Echocardiography-quantified myocardial strain-a marker of global and regional infarct size that stratifies likelihood of left ventricular thrombus.
ABSTRACT: Myocardial strain provides a novel means of quantifying subtle alterations in contractile function; incremental utility post-MI is unknown.To test longitudinal-quantified by postprocessing routine echo-for assessment of MI size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and conventional methods, and assess regional and global strain (GLS) as markers of LV thrombus.The population comprised of patients with anterior ST-segment MI who underwent echo and CMR prospectively. Preexisting echoes were retrieved, re-analyzed for strain, and compared to conventional MI markers as well as CMR-evidenced MI, function, and thrombus.Seventy-four patients underwent echo and CMR 4 ± 1 weeks post-MI; 72% had abnormal GLS. CMR-quantified MI size was 2.5-fold larger and EF lower among patients with abnormal GLS, paralleling 2.6-3.1 fold differences in Q-wave size and CPK (all P ? .002). GLS correlated with CMR-quantified MI (r = .66), CPK (r = .52) and Q-wave area (r = .44; all P ? .001): Regional strain was lower in the base, mid, and apical LV among patients with CMR-defined transmural MI in each territory (P < .05) and correlated with cine-CMR regional EF (r = .53-.71; P < .001) and echo wall motion (r = .45-.71; P < .001). GLS and apical strain were ~2-fold lower among patients with LV thrombus (P ? .002): Apical strain yielded higher diagnostic performance for thrombus (AUC: 0.83 [0.72-0.93], P = .001) than wall motion (0.73 [0.58-0.88], P = .02), as did global strain (0.78 [0.65-0.90], P = .005) compared to LVEF (0.58 [0.45-0.72], P = .41).Echo-quantified longitudinal strain provides a marker of MI size and improves stratification for post-MI LV thrombus beyond conventional indices.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of post-myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) thrombus in the current era and to develop an effective algorithm (predicated on echocardiography [echo]) to discern patients warranting further testing for thrombus via delayed enhancement (DE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).LV thrombus affects post-MI management. DE-CMR provides thrombus tissue characterization and is a well-validated but an impractical screening modality for all patients after an MI.A same-day echo and CMR were performed according to a tailored protocol, which entailed uniform echo contrast (irrespective of image quality) and dedicated DE-CMR for thrombus tissue characterization.A total of 201 patients were studied; 8% had thrombus according to DE-CMR. All thrombi were apically located; 94% of thrombi occurred in the context of a left anterior descending (LAD) infarct-related artery. Although patients with thrombus had more prolonged chest pain and larger MI (p ? 0.01), only 18% had aneurysm on echo (cine-CMR 24%). Noncontrast (35%) and contrast (64%) echo yielded limited sensitivity for thrombus on DE-CMR. Thrombus was associated with stepwise increments in basal ? apical contractile dysfunction on echo and quantitative cine-CMR; the echo-measured apical wall motion score was higher among patients with thrombus (p < 0.001) and paralleled cine-CMR decrements in apical ejection fraction and peak ejection rates (both p < 0.005). Thrombus-associated decrements in apical contractile dysfunction were significant even among patients with LAD infarction (p < 0.05). The echo-based apical wall motion score improved overall performance (area under the curve 0.89 ± 0.44) for thrombus compared with ejection fraction (area under the curve 0.80 ± 0.61; p = 0.01). Apical wall motion partitions would have enabled all patients with LV thrombus to be appropriately referred for DE-CMR testing (100% sensitivity and negative predictive value), while avoiding further testing in more than one-half (56% to 63%) of patients.LV thrombus remains common, especially after LAD MI, and can occur even in the absence of aneurysm. Although DE-CMR yielded improved overall thrombus detection, apical wall motion on a noncontrast echocardiogram can be an effective stratification tool to identify patients in whom DE-CMR thrombus assessment is most warranted. (Diagnostic Utility of Contrast Echocardiography for Detection of LV Thrombi Post ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction; NCT00539045).
Project description:This study sought to compare contrast-enhanced anatomic imaging and contrast-enhanced tissue characterization (delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance [DE-CMR]) for left ventricular (LV) thrombus detection.Contrast echocardiography (echo) detects LV thrombus based on anatomic appearance, whereas DE-CMR imaging detects thrombus based on tissue characteristics. Although DE-CMR has been validated as an accurate technique for thrombus, its utility compared with contrast echo is unknown.Multimodality imaging was performed in 121 patients at high risk for thrombus due to myocardial infarction or heart failure. Imaging included 3 anatomic imaging techniques for thrombus detection (contrast echo, noncontrast echo, cine-CMR) and a reference of DE-CMR tissue characterization. LV structural parameters were quantified to identify markers for thrombus and predictors of additive utility of contrast-enhanced thrombus imaging.Twenty-four patients had thrombus by DE-CMR. Patients with thrombus had larger infarcts (by DE-CMR), more aneurysms, and lower LV ejection fraction (by CMR and echo) than those without thrombus. Contrast echo nearly doubled sensitivity (61% vs. 33%, p < 0.05) and yielded improved accuracy (92% vs. 82%, p < 0.01) versus noncontrast echo. Patients who derived incremental diagnostic utility from DE-CMR had lower LV ejection fraction versus those in whom noncontrast echo alone accurately assessed thrombus (35 +/- 9% vs. 42 +/- 14%, p < 0.01), with a similar trend for patients who derived incremental benefit from contrast echo (p = 0.08). Contrast echo and cine-CMR closely agreed on the diagnosis of thrombus (kappa = 0.79, p < 0.001). Thrombus prevalence was lower by contrast echo than DE-CMR (p < 0.05). Thrombus detected by DE-CMR but not by contrast echo was more likely to be mural in shape or, when apical, small in volume (p < 0.05).Echo contrast in high-risk patients markedly improves detection of LV thrombus, but does not detect a substantial number of thrombi identified by DE-CMR tissue characterization. Thrombi detected by DE-CMR but not by contrast echo are typically mural in shape or small in volume.
Project description:Background and objective: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) - based feature tracking (FT) can detect left ventricular (LV) strain abnormalities in pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients, but little is known about the prognostic value of LV function and mechanics in PH patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate LV systolic function by conventional CMR and LV global strains by CMR-based FT analysis in precapillary PH patients, thereby defining the prognostic value of LV function and mechanics. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 43 patients with precapillary PH (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) 55.91 ± 15.87 mmHg, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) ?15 mmHg) referred to CMR for PH evaluation. Using FT software, the LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS), also right ventricular (RV) GLS were analyzed. Results: Patients were classified into two groups according to survival (survival/non-survival). LV GLS was significantly reduced in the non-survival group (-12.4% [-19.0?(-7.8)] vs. -18.4% [-22.5?(-15.5)], p = 0.009). By ROC curve analysis, LV GLS > -14.2% (CI: 3.229 to 37.301, p < 0.001) was found to be robust predictor of mortality in PH patients. Univariable analysis using the Cox model showed that severely reduced LV GLS > -14.2%, with good sensitivity (77.8%) and high specificity (93.5%) indicated an increase of the risk of death by 11-fold. LV GLS significantly correlated in PH patients with RV ESVI (r = 0.322, p = 0.035), RV EF (r = 0.444, p < 0.003). Conclusions: LV systolic function and LV global longitudinal strain measurements using CMR-FT correlates with RV dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in precapillary PH patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are both associated with an increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness. Whilst LV ejection fraction is frequently normal in both, LV strain assessment could differentiate between the diseases. We sought to establish if cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT), an emerging method allowing accurate assessment of myocardial deformation, differentiates between both diseases. Additionally, CMR assessment of fibrosis and LV hypertrophy allowed association analyses and comparison of diagnostic capacities. METHODS:Two-hundred twenty-four consecutive subjects (53 HHD, 107 HCM, and 64 controls) underwent 1.5T CMR including native myocardial T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was assessed by CMR-FT (CVi42, Circle Cardiovascular Imaging Inc.). RESULTS:GLS was significantly higher in HCM patients (-14.7±3.8 vs. -16.5±3.3% [HHD], P = 0.004; or vs. -17.2±2.0% [controls], P<0.001). GLS was associated with LV mass index (HHD, R = 0.419, P = 0.002; HCM, R = 0.429, P<0.001), and LV ejection fraction (HHD, R = -0.493, P = 0.002; HCM, R = -0.329, P<0.001). In HCM patients, GLS was also associated with global native T1 (R = 0.282, P = 0.003), and LGE volume (? = 0.380, P<0.001). Discrimination between HHD and HCM by GLS (c = 0.639, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.550-0.729) was similar to LV mass index (c = 0.643, 95% CI 0.556-0.731), global myocardial native T1 (c = 0.718, 95% CI 0.638-0.799), and LGE volume (c = 0.680, 95% CI 0.585-0.775). CONCLUSION:CMR-FT GLS differentiates between HHD and HCM. In HCM patients GLS is associated with myocardial fibrosis. The discriminatory capacity of CMR-FT GLS is similar to LV hypertrophy and fibrosis imaging markers.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine whether the semi-automated two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) layer strain software, compared to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), is reliable for left ventricular (LV) volume quantification. METHODS AND RESULTS:We retrospectively selected 84 patients who underwent CMR and 2DE on the same day. Novel 2DE layer strain software automatically provides LV contour in 3 myocardial layers and performs layer specific speckle tracking analysis, which calculates LV volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF), and global longitudinal strain (GLS) in each layer. These values were compared with reference values from CMR disk-area summation and feature tracking methods. Coverage probability (CP) was determined using predefined cut-off values and absolute differences in LV volumes of 30 mL, those in LVEF of 10%, and those in GLS of 4%. The software did not work in 3 patients (feasibility: 96%). Different layers resulted in different degrees of under- or over-estimation of LV volumes. Epicardial tracking significantly overestimated the LV volumes and significantly underestimated LVEF and GLS. Mid-myocardial tracking had less underestimation of LV volumes and equivalent CP values of LVEF (0.77 vs. 0.75 using the disk-area summation method and 0.90 vs. 0.94 using the feature tracking method) and GLS (0.95 vs. 0.92) compared with endocardial tracking. The new software showed excellent reproducibility, especially endocardial and mid-myocardial tracking. CONCLUSIONS:Mid-myocardial tracking with the novel 2DE strain software provided less bias of LV volumes with high CP values of LVEF and GLS, which suggests that mid-myocardial layer speckle tracking analysis approximates CMR derived LV functional parameters.
Project description:AIMS:High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves peak oxygen uptake and left ventricular diastology in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, its effects on myocardial strain in HFpEF remain unknown. We explored the effects of HIIT and moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training (MI-ACT) on left and right ventricular strain parameters in patients with HFpEF. Furthermore, we explored their relationship with peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ). METHODS AND RESULTS:Fifteen patients with HFpEF (age = 70 ± 8.3 years) were randomized to either: (i) HIIT (4 × 4 min, 85-90% peak heart rate, interspersed with 3 min of active recovery; n = 9) or (ii) MI-ACT (30 min at 70% peak heart rate; n = 6). Patients were trained 3 days/week for 4 weeks and underwent VO2peak testing and 2D echocardiography at baseline and after completion of the 12 sessions of supervised exercise training. Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) average global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) and peak systolic longitudinal strain rate (GSR) were quantified. Paired t-tests were used to examine within-group differences and unpaired t-tests used for between-group differences (? = 0.05). Right ventricular average global peak systolic longitudinal strain improved significantly in the HIIT group after training (pre = -18.4 ± 3.2%, post = -21.4 ± 1.7%; P = 0.02) while RV-GSR, LV-GLS, and LV-GSR did not (P > 0.2). No significant improvements were observed following MI-ACT. No significant between-group differences were observed for any strain measure. ?LV-GLS and ?RV-GLS were modestly correlated with ?VO2peak (r = -0.48 and r = -0.45; P = 0.1, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with HFpEF, 4 weeks of HIIT significantly improved RV-GLS.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) global myocardial strain and LV involvement characteristics in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) and to evaluate their predictive value of adverse cardiac events. Sixty consecutive ARVD/C patients with a definite diagnosis of ARVD/C who underwent CMR examination and thirty-four healthy controls were enrolled retrospectively. The CMR images were analyzed for LV myocardial strain and the presence of LV involvement. The endpoint was defined as a composite of sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart transplantation, and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock. LV global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), and radial strain (GRS) were significantly impaired in ARVC/D patients compared to healthy controls (GLS: -13.89 ± 3.26% vs. -16.68 ± 2.74%, GCS: -15.65 ± 3.40% vs. -19.20 ± 2.23%, GRS: 34.57 ± 11.98% vs. 49.92 ± 12.59%; P < 0.001 for all). Even in ARVC/D patients with preserved LVEF, LV GLS, GCS and GRS were also significantly reduced than in controls. During a mean follow-up period of 4.10 ± 1.77 years, the endpoint was reached in 17 patients. LV GLS >-12.65% (HR, 3.58; 95%CI, 1.14 to 11.25; p = 0.029) and history of syncope (HR, 4.99; 95%CI, 1.88 to 13.24; p = 0.001) were the only independent predictors of cardiac outcomes. The LV myocardial deformation derived from FT CMR was significantly impaired in ARVD/C patients, and this alteration can occur before the impairment of LVEF. LV GLS >-12.65% and history of syncope were the only independent prognostic markers of adverse cardiac outcomes.
Project description:Echocardiography (echo)-quantified LV stroke volume (SV) is widely used to assess systolic performance after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study compared 2 common echo approaches - predicated on flow (Doppler) and linear chamber dimensions (Teichholz) - to volumetric SV and global infarct parameters quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).Multimodality imaging was performed as part of a post-AMI registry. For echo, SV was measured by Doppler and Teichholz methods. Cine-CMR was used for volumetric SV and LVEF quantification, and delayed-enhancement (DE) CMR for infarct size.Overall, 142 patients underwent same day echo and CMR. On echo, mean SV by Teichholz (78 ± 17 mL) was slightly higher than Doppler (75 ± 16 mL; ? = 3 ± 13 mL; P = 0.02). Compared to SV on CMR (78 ± 18 mL), mean difference by Teichholz (? = -0.2 ± 14; P = 0.89) was slightly smaller than Doppler (? = -3 ± 14; P = 0.02), but limits of agreement were similar between CMR and echo methods (Teichholz: -28, 27 mL, Doppler: -31, 24 mL). For Teichholz, differences with CMR SV were greatest among patients with anteroseptal or lateral wall hypokinesis (P < 0.05). For Doppler, differences were associated with aortic valve abnormalities or root dilation (P = 0.01). SV by both echo methods decreased stepwise in relation to global LV injury as assessed by CMR-quantified LVEF and infarct size (P < 0.01).Teichholz and Doppler calculated SV yield similar magnitude of agreement with CMR. Teichholz differences with CMR increase with septal or lateral wall contractile dysfunction, whereas Doppler yields increased offsets in patients with aortic remodeling.
Project description:Since cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature-tracking (CMR-FT) has been demonstrated to be of incremental clinical merit we investigated the interchangeability of global left and right ventricular strain parameters between different CMR-FT software solutions.CMR-cine images of 10 patients without significant reduction in LVEF and RVEF and 10 patients with a significantly impaired systolic function were analyzed using two different types of FT-software (TomTec, Germany; QStrain, Netherlands). Global longitudinal strains (LV GLS, RV GLS), global left ventricular circumferential (GCS) and radial strains (GRS) were assessed. Differences in intra- and inter-observer variability within and between software types based on single and up to three repeated and subsequently averaged measurements were evaluated.Inter-vendor agreement was highest for GCS followed by LV GLS. GRS and RV GLS showed lower inter-vendor agreement. Variability was consistently higher in healthy volunteers as compared to the patient group. Intra-vendor reproducibility was excellent for GCS, LV GLS and RV GLS, but lower for GRS. The impact of repeated measurements was most pronounced for GRS and RV GLS on an intra-vendor level.Cardiac pathology has no influence on CMR-FT reproducibility. LV GLS and GCS qualify as the most robust parameters within and between individual software types. Since both parameters can be interchangeably assessed with different software solutions they may enter the clinical arena for optimized diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in various pathologies.
Project description:To examine relationships between severity of echocardiography (echo) -evidenced diastolic dysfunction (DD) and volumetric filling by automated processing of routine cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).Cine-CMR provides high-resolution assessment of left ventricular (LV) chamber volumes. Automated segmentation (LV-METRIC) yields LV filling curves by segmenting all short-axis images across all temporal phases. This study used cine-CMR to assess filling changes that occur with progressive DD.115 post-MI patients underwent CMR and echo within 1 day. LV-METRIC yielded multiple diastolic indices - E:A ratio, peak filling rate (PFR), time to peak filling rate (TPFR), and diastolic volume recovery (DVR80 - proportion of diastole required to recover 80% stroke volume). Echo was the reference for DD.LV-METRIC successfully generated LV filling curves in all patients. CMR indices were reproducible (< or = 1% inter-reader differences) and required minimal processing time (175 +/- 34 images/exam, 2:09 +/- 0:51 minutes). CMR E:A ratio decreased with grade 1 and increased with grades 2-3 DD. Diastolic filling intervals, measured by DVR80 or TPFR, prolonged with grade 1 and shortened with grade 3 DD, paralleling echo deceleration time (p < 0.001). PFR by CMR increased with DD grade, similar to E/e' (p < 0.001). Prolonged DVR80 identified 71% of patients with echo-evidenced grade 1 but no patients with grade 3 DD, and stroke-volume adjusted PFR identified 67% with grade 3 but none with grade 1 DD (matched specificity = 83%). The combination of DVR80 and PFR identified 53% of patients with grade 2 DD. Prolonged DVR80 was associated with grade 1 (OR 2.79, CI 1.65-4.05, p = 0.001) with a similar trend for grade 2 (OR 1.35, CI 0.98-1.74, p = 0.06), whereas high PFR was associated with grade 3 (OR 1.14, CI 1.02-1.25, p = 0.02) DD.Automated cine-CMR segmentation can discern LV filling changes that occur with increasing severity of echo-evidenced DD. Impaired relaxation is associated with prolonged filling intervals whereas restrictive filling is characterized by increased filling rates.