Metabolic engineering of Acremonium chrysogenum for improving cephalosporin C production independent of methionine stimulation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cephalosporin C (CPC) produced by Acremonium chrysogenum is one of the most important drugs for treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. As the major stimulant, methionine is widely used in the industrial production of CPC. In this study, we found methionine stimulated CPC production through enhancing the accumulation of endogenous S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). To overcome the methionine dependent stimulation of CPC production, the methionine cycle of A. chrysogenum was reconstructed by metabolic engineering. RESULTS:Three engineered strains were obtained by overexpressing the SAM synthetase gene AcsamS and the cystathionine-?-lyase gene mecB, and disrupting a SAM dependent methyltransferase gene Acppm1, respectively. Overexpression of AcsamS resulted in fourfold increase of CPC production which reached to 129.7 µg/mL. Disruption of Acppm1 also increased CPC production (up to 135.5 µg/mL) through enhancing the accumulation of intracellular SAM. Finally, an optimum recombinant strain (Acppm1DM-mecBOE) was constructed through overexpressing mecB in the Acppm1 disruption mutant. In this strain, CPC production reached to the maximum value (142.7 µg/mL) which was 5.5-fold of the wild-type level and its improvement was totally independent of methionine stimulation. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we constructed a recombinant strain in which the improvement of CPC production was totally independent of methionine stimulation. This work provides an economic route for improving CPC production in A. chrysogenum through metabolic engineering.
Project description:The filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is the main industrial producer of cephalosporin C (CPC), one of the major precursors for manufacturing of cephalosporin antibiotics. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PMA) plays a key role in numerous fungal physiological processes. Previously we observed a decrease of PMA activity in A. chrysogenum overproducing strain RNCM 408D (HY) as compared to the level the wild-type strain A. chrysogenum ATCC 11550. Here we report the relationship between PMA activity and CPC biosynthesis in A. chrysogenum strains. The elevation of PMA activity in HY strain through overexpression of PMA1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, under the control of the constitutive gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans, results in a 1.2 to 10-fold decrease in CPC production, shift in beta-lactam intermediates content, and is accompanied by the decrease in cef genes expression in the fermentation process; the characteristic colony morphology on agar media is also changed. The level of PMA activity in A. chrysogenum HY OE::PMA1 strains has been increased by 50-100%, up to the level observed in WT strain, and was interrelated with ATP consumption; the more PMA activity is elevated, the more ATP level is depleted. The reduced PMA activity in A. chrysogenum HY strain may be one of the selected events during classical strain improvement, aimed at elevating the ATP content available for CPC production.
Project description:?-lactam antibiotics are widely used in clinic. Filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is an important industrial fungus for the production of CPC, one of the major precursors of ?-lactam antibiotics. Although its fermentation yield has been bred significantly over the past decades, little is known regarding molecular changes between the industrial strain and the wild type strain. This limits the possibility to improve CPC production further by molecular breeding. Comparative transcriptome is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms of CPC industrial high yield producer compared to wild type. A total of 57 million clean sequencing reads with an average length of 100 bp were generated from Illumina sequencing platform. 22,878 sequences were assembled. Among the assembled unigenes, 9502 were annotated and 1989 annotated sequences were assigned to 121 pathways by searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) database. Furthermore, we compared the transcriptome differences between a high-yield and a wild-type strain during fermentation. A total of 4329 unigenes with significantly different transcription level were identified, among which 1737 were up-regulated and 2592 were down-regulated. 24 pathways were subsequently determined which involve glycerolipid metabolism, galactose metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism. We also examined the transcription levels of 18 identified genes, including 11 up-regulated genes and 7 down-regulated genes using reverse transcription quantitative -PCR (RT-qPCR). The results of RT-qPCR were consistent with the Illumina sequencing. In this study, the Illumina sequencing provides the most comprehensive sequences for gene expression profile of Acremonium chrysogenum and allows de novo transcriptome assembly while lacking genome information. Comparative analysis of RNA-seq data reveals the complexity of the transcriptome in the fermentation of different yield strains. This is an important public information platform which could be used to accelerate the research to improve CPC production in Acremonium chrysogenum.
Project description:Bacitracin is a broad-spectrum veterinary antibiotic that widely used in the fields of veterinary drug and feed additive. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a critical factor involved in many biochemical reactions, especially antibiotic production. However, whether SAM affects bacitracin synthesis is still unknown. Here, we want to analyze the relationship between SAM supply and bacitracin synthesis, and then metabolic engineering of SAM synthetic pathway for bacitracin production in Bacillus licheniformis. Firstly, our results implied that SAM exogenous addition benefited bacitracin production, which yield was increased by 12.13% under the condition of 40 mg/L SAM addition. Then, SAM synthetases and Methionine (Met) synthetases from B. licheniformis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened and overexpressed to improve SAM accumulation, and the combination of SAM synthetase from S. cerevisiae and Met synthetase from B. licheniformis showed the best performance, and 70.12% increase of intracellular SAM concentration (31.54 mg/L) and 13.08% increase of bacitraicn yield (839.54 U/mL) were achieved in resultant strain DW2-KE. Furthermore, Met transporters MetN and MetP were, respectively, identified as Met exporter and importer, and bacitracin yield was further increased by 5.94% to 889.42 U/mL via deleting metN and overexpressing metP in DW2-KE, attaining strain DW2-KENP. Finally, SAM nucleosidase gene mtnN and SAM decarboxylase gene speD were deleted to block SAM degradation pathways, and bacitracin yield of resultant strain DW2-KENPND reached 957.53 U/mL, increased by 28.97% compared to DW2. Collectively, this study demonstrated that SAM supply served as the critical role in bacitracin synthesis, and a promising strain B. licheniformis DW2-KENPND was attained for industrial production of bacitracin.
Project description:Penicillium chrysogenum has been reported as a potent taxol producer based on quantitative analysis by TLC and HPLC. The biosynthetic potency of taxol has been validated from PCR detection of rate-limiting genes of taxol synthesis such as taxadienesynthase and 10-de-acetylbaccatin III-O-acetyltransferase (DBAT), which catalyzes the immediate diterpenoid precursor of the taxol substance, as detected by PCR. Taxol production by P. chrysogenum was assessed by growing the fungus on different media. Potato dextrose broth (PDB) was shown to be the best medium for obtaining the higher amount of taxol (170 µg/L). A stepwise optimization of culture conditions necessary for production of higher amounts of taxol was investigated. The substance taxol was produced optimally after 18 d of incubation at 30 °C in PDB adjusted initially at pH 8.0 with shaking (120 rpm) (250 µg/L). The P. chrysogenum taxol was purified successfully by HPLC. Instrumental analyzes such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, 1HNMR and 13C NMR approved the structural formula of taxol (C47H51NO14), as constructed by ChemDraw. The P. chrysogenum taxol showed promising anticancer activity.
Project description:Background:S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a critical cofactor involved in many biochemical reactions. However, the low fermentation titer of SAM in methionine-free medium hampers commercial-scale production. The SAM synthesis pathway is specially related to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Therefore, the SAM synthesis pathway was engineered and coupled with the TCA cycle in B. amyloliquefaciens to improve SAM production in methionine-free medium. Results:Four genes were found to significantly affect SAM production, including SAM2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, metA and metB from Escherichia coli, and native mccA. These four genes were combined to engineer the SAM pathway, resulting in a 1.42-fold increase in SAM titer using recombinant strain HSAM1. The engineered SAM pathway was subsequently coupled with the TCA cycle through deletion of succinyl-CoA synthetase gene sucC, and the resulted HSAM2 mutant produced a maximum SAM titer of 107.47 mg/L, representing a 0.59-fold increase over HSAM1. Expression of SAM2 in this strain via a recombinant plasmid resulted in strain HSAM3 that produced 648.99 mg/L SAM following semi-continuous flask batch fermentation, a much higher yield than previously reported for methionine-free medium. Conclusions:This study reports an efficient strategy for improving SAM production that can also be applied for generation of SAM cofactors supporting group transfer reactions, which could benefit metabolic engineering, chemical biology and synthetic biology.
Project description:S-Adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (SAM-s) catalyzes the biosynthesis of SAM from ATP and L-methionine. Despite extensive research with many organisms, its role in Streptomyces sp. remains unclear. In the present study, the putative SAM-s gene was isolated from a spectinomycin producer, Streptomyces spectabilis. The purified protein from the transformed Escherichia coli with the isolated gene synthesized SAM from L-methionine and ATP in vitro, strongly indicating that the isolated gene indeed encoded the SAM-s protein. The overexpression of the SAM-s gene in Streptomyces lividans TK23 inhibited sporulation and aerial mycelium formation but enhanced the production of actinorhodin in both agar plates and liquid media. Surprisingly, the overexpressed SAM was proven by Northern analysis to increase the production of actinorhodin through the induction of actII-ORF4, a transcription activator of actinorhodin biosynthetic gene clusters. In addition, we found that a certain level of intracellular SAM is critical for the induction of antibiotic biosynthetic genes, since the control strain harboring only the plasmid DNA did not show any induction of actII-ORF4 until it reached a certain level of SAM in the cell. From these results, we concluded that the SAM plays important roles as an intracellular factor in both cellular differentiation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces sp.
Project description:Reprogramming glycolysis for directing glycolytic metabolites to a specific metabolic pathway is expected to be useful for increasing microbial production of certain metabolites, such as amino acids, lipids or considerable secondary metabolites. In this report, a strategy of increasing glycolysis by altering the metabolism of inositol pyrophosphates (IPs) for improving the production of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) for diverse pharmaceutical applications in yeast is presented. The genes associated with the metabolism of IPs, arg82, ipk1 and kcs1, were deleted, respectively, in the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC 2842. It was observed that the deletions of kcs1 and arg82 increased SAM by 83.3?% and 31.8?%, respectively, compared to that of the control. In addition to the improved transcription levels of various glycolytic genes and activities of the relative enzymes, the levels of glycolytic intermediates and ATP were also enhanced. To further confirm the feasibility, the kcs1 was deleted in the high SAM-producing strain Ymls1?GAPmK which was deleted malate synthase gene mls1 and co-expressed the Acetyl-CoA synthase gene acs2 and the SAM synthase gene metK1 from Leishmania infantum, to obtain the recombinant strain Ymls1?kcs1?GAPmK. The level of SAM in Ymls1?kcs1?GAPmK reached 2.89 g L<sup>-1</sup> in a 250-mL flask and 8.86 g L<sup>-1</sup> in a 10-L fermentation tank, increasing 30.2?% and 46.2?%, respectively, compared to those levels in Ymls1?GAPmK. The strategy of increasing glycolysis by deletion of kcs1 and arg82 improved SAM production in yeast.
Project description:Vanillin is an industrially valuable molecule that can be produced from simple carbon sources in engineered microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. In E. coli, de novo production of vanillin was demonstrated previously as a proof of concept. In this study, a series of data-driven experiments were performed in order to better understand limitations associated with biosynthesis of vanillate, which is the immediate precursor to vanillin.Time-course experiments monitoring production of heterologous metabolites in the E. coli de novo vanillin pathway revealed a bottleneck in conversion of protocatechuate to vanillate. Perturbations in central metabolism intended to increase flux into the heterologous pathway increased average vanillate titers from 132 to 205 mg/L, but protocatechuate remained the dominant heterologous product on a molar basis. SDS-PAGE, in vitro activity measurements, and L-methionine supplementation experiments suggested that the decline in conversion rate was influenced more by limited availability of the co-substrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet or SAM) than by loss of activity of the heterologous O-methyltransferase. The combination of metJ deletion and overexpression of feedback-resistant variants of metA and cysE, which encode enzymes involved in SAM biosynthesis, increased average de novo vanillate titers by an additional 33% (from 205 to 272 mg/L). An orthogonal strategy intended to improve SAM regeneration through overexpression of native mtn and luxS genes resulted in a 25% increase in average de novo vanillate titers (from 205 to 256 mg/L). Vanillate production improved further upon supplementation with methionine (as high as 419 ± 58 mg/L), suggesting potential for additional enhancement by increasing SAM availability.Results from this study demonstrate context dependency of engineered pathways and highlight the limited methylation capacity of E. coli. Unlike in previous efforts to improve SAM or methionine biosynthesis, we pursued two orthogonal strategies that are each aimed at deregulating multiple reactions. Our results increase the working knowledge of SAM biosynthesis engineering and provide a framework for improving titers of metabolic products dependent upon methylation reactions.
Project description:The folate and methionine cycles are crucial for biosynthesis of lipids, nucleotides and proteins, and production of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) represents a key regulatory connection between these cycles, generating 5-methyltetrahydrofolate for initiation of the methionine cycle, and undergoing allosteric inhibition by its end product SAM. Our 2.5?Å resolution crystal structure of human MTHFR reveals a unique architecture, appending the well-conserved catalytic TIM-barrel to a eukaryote-only SAM-binding domain. The latter domain of novel fold provides the predominant interface for MTHFR homo-dimerization, positioning the N-terminal serine-rich phosphorylation region near the C-terminal SAM-binding domain. This explains how MTHFR phosphorylation, identified on 11 N-terminal residues (16 in total), increases sensitivity to SAM binding and inhibition. Finally, we demonstrate that the 25-amino-acid inter-domain linker enables conformational plasticity and propose it to be a key mediator of SAM regulation. Together, these results provide insight into the molecular regulation of MTHFR.
Project description:The nutrient-sensing metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) controls one-carbon metabolism by donating methyl groups to biochemical building blocks, DNA, RNA, and protein. Our recent work uncovered a requirement for cytoplasmic arginine methylation during Wnt signaling through the activity of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), which transfers one-carbon groups from SAM to many protein substrates. Here, we report that treatments that decrease levels of the universal methyl donor SAM were potent inhibitors of Wnt signaling and of Wnt-induced digestion of extracellular proteins in endolysosomes. Thus, arginine methylation provides the canonical Wnt pathway with metabolic sensing properties through SAM. The rapid accumulation of Wnt-induced endolysosomes within 30 minutes was inhibited by the depletion of methionine, an essential amino acid that serves as the direct substrate for SAM production. We also found that methionine is required for GSK3 sequestration into multivesicular bodies through microautophagy, an essential step in Wnt signaling activity. Methionine starvation greatly reduced Wnt-induced endolysosomal degradation of extracellular serum proteins. Similar results were observed by addition of nicotinamide (vitamin B3), which serves as a methyl group sink. Methotrexate, a pillar in the treatment of cancer since 1948, decreases SAM levels. We show here that methotrexate blocked Wnt-induced endocytic lysosomal activity and reduced canonical Wnt signaling. Importantly, the addition of SAM during methionine depletion or methotrexate treatment was sufficient to rescue endolysosomal function and Wnt signaling. Inhibiting the Wnt signaling pathway by decreasing one-carbon metabolism provides a platform for designing interventions in Wnt-driven disease.