Phloroglucinol-Mediated Hsp70 Production in Crustaceans: Protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artemia franciscana and Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
ABSTRACT: The halophilic aquatic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an important aquatic pathogen, also capable of causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp resulting in significant economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-infective strategies to control AHPND. The gnotobiotic Artemia model is used to establish whether a phenolic compound phloroglucinol is effective against the AHPND strain V. parahaemolyticus MO904. We found that pretreatment with phloroglucinol, at an optimum concentration (30?µM), protects axenic brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection and induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production (twofolds or more) as compared with the control. We further demonstrated that the Vibrio-protective effect of phloroglucinol was caused by its prooxidant effect and is linked to the induction of Hsp70. In addition, RNA interference confirms that phloroglucinol-induced Hsp70 mediates the survival of brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection. The study was validated in xenic Artemia model and in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii system. Pretreatment of xenic brine shrimp larvae (30?µM) and Macrobrachium larvae (5?µM) with phloroglucinol increases the survival of xenic brine shrimp and Macrobrachium larvae against subsequent V. parahaemolyticus challenge. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that the prooxidant activity of phloroglucinol induces Hsp70 production protecting brine shrimp, A. franciscana, and freshwater shrimp, M. rosenbergii, against the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain MO904. Probably, phloroglucinol treatment might become part of a holistic strategy to control AHPND in shrimp.
Project description:Emerging, infectious diseases in shrimp like acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and mortality caused by other Vibrio species such as Vibrio harveyi are worldwide related to huge economic losses in industrial shrimp production. As a strategy to prevent disease outbreaks, a plant-based phenolic compound could be used as a biocontrol agent. Here, using the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model system, we showed that phloroglucinol treatment of the parental animals at early life stages resulted in transgenerational inherited increased resistance in their progeny against biotic stress, i.e., bacteria (V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strain and V. harveyi) and abiotic stress, i.e., lethal heat shock. Increased resistance was recorded in three subsequent generations. Innate immune-related gene expression profiles and potential epigenetic mechanisms were studied to discover the underlying protective mechanisms. Our results showed that phloroglucinol treatment of the brine shrimp parents significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the expression of a core set of innate immune genes (DSCAM, proPO, PXN, HSP90, HSP70, and LGBP) in subsequent generations. We also demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, m6A RNA methylation, and histone acetylation and methylation (active chromatin marker i.e., H3K4Me3, H3K4me1, H3K27me1, H3 hyperacetylation, H3K14ac and repression marker, i.e., H3K27me3, H4 hypoacetylation) might play a role in regulation of gene expression leading toward the observed transgenerational inheritance of the resistant brine shrimp progenies. To our knowledge, this is the first report on transgenerational inheritance of a compound-induced robust protected phenotype in brine shrimp, particularly protected against AHPND caused by V. parahaemolyticus and vibriosis caused by V. harveyi. Results showed that epigenetic reprogramming is likely to play a role in the underlying mechanism.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by <i>Vibrio parahaemolyticus</i> resulted in great economic losses in global shrimp aquaculture. There is an urgent need for development of novel strategies to combat AHPND-causing <i>V. parahaemolyticus</i> (<i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub>), given that one of the greatest challenges currently is the widespread use of antibiotics and subsequent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Here, we proposed a broad-spectrum antivirulence approach targeting a conserved histidine kinase, QseC, which has been demonstrated to activate virulence expression in several Gram-negative pathogens. Our results showed that QseC mediated the catecholamine stimulated effects on growth and flagellar motility of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub>. Transcriptome analysis revealed that QseC was involved in the global regulation of the virulence of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> as the ?<i>qseC</i> mutant exhibited a decreased expression of genes related to type IV pilin, flagellar motility, and biofilm formation, while an overexpression of type VI secretion system and cell wall biosynthesis. Subsequently, the bacterial catecholamine receptor antagonist LED209 not only neutralized the stimulatory effects of host catecholamines on the growth and motility of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> <i>in vitro</i>, but also attenuated the virulence of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> towards brine shrimp larvae and white shrimp <i>in vivo</i>. Additionally, LED209 presented no interference with pathogen growth, nor the toxicity to the experimental animals. These results suggest that QseC can be an attractive antivirulence therapy target, and LED209 is a promising candidate for development of broad-spectrum antivirulence agents. This is the first study that demonstrated the role of QseC in the global regulation of <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub> infection and demonstrated the antivirulence potential of LED209, which provides insight into the use of an antivirulence approach for targeting not only <i>Vp</i> <sub>AHPND</sub>, but also a much larger collection of pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirAvp/PirBvp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus, we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control.IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirAvp/PirBvp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type VI secretion system is associated with the AHPND strains and differentiates them from non-AHPND strains, similar to what was seen with the PirA/PirB toxins. We propose that T6SS1 provides a selective advantage during shrimp infections.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen and has recently gained particular notoriety because it causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp, which has caused significant economic loss in the shrimp industry. Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 233 V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from humans, diseased shrimp, and environmental samples collected between 2008 and 2017, providing unprecedented insight into the historical spread of AHPND. The results show that V. parahaemolyticus is genetically diverse and can be divided into 84 sequence types (STs). However, genomic analysis of three STs of V. parahaemolyticus identified seven transmission routes in Asia since 1996, which promoted the transfer of an AHPND-associated plasmid. Notably, the insertion sequence (ISVal1) from the plasmid subsequently mediated the genetic exchange among V. parahaemolyticus STs and resulted in the deletion of an 11-kb region regulating cell mobility and the production of capsular polysaccharides. Phenotype assays confirmed that this deletion enhanced biofilm formation, providing a novel mechanism for environmental adaptation. We conclude that the transmission mode of AHPND consists of two steps, the transmission of V. parahaemolyticus and the subsequent horizontal transfer of the AHPND-associated plasmid. This plasmid allows ISVal1 to mediate genetic exchange and improve pathogen fitness in shrimp ponds. Current shrimp farming practices promoted such genetic exchanges, which highlighted a risk of the emergence of new virulent populations, with potentially devastating consequences for both aquaculture and human health. This study addressed the basic questions regarding the transmission mechanism of AHPND and provided novel insights into shrimp and human disease management.IMPORTANCE Global outbreaks of shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused by V. parahaemolyticus represent an urgent issue for the shrimp industry. This study revealed that the transmission mode of AHPND consists of two steps, the transregional dissemination of V. parahaemolyticus and the horizontal transfer of an AHPND-associated plasmid. Surprisingly, the introduction of the AHPND-associated plasmid also offers a novel mechanism of genetic exchange mediated by insertion sequences, and it improved the fitness of V. parahaemolyticus in a harsh environment. The results presented herein suggest that current shrimp farming practices promote genetic mixture between endemic and oceanic V. parahaemolyticus populations, which introduced the plasmid and accelerated bacterial adaptation by the acquisition of ecologically important functions. This entails a risk of the emergence of new virulent populations both for shrimp and humans. This study improves our understanding of the global dissemination of the AHPND-associated plasmid and highlights the urgent need to improve biosecurity for shrimp farming.
Project description:Mass mortalities of the larval stage of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have been occurring in Bangladesh since 2011. Mortalities can reach 100% and have resulted in an 80% decline in the number of hatcheries actively producing M. rosenbergii. To investigate a causative agent for the mortalities, a disease challenge was carried out using infected material from a hatchery experiencing mortalities. Moribund larvae from the challenge were prepared for metatranscriptomic sequencing. De novo virus assembly revealed a 29 kb single?stranded positive-sense RNA virus with similarities in key protein motif sequences to yellow head virus (YHV), an RNA virus that causes mass mortalities in marine shrimp aquaculture, and other viruses in the Nidovirales order. Primers were designed against the novel virus and used to screen cDNA from larvae sampled from hatcheries in the South of Bangladesh from two consecutive years. Larvae from all hatcheries screened from both years were positive by PCR for the novel virus, including larvae from a hatchery that at the point of sampling appeared healthy, but later experienced mortalities. These screens suggest that the virus is widespread in M. rosenbergii hatchery culture in southern Bangladesh, and that early detection of the virus can be achieved by PCR. The hypothesised protein motifs of Macrobrachium rosenbergii golda virus (MrGV) suggest that it is likely to be a new species within the Nidovirales order. Biosecurity measures should be taken in order to mitigate global spread through the movement of post-larvae within and between countries, which has previously been linked to other virus outbreaks in crustacean aquaculture.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. A total of 19 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from shrimp samples were characterized based on morphological characteristics, biochemical tests, sequencing analysis, and their ability to antagonize Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which causes AHPND in whiteleg shrimp. Results from the agar well diffusion method indicated that 3 out of 19 isolated LAB strains showed the highest antagonizing ability against AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain with an inhibition zone diameter ranging from 18 to 20 mm. Experiments where shrimps were given feed supplemented with these LAB strains and challenged with AHPND strain showed high survival rates (approximately 80.0%), which were not significantly different as compared to those recorded in the negative control treatment (86.6%), but significantly different to those recorded in the positive control treatment (40.6%) after 16 days of the experiment. However, the histological images of shrimp hepatopancreas indicated that the infection rate significantly reduced from 60.0% to 11.1% in shrimps fed with LAB-supplemented feeds and challenged with AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain as compared to those in the positive control treatment. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the identification of LAB strain. These results can be applied in further experiments to investigate the ability of L. plantarum in preventing AHPND in intensively cultured whiteleg shrimp.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor a pVA plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp These are released from VPAHPND isolates that colonize the shrimp stomach and produce pathognomonic AHPND lesions (massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells). PCR results indicated that V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 lacked pirA Vp but carried pirB Vp Unexpectedly, Western blot analysis of proteins from the culture broth of XN87 revealed the absence of both toxins, and the lack of PirB Vp was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, shrimp immersion challenge with XN87 resulted in 47% mortality without AHPND lesions. Instead, lesions consisted of collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelia. In contrast, control shrimp challenged with typical VPAHPND isolate 5HP gave 90% mortality, accompanied by AHPND lesions. Sequence analysis revealed that the pVA plasmid of XN87 contained a mutated pirA Vp gene interrupted by the out-of-frame insertion of a transposon gene fragment. The upstream region and the beginning of the original pirA Vp gene remained intact, but the insertion caused a 2-base reading frameshift in the remainder of the pirA Vp gene sequence and in the downstream pirB Vp gene sequence. Reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of 5HP revealed a bicistronic pirAB Vp mRNA transcript that was not produced by XN87, explaining the absence of both toxins in its culture broth. However, the virulence of XN87 revealed that some V. parahaemolyticus isolates carrying mutant pVA plasmids that produce no Pir Vp toxins can cause mortality in shrimp in ponds experiencing an outbreak of early mortality syndrome (EMS) but may not have been previously recognized to be AHPND related because they did not cause pathognomonic AHPND lesions.IMPORTANCE Shrimp acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates (VPAHPND isolates) that harbor the pVA1 plasmid encoding toxins PirA Vp and PirB Vp The toxins are produced in the shrimp stomach but cause death by massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells (pathognomonic AHPND lesions). V. parahaemolyticus isolate XN87 harbors a mutant pVA plasmid that produces no Pir toxins and does not cause AHPND lesions but still causes ?50% shrimp mortality. Such isolates may cause a portion of the mortality in ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that is not ascribed to VPAHPND Thus, they pose to shrimp farmers an additional threat that would be missed by current testing for VPAHPND Moribund shrimp from ponds experiencing an outbreak of EMS that exhibit collapsed hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells can serve as indicators for the possible presence of such isolates, which can then be confirmed by additional PCR tests for the presence of a pVA plasmid.
Project description:The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) of Penaeus vannamei shrimp is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying toxin genes, pirA and pirB We report the complete genome sequence of the novel V. parahaemolyticus strain R14, which did not display AHPND symptoms in P. vannamei despite containing the binary toxin genes.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying binary toxin genes, pirAB, is one of the etiological agents causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. This disease has emerged recently as a major threat to shrimp aquaculture worldwide. During a routine PCR screening of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus strains, an isolate tested PCR positive for pirB (R13) and another isolate tested positive for both the pirA and pirB (R14) genes. To evaluate the pathogenicity of these isolates, specific pathogen-free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei were experimentally challenged. For both R13 and R14 isolates, the final survival rate was 100% at termination of the challenge, whereas the final survival with the AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus was 0%. The nucleotide sequence of the plasmid DNA carrying the binary toxin genes revealed that R13 contains a deletion of the entire pirA gene whereas R14 contains the entire coding regions of both pirA and pirB genes. However, R14 possesses an insertion upstream of the pirA gene. In R14, mRNA for both pirA and pirB genes could be detected but no cognate proteins. This shows that the genome of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus is highly plastic and, therefore, detection of the pirA and pirB genes alone by DNA-PCR is insufficient as a diagnostic test for AHPND.
Project description:Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a major bacterial disease in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farming, which is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus. AHPND has led to a significant reduction of shrimp output since its outbreak. Selective breeding of disease-resistant broodstock is regarded as a key strategy in solving the disease problem. Understanding the relationship between genetic variance and AHPND resistance is the basis for marker-assisted selection in shrimp. The purpose of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the resistance against AHPND in L. vannamei. In this work, two independent populations were used for V. parahaemolyticus challenge and the resistant or susceptible shrimp were evaluated according to the survival time after Vibrio infection. The above two populations were genotyped separately by a SNP panel designed based on the target sequencing platform using a pooling strategy. The SNP panel contained 508 amplicons from DNA fragments distributed evenly along the genome and some immune-related genes of L. vannamei. By analyzing the allele frequency in the resistant and susceptible groups, 30 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with the resistance of the shrimp against V. parahaemolyticus infection (false discovery rate corrected at P < 0.05). Three SNPs were further validated by individual genotyping in all samples of population 1. Our study illustrated that target sequencing and pooling sequencing were effective in identifying the markers associated with economic traits, and the SNPs identified in this study could be used as molecular markers for breeding disease-resistant shrimp.