Endoscopic Gluteus Medius and Minimus Repair With Allograft Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermis.
ABSTRACT: Recently, attention has been given to recalcitrant lateral hip pain, also known as greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Although, historically, this has been attributed to greater trochanteric bursitis, the literature has shown that many patients will have a lesion of the gluteus medius and minimus tendons. Endoscopic hip abductor tendon repair has been shown to provide good outcomes with decreasing overall morbidity and is becoming more popular. However, failure rates have been reported to be as high as 35%, likely due to the poor tissue quality in this older population. Acellular human dermal allograft has been used to augment rotator cuff repairs in an attempt to improve tendon healing. The technique described in this Technical Note shows endoscopic gluteus medius and minimus repair with acellular human dermal allograft augmentation focusing on graft preparation, implantation, and fixation in a safe and reproducible manner.
Project description:Greater trochanteric pain syndrome can be caused by gluteus medius and minimus tendinopathy/tears and chronic trochanteric bursitis. Specifically, moderate-to-severe abductor tendon tears can cause severe lateral hip pain, limp, and abnormal gait. A variety of open and endoscopic techniques to treat glut abductors hip tears have been described. The use of scaffolds, such as acellular human dermal allograft, to augment tendon repair, already has been successfully reported in rotator cuff repairs of the shoulder. Still, the use of acellular human dermal allograft in the hip has been limited. However, there are some clinical scenarios in which augmentation of abductors hip tendon repair with scaffold is indicated. Chronic or massive gluteus tears or revision cases may benefit from augmentation with a scaffold. The purpose of this technical note and accompanying video is to describe our indications, pearls, and pitfalls of repair of moderate to severe gluteus tears via a minimally invasive technique augmented with acellular human dermal allograft.
Project description:In addition to trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears (GMMTs) can be a common source of insidious lateral hip pain and dysfunction. Partial-thickness GMMTs are much more common than full-thickness GMMTs but are frequently overlooked by both radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons. GMMTs are commonly identified on magnetic resonance imaging ordered for lateral hip pain unresponsive to conservative management. Imaging can show that high-grade partial articular gluteus tendon avulsion (PAGTA) can occur as either an isolated gluteus medius tear, an isolated gluteus minimus tear, or a combined GMMT. We describe how to identify PAGTA injuries with intraoperative assessment and identification of the interval between the gluteus medius and minimus tendons to allow access to the PAGTA without violating the bursal side of the tendon. PAGTAs can be repaired arthroscopically by single- or double-row suture anchor fixation depending on the size of the tear. The purpose of this article is to guide orthopaedic surgeons in the recognition of PAGTA with magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic examination to allow for accurate repair of GMMTs.
Project description:Tears in the gluteus medius and minimus tendons recently have emerged as an important cause of chronic greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Increasing recognition of the gluteal insertion as a cause of chronic pain and weakness, as well as technologic advances in endoscopic hip surgery, has made gluteal insertional repair a rapidly emerging technique in minimally invasive surgery of the hip. We present an endoscopic double-row technique for gluteal insertional repair that allows for visualization, debridement, and repair, re-creating the normal footprint.
Project description:Abductor tendon tears are one of the common causes of recalcitrant laterally based hip pain and dysfunction. In most cases, abductor tendon tears are associated with chronic nontraumatic tearing of the gluteus medius tendon. Restoring abductor function of the hip by primary repair of the gluteus medius tendon has been reported to have good and excellent outcomes. However, primary repair might not be as effective for chronic detachment of the gluteus medius tendon with a wide separation from the femoral footprint or severe tendon loss. The lack of tendinous foot for repair and the intrinsically degenerative condition of the tendon may create high tension at the repair site thereby predisposing to surgical failure. We believe that the use of soft-tissue allograft from the Achilles tendon or human dermal allograft may help strengthen the surgical site. We describe a superior gluteal reconstruction technique that is suitable for cases with abductor tendon tear with severe tendon loss.
Project description:Lateral hip pain in patients without significant osteoarthritis may be due to a number of different etiologies. Recent attention has been placed on the role of abductor tendon (gluteus medius and minimus) deficiency in these patients. These tears, analogous to rotator cuff tears in the shoulder, may cause pain, weakness, limp, and dysfunction. Mainstays of treatment include nonoperative treatment and, in select patients, operative fixation. This article presents an overview of management of patients with symptomatic, large, retracted, chronic tears of the abductor tendons. The highlighted repair is a "double-row" repair with biological patch augmentation.
Project description:Lateral hip pain along with tenderness of the greater trochanter has been associated with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Radiographically, this has been associated with gluteus medius pathology on magnetic resonance imaging. This has led some surgeons to conclude that abductor pathology is a primary cause of lateral hip pain. Failure of conservative treatment in the setting of gluteus medius pathology may lead to surgical intervention. In some patients a focal tear of the gluteus medius cannot be visualized and likely represents more diffuse tendinopathy. In these patients we propose micropuncture of the greater trochanter. Similar procedures have shown effectiveness in the elbow and shoulder by eliciting a healing response. Our experience suggests that trochanteric micropuncture at the insertion of the gluteus medius tendon can be effectively performed endoscopically for gluteus medius tendinopathy.
Project description:Abductor tendon tears typically develop insidiously in middle-aged women and can lead to debilitating lateral hip pain and a Trendelenburg limp. The gluteus medius tendon is most commonly torn and may show fatty degeneration over time, similar to the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder. Endoscopic repair offers a therapeutic alternative to traditional open techniques. This article describes the workup, examination, and endoscopic repair of a full-thickness gluteus medius tear presenting as lateral hip pain and weakness. The surgical repair for this case used a single-row suture anchor technique. In addition, the indications and technique for a double-row repair will be discussed.
Project description:Soft tissue injury occurs when using a piriformis portal for femoral nailing. Standard trochanteric portals also can injure the gluteus medius and external rotator tendons, which may be a source of hip pain after nailing. On the lateral facet of the greater trochanter, a "bald spot" may exist that is devoid of tendon insertion. This may be a potential portal for intramedullary nail insertion. We defined the dimensions and location of this region. Cadaveric specimens were dissected to expose the tendon insertions on the greater trochanter. A computer navigation system was used with a stylus and bone morphing to determine the tendon insertions and bald spot anatomy. The greater trochanteric bald spot is covered by the subgluteus medius bursa and has no tendon insertions. Its center lies 11 mm distal to the tip of the greater trochanter and 5 mm anterior to the midline. The shape is ellipsoid with a diameter of 21 mm. This region is large enough to accommodate the size of most nailing system reamers without tendon footprint infringement. Use of this modified entry site may reduce soft tissue injury with nailing procedures and minimize subsequent hip pain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a painful condition characterised by pain around the greater trochanter usually affecting middle-aged women. The majority of patients will improve with conservative management such as physiotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, if this fails then more invasive treatments including corticosteroid injections and surgery may be required. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood product, which has a higher concentration of growth factors postulated to provide enhanced healing and anti-inflammatory properties. There have been numerous studies on PRP's efficacy in musculoskeletal soft tissue conditions with similar pathology to GTPS, with varying results, most promising being in plantar fasciopathy and patellar tendinopathy. Corticosteroids are the established second-line treatment, but do not always work long term. PRP may be a suitable alternative to corticosteroid in GTPS with longer-term effects; however, there are very limited reports. The Hip Injections PRP Vs Placebo (HIPPO) trial aims to assess the ability of PRP to improve symptoms and function in patients with GTPS. METHODS/DESIGN:HIPPO is a single-centre, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study in patients with a radiologically confirmed diagnosis of gluteus medius or minimus tendinopathy with swelling within the tendon insertion with or without bursitis. We aim to randomise 102 patients with GTPS to either the PRP or placebo (normal saline injection) treatment arm. Participants will receive one ultrasound (US) guided PRP/placebo injection into the trochanteric bursa and surrounding gluteus medius/minimus tendons. The primary outcome measure is the International Hip Outcome Tool-12. Secondary outcome measures will include a visual analogue score for pain, the three-level version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire and the modified Harris Hip Score. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Participants will have the option at 6 months to have a repeat blinded injection or cross over to PRP. Analyses of primary and secondary outcomes will be made according to the intention-to-treat principle. The trial reporting will comply with Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. DISCUSSION:The HIPPO study has been designed to test the hypothesis that PRP is effective in treating GTPS in patients who have failed conservative management and to assess the duration of effect of PRP. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03479190 . Registered on 27 March 2018.
Project description:Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) has received increasing attention in recent years. Most patients with GTPS present with trochanteric bursitis and respond to nonoperative treatment. However, a subset of patients may have persistent lateral hip pain or recalcitrant GTPS resulting from an undiagnosed gluteal tendon tear. Recalcitrant GTPS may be a debilitating condition in this patient subset. There is a need for an accurate and evidence-based physical examination maneuver to aid in earlier diagnosis of gluteal tendon tears and timely intervention in these patients. Most studies evaluating gluteal tendinopathy fail to assess surgical indications and instead focus on identifying trochanteric bursitis, which may or may not require surgical treatment. The modified resisted internal rotation test has been used in our practice to detect gluteus medius tendon tears in the recalcitrant GTPS patient population. Fundamental anatomic, biomechanical, electromyographic, and clinical data have been reviewed to make this an evidence-based clinical test for early detection of this pathology.