calibrate heliospheric reconstructions based solely on sunspot observations. Using these empirical relations, we produce the first quantitative estimate of global solar wind variations over the last 400 years. Relative to the modern era, the MM shows a factor 2 reduction in near-Earth heliospheric magnetic field strength and solar wind speed, and up to a factor 4 increase in solar wind Mach number. Thus solar wind energy input into the Earth's magnetosphere was reduced, resulting in a more Jupiter-like system, in agreement with the dearth of auroral reports from the time. The global heliosphere was both smaller and more symmetric under MM conditions, which has implications for the interpretation of cosmogenic radionuclide data and resulting total solar irradiance estimates during grand minima.
Project description:Protostellar jets are one of the most intriguing signposts in star formation. Recent detection of a jet rotation indicates that they can carry away angular momenta from the innermost edges of the disks, allowing the disks to feed the central protostars. In current jet-launching models, magnetic fields are required to launch and collimate the jets, however, observationally, it is still uncertain if magnetic fields are really present in the jets. Here we report a clear detection of SiO line polarization in the HH 211 protostellar jet. Since this line polarization has been attributed to the Goldreich-Kylafis effect in the presence of magnetic field, our observations show convincingly the presence of magnetic field in a jet from a low-mass protostar. The implied magnetic field could be mainly toroidal, as suggested in current jet-launching models, in order to collimate the jet at large distances.
Project description:The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. However, its biological effects and mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we investigated its cell death effects and underlying molecular mechanisms, using air and N? plasma jets from a micro nozzle array. Treatment with air or N? plasma jets caused apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells, simultaneously with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the plasma jets were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function as surrogate apoptotic signals by targeting the mitochondrial membrane potential. Antioxidants or caspase inhibitors ameliorated the apoptotic cell death induced by the air and N? plasma jets, suggesting that the plasma jet may generate ROS as a proapoptotic cue, thus initiating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest the potential employment of plasma jets as a novel therapy for cancer.