Measuring the efficiency of Palestinian public hospitals during 2010-2015: an application of a two-stage DEA method.
ABSTRACT: While health needs and expenditure in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) are growing, the international donations are declining and the economic situation is worsening. The purpose of this paper is twofold, to evaluate the productive efficiency of public hospitals in West Bank and to study contextual factors contributing to efficiency differences.This study examined technical efficiency among 11 public hospitals in West Bank from 2010 through 2015 targeting a total of 66 observations. Nationally representative data were extracted from the official annual health reports. We applied input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models to estimate efficiency scores. To elaborate further on performance, we used Tobit regression to identify contextual factors whose impact on inefficient performance is statistically significant.Despite the increase in efficiency mean scores by 4% from 2010 to 2015, findings show potential savings of 14.5% of resource consumption without reducing the volume of the provided services. The significant Tobit model showed four predictors explaining the inefficient performance of a hospital (p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Child maltreatment is a global epidemic. It affects morbidity, mortality, social behavior, wellbeing, and quality of life of children. This study aims to assess prevalence of child abuse in the West Bank (WB) of the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and to determine some of its social and political associated factors. METHODS:We analyzed secondary data obtained from a cross sectional study conducted on a sample representing Palestinian children on the West Bank and using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) tool. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for parents (ICAST-P) questionnaire was completed by 1107 Palestinian mothers to estimate physical and emotional child abusive practices at home for children aged 0-12?years. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed using the SPSS® version 20 to assess prevalence and predictors of child abuse. RESULTS:Overall, around 34% of the West Bank-children were abused by their mothers. Results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that male children, children of younger mothers, children whose fathers were with low levels of education, children whose mothers reported low levels of parental warmth, and children whose parents were exposed to political violence were at greater risk of being abused. CONCLUSIONS:Child abuse is highly prevalent among children of the Palestinian society in the West Bank. Policy makers need to pay more attention to this epidemic. The association between child abuse and political violence found in this study makes a just solution for Palestinians essential for improving the welfare of children and families.
Project description:In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency.In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study.In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%.Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals.Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%).From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency.It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the least efficient hospitals to correct widespread inefficiency. This would include reconsidering the number of hospitals and their distribution, improving efficiency and reducing duplication by closing or scaling down hospitals with efficiency scores below a certain threshold. For private hospitals with inefficiency related to large size, there is a need to break down such hospitals into manageable sizes.
Project description:Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanomaterials that may have an infinite size with the range less than 100 nm. This science has provided solutions to many of the current limitations in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Therefore, the pharmacist's knowledge and awareness of nano-pharmaceutical drugs will increase their availability in the market, and will improve the patient's compliance to their drug therapy. This study aimed to determine the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals and evaluate the extent of pharmacist's knowledge about them.A cross-sectional study design questionnaire was used to determine the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs based on the database of the ministry of health in the Palestinian hospitals (governmental, private and non- governmental organizations). Moreover, the knowledge of these nano-pharmaceutical drugs among pharmacists working in Palestinian hospitals was assessed based on developed questionnaire from the literature of the pharmaceutical formulations and nano-formulations. The variables were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22).Fifty six pharmacists from 27 hospitals in the West bank completed the survey. The results regarding the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs indicated only eight available in hospitals with a frequency range 0-39.3%. Moreover, pharmacist's knowledge in the pharmaceutical formulations was better than that in nano-formulations.The availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals was not adequate due to the lack of various nano-pharmaceutical drugs. The knowledge among pharmacists regarding nano-pharmaceutical drugs should be improved by providing courses in nanomedicine during the undergraduate pharmacy programs.
Project description:This paper aims to provide estimates of future diabetes prevalence in the West Bank, occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), and to compare five future policy scenarios for diabetes prevention.We created and refined a mathematical Markov model that integrates population, obesity and smoking trends to estimate future diabetes prevalence. Model parameters were derived from the literature. Diabetes incidence was estimated using DISMOD software. We developed the model for the Palestinian population based on data available for the period 2000-2010, and validated the model by comparing predicted diabetes prevalence to subsequent actual observed diabetes prevalence rates.West Bank oPt.Palestinian diabetes mellitus prevalence estimated by the model (for adults aged 25 or more) was 9.7% in 2000, increasing to 15.3% by 2010. Prevalence in men increased from 9.1% to 16.9% and in women from 10.2% to 13.6%. Comparisons of the model results with the observed prevalence in the Palestinian Family Health Survey showed a close fit. The model forecasts were 20.8% for 2020 and 23.4% for 2030. A 2.8% reduction in diabetes prevalence could be achieved if obesity trends start to decline by 5% in a 5-year period. If obesity prevalence was reduced by 35% in 10 years, as suggested by the WHO, diabetes prevalence might be decreased by 20%.The model estimates an increase in the prevalence of diabetes which poses a large challenge to the health system. However, if bold but reasonable action is taken, effective interventions could reduce diabetes prevalence and hence the number of patients with diabetes.
Project description:The burden of cancer is difficult to study in the context of the occupied Palestinian territory because of the limited data available. This study aims to evaluate the quality of mortality data and to investigate cancer mortality patterns in the occupied Palestinian territory's West Bank governorates from 1999 to 2009.Death certificates collected by the Palestinian Ministry of Health for Palestinians living in the West Bank were used. Direct and indirect age-standardised mortality rates were computed and used to compare different governorates according to total and specific cancer mortality. Furthermore, standardised proportional mortality ratios were calculated to compare mortality by urban, rural and camp locales.The most common cause of death out of all cancer types was lung cancer among males (22.8 %) and breast cancer among females (21.5 %) followed by prostate cancer for males (9.5 %) and by colon cancer for females (11.4 %). Regional variations in cancer-specific causes of death were observed. The central- West Bank governorates had the lowest mortality for most cancer types among men and women. Mortality for lung cancer was highest in the north among men (SMR 109.6; 95%CI 99.5-120.4). For prostate cancer, mortality was highest in the north (SMR 103.6; 95%CI 88.5-120.5) and in the south (SMR 118.6; 95%CI 98.9-141.0). Breast cancer mortality was highest in the south (SMR 119.3; 95%CI 103.9-136.2). Similar mortality rate patterns were found in urban, rural and camp locales.The quality of the Palestinian mortality registry has improved over time. Results in the West Bank governorates present different mortality patterns. The differences might be explained by personal, contextual and environmental factors that need future in-depth investigations.
Project description:Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is classified by the WHO as a neglected disease inflicting economic losses on the health systems of many countries worldwide. The aim of this case-series study was to investigate the burden of human CE in Palestine during the period between 2010 and 2015.Records of surgically confirmed CE patients from 13 public and private hospitals in the West Bank and Gaza Strip were reviewed. Patients' cysts were collected from surgical wards and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks were collected from histopathology departments. Molecular identification of CE species /genotypes was conducted by targeting a repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III) within Echinococcus nuclear genome and a fragment within the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, (CO1). Confirmation of CE species/genotypes was carried out using sequencing followed by BLAST analysis and the construction of maximum likelihood consensus dendrogram. CE cases were map-spotted and statistically significant foci identified by spatial analysis. A total of 353 CE patients were identified in 108 localities from the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The average surgical incidence in the West Bank was 2.1 per 100,000. Spot-mapping and purely spatial analysis showed 13 out of 16 Palestinian districts had cases of CE, of which 9 were in the West Bank and 4 in Gaza Strip. Al-Khalil and Bethlehem were statistically significant foci of CE in Palestine with a six-year average incidence of 4.2 and 3.7 per 100,000, respectively.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of human CE causative agent in Palestine. This study revealed that E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was the predominating species responsible for CE in humans with 11 samples identified as G1 genotype and 2 as G3 genotype. This study emphasizes the need for a stringent surveillance system and risk assessment studies in the rural areas of high incidence as a prerequisite for control measures.
Project description:Like several parts in the Middle East, the West Bank is in a significant water scarcity status. Palestinians use groundwater as the main water source, supplying more than 90% of the consumed water in the West Bank. The aim of this study is to enhance the knowledge on drinking water quality in the West Bank. Groundwater quality data was obtained from the Palestinian Water Authority, including the years 2015 and 2016, from the Northern six districts of the West Bank. The water quality data were analyzed and matched with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and the Palestinian standards for drinking water quality. The findings of this study revealed that groundwater in the north of the West Bank comply with several drinking water requirements including total hardness, pH, and sodium and chloride content. Conversely, 18% of the samples exceed the limits for nitrate concentration. The fecal Coliforms and total Coliforms results show that 98.7% of the samples give no risk, but 1.3% of the samples give low risk, and no sample gives intermediate-to-high risks. The microbial and chemical pollution of groundwater is postulated to inadequate wastewater management, high use of fertilizers, and uncontrolled disposal of animal manure. Therefore, it is crucial to disinfect drinking water at the source of production before supply as an immediate action, followed by implementing pollution prevention measures.
Project description:This study aims to analyze the efficiency performance of conventional and Islamic rural banks in Indonesia, specifically, Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (BPR) and Bank Pembiayaan Rakyat Syariah (BPRS). Using a DEA approach, the results indicate that both BPR and BPRS are still inefficient in terms of the intermediation role but are efficient in production. Furthermore, the Tobit estimation show that these two efficiency results are positively affected by location and the capital adequacy ratio (CAR). These rural banks operating in cities tend to have a higher level of efficiency than otherwise. Moreover, the higher the capital, the more efficient both Islamic and conventional rural banks in terms of production and intermediation.
Project description:To analyse coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and risk factor trends in the West Bank, occupied Palestinian territory between 1998 and 2009.Modelling study using CHD IMPACT model.The West Bank, occupied Palestinian territory.Data on populations, mortality, patient groups and numbers, treatments and cardiovascular risk factor trends were obtained from national and local surveys, routine national and WHO statistics, and critically appraised. Data were then integrated and analysed using a previously validated CHD model.CHD deaths prevented or postponed are the main outcome.CHD death rates fell by 20% in the West Bank, between 1998 and 2009. Smoking prevalence was initially high in men, 51%, but decreased to 42%. Population blood pressure levels and total cholesterol levels also decreased. Conversely, body mass index rose by 1-2 kg/m(2) and diabetes increased by 2-8%. Population modelling suggested that more than two-thirds of the mortality fall was attributable to decreases in major risk factors, mainly total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking. Approximately one-third of the CHD mortality decreases were attributable to treatments, particularly for secondary prevention and heart failure. However, the contributions from statins, surgery and angioplasty were consistently small.CHD mortality fell by 20% between 1998 and 2009 in the West Bank. More than two-third of this fall was due to decreases in major risk factors, particularly total cholesterol and blood pressure. Our results clearly indicate that risk factor reductions in the general population compared save substantially more lives to specific treatments for individual patients. This emphasizes the importance of population-wide primary prevention strategies.
Project description:Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories.A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum) were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17%) tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii.The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae.