Gastrin inhibits gastric cancer progression through activating the ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis.
ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) regulates P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis in gastric cancer (GC) and the ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis plays an important role in the development of GC, and to evaluate the role of gastrin in GC progression and ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis.The component levels of the ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis in four fresh GC tissues, 101 paraffin-embedded GC tissues and four GC cell lines were determined by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC) or qRT-PCR. The effects of gastrin on GC were first evaluated by measuring gastrin serum levels in 30 healthy and 70 GC patients and performing a correlation analysis between gastrin levels and survival time in 27 GC patients after eight years of follow-up, then evaluated on GC cell lines, GC cell xenograft models, and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) mouse models. The roles of ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis in GC progression and in the effects of gastrin on GC were examined.ERK- P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis was proved to be present in GC cells. The levels of components of ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis were decreased in GC tissue samples and PGC cells. The decreased levels of components of ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis were associated with poor prognosis of GC, and ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis played a suppressive role in GC progression. Low blood gastrin was correlated with poor prognosis of the GC patients and decreased expression of p-ERK and p-P65 in GC tissues. Gastrin inhibited proliferation of poorly-differentiated GC (PGC) cells through activating the ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis. Gastrin inhibited GC growth and enhanced the suppression of GC by cisplatin in mice or PGC cell culture models through activating the ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis or its components.ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis is down-regulated, leading to excess GC growth and poor prognosis of GC. Low gastrin promoted excess GC growth and contributed to the poor prognosis of the GC patients by down-regulating ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis. Gastrin inhibits gastric cancer growth through activating the ERK-P65-miR23a/27a/24 axis.
Project description:Gastrin is an important gastrointestinal hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the antrum of the stomach. It normally regulates gastric acid secretion and is implicated in a number of human disease states, but how its function affects breast cancer (BC) development is not documented. The current study investigated the suppressive effects of gastrin on BC and its underlying mechanisms.Serum levels of gastrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlation between gastrin level and development of BC was analyzed by chi-square test. Inhibitory effects of gastrin on BC were investigated by CCK-8 assay and nude mice models. Expressions of CCKBR/ERK/P65 in BC patients were determined through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot. Survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test.The results indicated that the serum level of gastrin in BC patients was lower compared with normal control. Cellular and molecular experiments indicated that reduction of gastrin is associated with inactivation of cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR)/ERK/P65 signaling in BC cells which is corresponding to molecular type of estrogen receptor (ER) positive BC. Furthermore, we found that low expression of gastrin/CCKBR/ERK /P65 was correlated to worse prognosis in BC patients. Gastrin or ERK/P65 activators inhibited ER+ BC through CCKBR-mediated activation of ERK/P65. Moreover, combination treatment with gastrin and tamoxifen more efficiently inhibited ER+ BC than tamoxifen alone.We concluded that low serum gastrin is related to increased risk of ER+ BC development. The results also established that CCKBR/ERK/P65 signaling function is generally tumor suppressive in ER+ BC, indicating therapies should focus on restoring, not inhibiting, CCKBR/ERK/P65 pathway activity.
Project description:p65 is a transcription factor that is involved in many physiological and pathologic processes. Here we report that p65 strongly binds to the miR-23a-27a-24 cluster promoter to up-regulate its expression. As bone marrow-derived cells differentiate into red blood cells in vitro, p65/miR-23a-27a-24 cluster expression increases sharply and then declines before the appearance of red blood cells, suggesting that this cluster is negatively related to erythroid terminal differentiation. Bioinformatic and molecular biology experiments confirmed that the miR-23a-27a-24 cluster inhibited the expression of the erythroid proteome and contributed to erythroleukemia progression. In addition, high level of the p65/miR-23a-27a-24 cluster was found in APL and AML cell lines and in nucleated peripheral blood cells from leukemia patients. Furthermore, anti-leukemia drugs significantly inhibited the expression of the p65/miR-23a-27a-24 cluster in leukemia cells. Administration of the p65 inhibitor parthenolide significantly improved hematology and myelogram indices while prolonging the life span of erythroleukemia mice. Meanwhile, stable overexpression of these three miRNAs in mouse erythroleukemia cells enhanced cell malignancy. Our findings thus connect a novel regulation pathway of the p65/miR-23a-27a-24 cluster with the erythroid proteome and provide an applicable approach for treating leukemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We previously reported an inverse relationship between B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) and Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP), which is associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we further explored the microRNA (miRNA) regulatory mechanism between Bmi-1 and RKIP. METHODS:Microarray analysis was first carried out to identify miRNA profiles that were differentially expressed in cells overexpressing Bmi-1. Then, miRNAs that could regulate RKIP were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to measure the expression of Bmi-1, miR-155, miR-27a and RKIP. RKIP was confirmed as a target of miR-27a and miR-155 through luciferase reporter assays, qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of the Bmi-1/miR-27a/RKIP and Bmi-1/miR-155/RKIP axes on tumor growth, proliferation, migration, invasion, colony-formation ability, metastasis and chemoresistance were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:The downregulation of RKIP by Bmi-1 occurred at the protein but not mRNA level. This indicates probable posttranscriptional regulation. miRNA expression profiles of cells with ectopic expression of Bmi-1 were analyzed and compared to those of control cells by microarray analysis. A total of 51 upregulated and 72 downregulated miRNAs were identified. Based on publicly available algorithms, miR-27a and miR-155 were predicted, selected and demonstrated to target RKIP. Bmi-1, miR-27a and miR-155 are elevated in human GC and associated with poor prognosis of GC, while RKIP is expressed at lower levels in GC and correlated with good prognosis. Then, in vitro tests shown that in addition to regulating RKIP expression via miR-27a and miR-155, Bmi-1 was also able to regulate the migration, invasion, proliferation, colony-formation ability and chemosensitivity of GC cells through the same pathway. Finally, the in vivo test showed similar results, whereby the knockdown of the Bmi-1 gene led to the inhibition of tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance through miR-27a and miR-155. CONCLUSIONS:Bmi-1 was proven to induce the expression of miR-27a and miR-155 and thus promote tumor metastasis and chemoresistance by targeting RKIP in GC. Overall, miR-27a and miR-155 might be promising targets for the screening, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and disease monitoring of GC.
Project description:Aim:To explore the expression and biological function of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1089 (LINC01089) in gastric cancer (GC) progression and its underlying mechanism. Methods:LINC01089 and microRNA-27a-3p (miR-27a-3p) expressions were detected with the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell assay. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins were also measured by Western blot. The relationship between LINC01089 and miR-27a-3p was revealed by a bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Results:LINC01089 was significantly down-regulated in GC tissues, as well as GC cell lines. GC patients with lower LINC01089 expression were more likely to have poor outcomes. Overexpression of LINC01089 significantly suppressed GC cells growth, migration and invasion and forbade the EMT process. LINC01089 was directly targeted at miR-27a-3p. The transfection of miR-27a-3p mimics reversed the inhibitory effects on proliferative and metastatic abilities of GC cells with LINC01089 overexpression. Conclusion:LINC01089 inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis in GC by targeting miR-27a-3p/EMT axis, which should be considered as a promising therapeutic target.
Project description:Serum levels of pepsinogen and gastrin are parameters that can be used as biomarkers for gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to validate these serum biomarkers, that is pepsinogen A (PGA), pepsinogen C (PGC), PGA/PGC ratio, and gastrin, as screening tests for precancerous lesions: atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG) or Helicobacter pylori-related corpus-predominant or multifocal atrophy. The study population was comprised of a subsample of 284 patients from the 451 included in the Eurohepygast cohort, between 1995 and 1997. The concentrations of PGA, PGC, and gastrin were measured by radioimmunoassays. Histological diagnosis was the gold standard. Cut-off points were calculated using receiving operator characteristics (ROC) curves. Factors linked to variation of biomarkers were identified using multivariate linear regression. The mean of each biomarker in the sample was: PGA, 77.4 microg x l(-1); PGC, 13.2 microg x l(-1); PGA/PGC, 6.7; and gastrin, 62.4 ng x l(-1). For ACG patients, the areas under the PGA, PGC, PGA/PGC, and gastrin ROC curves were 0.55, 0.62, 0.73, and 0.58, respectively. The best cut-off point for PGA/PGC was 5.6, with sensitivity 65% and specificity 77.9%. For H. pylori-related corpus-predominant or multifocal atrophy, the areas under the respective ROC curves were 0.57, 0.67, 0.84, and 0.69. The best cut-off point for PGA/PGC was 4.7, with sensitivity 77.1% and specificity 87.4%. The results suggested that only the PGA/PGC ratio can be considered as a biomarker for precancerous lesions of the stomach, and may be useful as a screening test.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a major pathogen associated with the development of gastroduodenal diseases. It has been reported that H. pylori induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1B is one of the various modulators of acid secretion in the gut. Earlier we reported that IL1B-activated NFkB down-regulates gastrin, the major hormonal regulator of acid secretion. In this study, the probable pathway by which IL1B induces NFkB and affects gastrin expression has been elucidated. IL1B-treated AGS cells showed nine-fold activation of MyD88 followed by phosphorylation of TAK1 within 15 min of IL1B treatment. Furthermore, it was observed that activated TAK1 significantly up-regulates the NFkB subunits p50 and p65. Ectopic expression of NFkB p65 in AGS cells resulted in about nine-fold transcriptional repression of gastrin both in the presence and absence of IL1B. The S536A mutant of NFkB p65 is significantly less effective in repressing gastrin. These observations show that a functional NFkB p65 is important for IL1B-mediated repression of gastrin. ChIP assays revealed the presence of HDAC1 and NFkB p65 along with NCoR on the gastrin promoter. Thus, the study provides mechanistic insight into the IL1B-mediated gastrin repression via NFkB.
Project description:Human anion exchanger 2 (AE2) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH and cell volume. AE2 contributes to transepithelial transport of chloride and bicarbonate in normal colon and other epithelial tissues. We now report that AE2 overexpression in colon cancer cells is correlated with expression of the nuclear proliferation marker, Ki67. Survival analysis of 24 patients with colon cancer in early stage or 33 patients with tubular adenocarcinoma demonstrated that expression of AE2 is correlated with poor prognosis. Cellular and molecular experiments indicated that AE2 expression promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, we found that transcription factor EGR1 underlies AE2 upregulation and the AE2 sequester p16INK4a (P16) in the cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. Cytoplasmic P16 enhanced ERK phosphorylation and promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. Gastrin inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells by suppressing expression of EGR1 and AE2 and by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our data describe a novel EGR1/AE2/P16/P-ERK signaling pathway in colon carcinogenesis, with implications for pathologic prognosis and for novel therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Pepsinogen C (PGC) belongs to the aspartic protease family and is secreted by gastric chief cells. PGC could be activated to pepsin C and digests polypeptides and amino acids, but as a zymogen PGC's functions is unclear. In normal physiological conditions, PGC is initially detected in the late embryonic stage and is mainly expressed in gastric mucosa. The in situ expression of PGC in gastric mucosa is decreased considerably in the process of superficial gastritis ? atrophic gastritis ? gastric cancer (GC), proving that PGC is a comparatively ideal negative marker of GC. Serum PGC, and PGA levels and the PGA/PGC ratio have satisfactory sensitivity, specificity and price-quality ratio for predicting high GC risk. Ectopic PGC expression is significantly increased in prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovary cancer and endometrial cancer. In those sex-related cancers high level PGC expression indicates better prognosis and longer survival. The regulation of PGC expression involves genetic and epigenetic alteration of the encoding PGC gene, hormones modulation and interactions between PGC with other transcription factors and protein kinases. More and more research evidence hinted that PGC has strong correlation with cancer. In the systematic review, we respectively elaborate the structure, potential physiological functions, expression characteristics and regulation of PGC, and especially focus on the relationship between PGC expression and cancer to highlight the role of PGC in the tumorigenesis and its application value in clinical practice.
Project description:Enzymatically inactive chitinase-like protein CHI3L1 drives inflammatory response and promotes tumor progression. However, its role in gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis and metastasis has not yet been fully elucidated. We determined the significance of CHI3L1 expression in patients with GC. We also explored an as-yet unknown receptor of CHI3L1 and investigated the involved signaling in GC metastasis.CHI3L1 expression was evaluated by immunoblotting, tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry analysis (n?=?100), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (n?=?150). The interactions between CD44 and CHI3L1 or Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13R?2) were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence co-localization assay, ELISA, and bio-layer interferometry. The roles of CHI3L1/CD44 axis in GC metastasis were investigated in GC cell lines and experimental animal model by gain and loss of function.CHI3L1 upregulation occurred during GC development, and positively correlated with GC invasion depth, lymph node status, and tumor staging. Mechanically, CHI3L1 binding to CD44 activated Erk and Akt, along with ?-catenin signaling by phosphorylating ?-catenin at Ser552 and Ser675. CD44 also interacted with IL-13R?2 to form a complex. Notably, CD44v3 peptide and protein, but not CD44v6 peptide or CD44s protein, bound to both CHI3L1 and IL-13R?2. Our in vivo and in vitro data further demonstrated that CHI3L1 promoted GC cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis.CHI3L1 binding to CD44v3 activates Erk, Akt, and ?-catenin signaling, therefore enhances GC metastasis. CHI3L1 expression is a novel biomarker for the prognosis of GC, and these findings have thus identified CHI3L1/CD44 axis as a vital pathway and potential therapeutic target in GC.
Project description:While infection-induced placental inflammation is a common mechanism of adverse pregnancy outcome, some pathogens can also trigger placental apoptosis, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate this response. Treatment of human first trimester trophoblast cells with bacterial peptidoglycan (PDG) reduces their constitutive secretion of IL-6 protein and induces apoptosis. This apoptotic response is dependent upon the cell's expression of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR10, and their lack of TLR6, such that ectopic expression of TLR6 prevents PDG-induced apoptosis and restores IL-6 production. In this current study we have identified three microRNAs (miRs) that regulate TLR2-mediated responses in the human trophoblast. Herein we report that miR-329 plays a pivotal role in mediating PDG-induced trophoblast apoptosis and inhibition of IL-6 mRNA expression by targeting the NF-?B subunit, p65. TLR2 activation by PDG upregulates miR-329 expression and inhibits NF-?B p65 and IL-6 mRNA, and this is reversed by the presence of TLR6. Moreover, inhibition of miR-329 prevents PDG-induced inhibition of NF-?B p65 and IL-6 mRNA expression, and restores cell survival. In addition, we have found miR-23a and let-7c to directly regulate PDG-mediated inhibition of IL-6 mRNA. TLR2 activation by PDG upregulates miR23a and let-7c expression and this is reversed by the presence of TLR6. Furthermore, inhibition of both miR23a and let-7c prevents PDG-inhibition of trophoblast IL-6 mRNA expression. Together, our findings suggest that multiple miRs are involved in the molecular regulation of TLR2-mediated responses in the trophoblast towards gram-positive bacterial components.