Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites integrate sterol and phospholipid regulation.
ABSTRACT: Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated ?-super-tether (?-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2. Despite the lack of ER-PM contacts in these cells, ER-PM sterol exchange is robust, indicating that the sterol transport machinery is either absent from or not uniquely located at contact sites. Unexpectedly, we found that the transport of exogenously supplied sterol to the ER occurs more slowly in ?-s-tether cells than in wild-type (WT) cells. We pinpointed this defect to changes in sterol organization and transbilayer movement within the PM bilayer caused by phospholipid dysregulation, evinced by changes in the abundance and organization of PM lipids. Indeed, deletion of either OSH4, which encodes a sterol/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) exchange protein, or SAC1, which encodes a PI4P phosphatase, caused synthetic lethality in ?-s-tether cells due to disruptions in redundant PI4P and phospholipid regulatory pathways. The growth defect of ?-s-tether cells was rescued with an artificial "ER-PM staple," a tether assembled from unrelated non-yeast protein domains, indicating that endogenous tether proteins have nonspecific bridging functions. Finally, we discovered that sterols play a role in regulating ER-PM contact site formation. In sterol-depleted cells, levels of the yeast E-Syt tether Tcb3 were induced and ER-PM contact increased dramatically. These results support a model in which ER-PM contact sites provide a nexus for coordinating the complex interrelationship between sterols, sphingolipids, and phospholipids that maintain PM composition and integrity.
Project description:Sterols are crucial components of biological membranes, which are synthetized in the ER and accumulate in the plasma membrane (PM). Here, by applying a genetically encoded sterol biosensor (D4H), we visualize a sterol flow between PM and endosomes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using time-lapse and correlative light-electron microscopy, we found that inhibition of Arp2/3-dependent F-actin assembly promotes the reversible relocalization of D4H from the PM to internal sterol-rich compartments (STRIC) labeled by synaptobrevin Syb1. Retrograde sterol internalization to STRIC is independent of endocytosis or an intact Golgi, but depends on Ltc1, a LAM/StARkin-family protein localized to ER-PM contact sites. The PM in ltc1? cells over-accumulates sterols and upon Arp2/3 inhibition forms extended ER-interacting invaginations, indicating that sterol transfer contributes to PM size homeostasis. Anterograde sterol movement from STRIC is independent of canonical vesicular trafficking but requires Arp2/3, suggesting a novel role for this complex. Thus, transfer routes orthogonal to vesicular trafficking govern the flow of sterols in the cell.
Project description:P5A ATPases are expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all eukaryotic cells, and their disruption results in severe ER stress. However, the function of these ubiquitous membrane proteins, which belong to the P-type ATPase superfamily, is unknown. We purified a functional tagged version of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae P5A ATPase Spf1p and observed that the ATP hydrolytic activity of the protein is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). Furthermore, SPF1 exhibited negative genetic interactions with SAC1, encoding a PI4P phosphatase, and with OSH1 to OSH6, encoding Osh proteins, which, when energized by a PI4P gradient, drive export of sterols and lipids from the ER. Deletion of SPF1 resulted in increased sensitivity to inhibitors of sterol production, a marked change in the ergosterol/lanosterol ratio, accumulation of sterols in the plasma membrane, and cytosolic accumulation of lipid bodies. We propose that Spf1p maintains cellular sterol homeostasis by influencing the PI4P-induced and Osh-mediated export of sterols from the ER.
Project description:In our proteome-wide screen, Ysp2 (also known as Lam2/Ltc4) was identified as a likely physiologically relevant target of the TOR complex 2 (TORC2)-dependent protein kinase Ypk1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ysp2 was subsequently shown to be one of a new family of sterol-binding proteins located at plasma membrane (PM)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. Here we document that Ysp2 and its paralogue Lam4/Ltc3 are authentic Ypk1 substrates in vivo and show using genetic and biochemical criteria that Ypk1-mediated phosphorylation inhibits the ability of these proteins to promote retrograde transport of sterols from the PM to the ER. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a change in PM sterol homeostasis promotes cell survival under membrane-perturbing conditions known to activate TORC2-Ypk1 signaling. These observations define the underlying molecular basis of a new regulatory mechanism for cellular response to plasma membrane stress.
Project description:The plasma membrane (PM) is composed of a complex lipid mixture that forms heterogeneous membrane environments. Yet, how small-scale lipid organization controls physiological events at the PM remains largely unknown. Here, we show that ORP-related Osh lipid exchange proteins are critical for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P<sub>2</sub>], a key regulator of dynamic events at the PM. In real-time assays, we find that unsaturated phosphatidylserine (PS) and sterols, both Osh protein ligands, synergistically stimulate phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) activity. Biophysical FRET analyses suggest an unconventional co-distribution of unsaturated PS and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) species in sterol-containing membrane bilayers. Moreover, using in vivo imaging approaches and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that Osh protein-mediated unsaturated PI4P and PS membrane lipid organization is sensed by the PIP5K specificity loop. Thus, ORP family members create a nanoscale membrane lipid environment that drives PIP5K activity and PI(4,5)P<sub>2</sub> synthesis that ultimately controls global PM organization and dynamics.
Project description:Lipid transfer between cell membrane bilayers at contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes help to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis. We found that two similar ER integral membrane proteins, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 5 (ORP5) and ORP8, tethered the ER to the plasma membrane (PM) via the interaction of their pleckstrin homology domains with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in this membrane. Their OSBP-related domains (ORDs) harbored either PI4P or phosphatidylserine (PS) and exchanged these lipids between bilayers. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that ORP5 and ORP8 could mediate PI4P/PS countertransport between the ER and the PM, thus delivering PI4P to the ER-localized PI4P phosphatase Sac1 for degradation and PS from the ER to the PM. This exchange helps to control plasma membrane PI4P levels and selectively enrich PS in the PM.
Project description:The network of proteins that orchestrate the distribution of cholesterol among cellular organelles is not fully characterized. We previously proposed that oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) drives cholesterol/PI4P exchange at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Using the inhibitor OSW-1, we report here that the sole activity of endogenous OSBP makes a major contribution to cholesterol distribution, lipid order, and PI4P turnover in living cells. Blocking OSBP causes accumulation of sterols at ER/lipid droplets at the expense of TGN, thereby reducing the gradient of lipid order along the secretory pathway. OSBP consumes about half of the total cellular pool of PI4P, a consumption that depends on the amount of cholesterol to be transported. Inhibiting the spatially restricted PI4-kinase PI4KIII? triggers large periodic traveling waves of PI4P across the TGN These waves are cadenced by long-range PI4P production by PI4KII? and PI4P consumption by OSBP Collectively, these data indicate a massive spatiotemporal coupling between cholesterol transport and PI4P turnover via OSBP and PI4-kinases to control the lipid composition of subcellular membranes.
Project description:A central assumption is that lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) bind transiently to organelle membranes to distribute lipids in the eukaryotic cell. Osh6p and Osh7p are yeast LTPs that transfer phosphatidylserine (PS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) via PS/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) exchange cycles. It is unknown how, at each cycle, they escape from the electrostatic attraction of the PM, highly anionic, to return to the ER. Using cellular and in vitro approaches, we show that Osh6p reduces its avidity for anionic membranes once it captures PS or PI4P, due to a molecular lid closing its lipid-binding pocket. Thus, Osh6p maintains its transport activity between ER- and PM-like membranes. Further investigations reveal that the lid governs the membrane docking and activity of Osh6p because it is anionic. Our study unveils how an LTP self-limits its residency time on membranes, via an electrostatic switching mechanism, to transfer lipids efficiently.
Project description:The Dot/Icm system of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila has the capacity to deliver over 270 effector proteins into host cells during infection. Important questions remain as to spatial and temporal mechanisms used to regulate such a large array of virulence determinants after they have been delivered into host cells. Here we investigated several L. pneumophila effector proteins that contain a conserved phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P)-binding domain first described in the effector DrrA (SidM). This PI4P binding domain was essential for the localization of effectors to the early L. pneumophila-containing vacuole (LCV), and DrrA-mediated recruitment of Rab1 to the LCV required PI4P-binding activity. It was found that the host cell machinery that regulates sites of contact between the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) modulates PI4P dynamics on the LCV to control localization of these effectors. Specifically, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III? (PI4KIII?) was important for generating a PI4P signature that enabled L. pneumophila effectors to localize to the PM-derived vacuole, and the ER-associated phosphatase Sac1 was involved in metabolizing the PI4P on the vacuole to promote the dissociation of effectors. A defect in L. pneumophila replication in macrophages deficient in PI4KIII? was observed, highlighting that a PM-derived PI4P signature is critical for biogenesis of a vacuole that supports intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. These data indicate that PI4P metabolism by enzymes controlling PM-ER contact sites regulate the association of L. pneumophila effectors to coordinate early stages of vacuole biogenesis.
Project description:The close apposition between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM) plays important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis, signaling, and lipid metabolism. The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts; tricalbins in yeast) are ER-anchored proteins that mediate the tethering of the ER to the PM and are thought to mediate lipid transfer between the two membranes. E-Syt cytoplasmic domains comprise a synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid-binding protein (SMP) domain followed by five C2 domains in E-Syt1 and three C2 domains in E-Syt2/3. Here, we used cryo-electron tomography to study the 3D architecture of E-Syt-mediated ER-PM contacts at molecular resolution. In vitrified frozen-hydrated mammalian cells overexpressing individual E-Syts, in which E-Syt-dependent contacts were by far the predominant contacts, ER-PM distance (19-22 nm) correlated with the amino acid length of the cytosolic region of E-Syts (i.e., the number of C2 domains). Elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) shortened the ER-PM distance at E-Syt1-dependent contacts sites. E-Syt-mediated contacts displayed a characteristic electron-dense layer between the ER and the PM. These features were strikingly different from those observed in cells exposed to conditions that induce contacts mediated by the stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and the Ca(2+) channel Orai1 as well as store operated Ca(2+) entry. In these cells the gap between the ER and the PM was spanned by filamentous structures perpendicular to the membranes. Our results define specific ultrastructural features of E-Syt-dependent ER-PM contacts and reveal their structural plasticity, which may impact on the cross-talk between the ER and the PM and the functions of E-Syts in lipid transport between the two bilayers.
Project description:Organelle contact sites perform fundamental functions in cells, including lipid and ion homeostasis, membrane dynamics, and signaling. Using a forward proteomics approach in yeast, we identified new ER-mitochondria and ER-vacuole contacts specified by an uncharacterized protein, Ylr072w. Ylr072w is a conserved protein with GRAM and VASt domains that selectively transports sterols and is thus termed Ltc1, for Lipid transfer at contact site 1. Ltc1 localized to ER-mitochondria and ER-vacuole contacts via the mitochondrial import receptors Tom70/71 and the vacuolar protein Vac8, respectively. At mitochondria, Ltc1 was required for cell viability in the absence of Mdm34, a subunit of the ER-mitochondria encounter structure. At vacuoles, Ltc1 was required for sterol-enriched membrane domain formation in response to stress. Increasing the proportion of Ltc1 at vacuoles was sufficient to induce sterol-enriched vacuolar domains without stress. Thus, our data support a model in which Ltc1 is a sterol-dependent regulator of organelle and cellular homeostasis via its dual localization to ER-mitochondria and ER-vacuole contact sites.