Using an Engineered Galvanic Redox System to Generate Positive Surface Potentials that Promote Osteogenic Functions.
ABSTRACT: Successful osseointegration of orthopaedic and orthodontic implants is dependent on a competition between osteogenesis and bacterial contamination on the implant-tissue interface. Previously, by taking advantage of the highly interactive capabilities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), we effectively introduced an antimicrobial effect to metal implant materials using an AgNP/poly(dl-lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coating. Although electrical forces have been shown to promote osteogenesis, creating practical materials and devices capable of harnessing these forces to induce bone regeneration remains challenging. Here, we applied galvanic reduction-oxidation (redox) principles to engineer a nanoscale galvanic redox system between AgNPs and 316L stainless steel alloy (316L-SA). Characterized by scanning electron microscopy , energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and contact angle measurement, the surface properties of the yield AgNP/PLGA-coated 316L-SA (SNPSA) material presented a significantly increased positive surface potential, hydrophilicity, surface fractional polarity, and surface electron accepting/donating index. Importantly, in addition to its bactericidal property, SNPSA's surface demonstrated a novel osteogenic bioactivity by promoting peri-implant bone growth. This is the first report describing the conversion of a normally deleterious galvanic redox reaction into a biologically beneficial function on a biomedical metal material. Overall, this study details an innovative strategy to design multifunctional biomaterials using a controlled galvanic redox reaction, which has broad applications in material development and clinical practice.
Project description:Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a feared complication of total joint arthroplasty associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is a growing body of evidence that bacterial colonization and biofilm formation are critical pathogenic events in PJI. Thus, the choice of biomaterials for implanted prostheses and their surface modifications may significantly influence the development of PJI. Currently, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) technology is receiving much interest in the field of orthopaedics for its antimicrobial properties and a strong anti-biofilm potential. The great advantage of AgNP surface modification is a minimal release of active substances into the surrounding tissue and a long period of effectiveness. As a result, a controlled release of AgNPs could ensure antibacterial protection throughout the life of the implant. Moreover, the antibacterial effect of AgNPs may be strengthened in combination with conventional antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Here, our main attention is devoted to general guidelines for the design of antibacterial biomaterials protected by AgNPs, its benefits, side effects and future perspectives in PJI prevention.
Project description:Here we report on the seemingly simple process of galvanic exchange (GE) between electrogenerated AuCl4- and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The results were obtained in the specific context of using AgNPs as labels for bioassays in paper fluidic devices. Results obtained from a combined electrochemistry and microscopy study indicate that the GE process results in recovery of only ?5% of the total equivalents of Ag present in the system. This low value is a consequence of two factors. First, after an initial fraction of each AgNP undergoes GE, a Au shell forms around the remaining AgNP core preventing further exchange. Second, to simulate a true biological fluid, the experiments were carried out in a Cl--containing buffer. Consequently, some Ag+ formed during GE precipitates as AgCl, and it also serves to block additional GE. Following optimization of the GE process, it was possible to detect AgNP label concentrations as low as 2.6 fM despite these limitations.
Project description:Nanoparticles (NPs) are causing threats to the environment. Silver NPs (AgNPs) are increasingly used in commercial products and may end up in freshwater ecosystems. The freshwater organisms are vulnerable due to water-borne and dietary exposure to AgNPs. Surface properties play an important role in the fate and behavior of AgNPs in the aquatic environment and their effects on organisms. However, effects of surface properties of AgNPs on organisms are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AgNPs coated with three different ligands; Tyrosine (T-AgNP), Epigallocatechin gallate (E-AgNP) and Curcumin (C-AgNP) in relation to the toxicity to a key aquatic organism; Daphnia carinata. The study focused on how coatings determine fate of NPs in the medium, mortality, feeding behaviour, bioaccumulation and trophic transfer from the freshwater alga, Raphidocelis subcapitata to daphnids. NP stability tests indicated that T-AgNPs were least stable in the ASTM daphnia medium while C-AgNPs were most stable. 48 h EC50 values of AgNPs to D. carinata were in the order of E-AgNP (19.37 ?g L-1) > C-AgNP (21.37 ?g L-1) > T-AgNP (49.74 ?g L-1) while the 48 h EC50 value of Ag+ ions was 1.21 ?g L-1. AgNP contaminated algae significantly decreased the feeding rates of daphnids. However, no significant differences were observed in feeding rates between algae contaminated with differently coated AgNPs. Trophic transfer studies showed that AgNPs were transferred from algae to daphnids. The bioacumulation of AgNPs in algae and the diet-borne bioaccumulation of AgNPs in daphnids varied for differently coated AgNPs. Bioaccumulation of C-AgNPs in algae was 1.5 time higher than T-AgNPs. However, the accumulation of T-AgNPs in daphnids via trophic transfer was 2.6 times higher than T-AgNPs. The knowledge generated from this study enhances the understanding of surface property dependent toxicity, bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of AgNPs in aquatic environments.
Project description:The aim of this research was to evaluate the inflammatory and/or oxidative damage related to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are responsible for negative effects on sperm physiology and metabolism. Thirty New Zealand White rabbit bucks were divided into 5 experimental groups (6 animals/group): Control, treated with 0.9% NaCl; AgNP, treated with a 5?mM AgNP solution; LPS, treated with 50?g/kg b.w. E. coli LPS; AgNPs + NSAID, treated with an anti-inflammatory drug at 0.2?mg/kg b.w. and 5?mM AgNPs; and AgNPs + Vit E, treated with 0.18?mg/kg b.w. vitamin E and 5?mM AgNPs. Sperm quality and oxidative and inflammatory status were assessed at different times (0-60 days). Two statistical models were built: the first evaluated the effects of AgNPs and LPS (vs. Control), whereas the second evaluated the protective effect of an NSAID and vitamin E against AgNP-induced damage. Three principal component analyses were performed: sperm traits (motility, volume), oxidative status (antioxidants, oxidative metabolites, and redox reactions), and cytokines (TNF-?, IL-8, and IL-6). A negative effect on reproductive traits resulted after NP administration. In particular, an inflammatory/oxidative response took place in the reproductive tract during the first 2-3?wks of AgNP administration (cytokine and oxidative metabolite generation); the inflammatory/oxidative thrust impaired the status of rabbit tissues (seminal plasma, sperm, and blood), inducing a response (increased antioxidant enzymes and redox reactions) at 4-7?wks; oxidative stress, if not totally counteracted, likely induced toxicity in the late phases of AgNP administration (8-9?wks). In conclusion, exposure to silver nanoparticles produced a similar but more persistent effect than that of LPS on rabbit reproductive tissues: AgNP administration triggered a proinflammatory response linked to oxidative thrust, worsening many sperm parameters. However, only anti-inflammatory treatment counteracted the negative effects of AgNPs, whereas vitamin E seemed to act as an adjuvant, attenuating the oxidative cascade.
Project description:Hybrid nanoparticles involving 10-nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) nucleated on unmodified rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared by chemical reduction. H2O2 used as a post-treatment induced a size-shape transition following a redox mechanism, passing from 10-nm spherical AgNPs to 300-nm triangular or prismatic NPs (AgNPrisms), where CNCs are the only stabilizers for AgNPs and AgNPrisms. We investigated the role of the H2O2/AgNP mass ratio (?) on AgNPs. At ? values above 0.20, the large amount of H2O2 led to extensive oxidation that produced numerous nucleation points for AgNPrisms on CNCs. On the contrary, for ? below 0.20, primary AgNPs are only partially oxidized, releasing a reduced amount of Ag+ ions and thus preventing the formation of AgNPrisms and reforming spherical AgNPs. While XRD and EXAFS reveal that the AgNP fcc crystal structure is unaffected by the H2O2 treatment, the XANES spectra proved that the AgNP-AgNPrism transition is always associated with an increase in the metallic Ag fraction (Ag0). In contrast, the formation of new 15-nm spherical AgNPs keeps the initial Ag0/Ag+ ratio unmodified. For the first time, we introduce a complete guide map for the fully-controlled preparation of aqueous dispersed AgNPs using CNC as a template.
Project description:Bionanocomposite packaging materials have a bright future for a broad range of applications in the food and biomedical industries. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the bionanocomposite packaging materials. Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is one of the most attractive antimicrobial agents for its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. However, the traditional method of preparing AgNPs-functionalized packaging material is cumbersome and not environmentally friendly. To develop an efficient and convenient biosynthesis method to prepare AgNPs-modified bionanocomposite material for packaging applications, we synthesized AgNPs in situ in a silk fibroin solution via the reduction of Ag⁺ by the tyrosine residue of fibroin, and then prepared AgNPs-silk/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite film by blending with PVA. AgNPs were synthesized evenly on the surface or embedded in the interior of silk/PVA film. The prepared AgNPs-silk/PVA film exhibited excellent mechanical performance and stability, as well as good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. AgNPs-silk/PVA film offers more choices to be potentially applied in the active packaging field.
Project description:Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a wide range of consumer products because of their excellent antimicrobial properties. AgNPs released into the environment are prone to transformations such as aggregation, oxidation, or dissolution so they are often stabilised by coatings that affect their physico-chemical properties and change their effect on living organisms. In this study we investigated the stability of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) coated AgNPs in an exposure medium, as well as their effect on tobacco germination and early growth. AgNP-CTAB was found to be more stable in the solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium compared to AgNP-PVP. The uptake and accumulation of silver in seedlings was equally efficient after exposure to both types of AgNPs. However, AgNP-PVP induced only mild toxicity on seedlings growth, while AgNP-CTAB caused severe negative effects on all parameters, even compared to AgNO3. Moreover, CTAB coating itself exerted negative effects on growth. Cysteine addition generally alleviated AgNP-PVP-induced negative effects, while it failed to improve germination and growth parameters after exposure to AgNP-CTAB. These results suggest that the toxic effects of AgNP-PVP are mainly a consequence of release of Ag+ ions, while phytotoxicity of AgNP-CTAB can rather be ascribed to surface coating itself.
Project description:A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications. The need to improve the long-term durability and therapeutic effectiveness of commercially available bare 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces led us to adopt a polymer-free approach which is cost-effective and scalable. GO was immobilized on to 316L SS utilizing amide linkage, to generate a strongly adherent uniform coating with surface roughness. GO-coated 316L SS surfaces showed increased hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with SHSY-5Y neuronal cells, which proliferated well and showed decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. In contrast, cells did not adhere to bare uncoated 316L SS meshes nor maintain viability when cultured in the vicinity of bare meshes. Therefore the combination of the improved surface properties and biocompatibility implies that GO-coating can be utilized to overcome pertinent limitations of bare metallic 316L SS implant surfaces, especially SS neural electrodes. Also, the procedure for making GO-based protective coatings can be applied to numerous other implants where the development of such protective films is necessary.
Project description:Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to penetrate into the brain and cause neuronal death. However, there is a paucity in studies examining the effect of AgNP on the resident immune cells of the brain, microglia. Given microglia are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to examine how AgNPs affect microglial inflammation to fully assess AgNP neurotoxicity. In addition, understanding AgNP processing by microglia will allow better prediction of their long term bioreactivity. In the present study, the in vitro uptake and intracellular transformation of citrate-capped AgNPs by microglia, as well as their effects on microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity were examined. Analytical microscopy demonstrated internalization and dissolution of AgNPs within microglia and formation of non-reactive silver sulphide (Ag2S) on the surface of AgNPs. Furthermore, AgNP-treatment up-regulated microglial expression of the hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE). In addition, AgNPs showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated ROS, nitric oxide and TNF? production, which translated into reduced microglial toxicity towards dopaminergic neurons. Hence, the present results indicate that intracellular Ag2S formation, resulting from CSE-mediated H2S production in microglia, sequesters Ag+ ions released from AgNPs, significantly limiting their toxicity, concomitantly reducing microglial inflammation and related neurotoxicity.
Project description:Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as antimicrobial agents have been extensively studied. It is generally assumed that their inhibitory activity heavily depends on their physicochemical features. Yet, other parameters may affect the AgNP traits and activity, such as culture medium composition, pH, and temperature, among others. In this work, we evaluated the effect of the culture medium physicochemical traits on both the stability and antibacterial activity of AgNPs. We found that culture media impact the physicochemical traits of AgNPs, such as hydrodynamic size, surface charge, aggregation, and the availability of ionic silver release rate. As a consequence, culture media play a major role in AgNP stability and antimicrobial potency. The AgNP minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values changed up to 2 orders of magnitude by the influence of culture media alone when single-stock AgNPs were tested on the same strain of Escherichia coli. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of the AgNP MIC values confirms that the "chemical complexity" of culture media influences the AgNP activity. Studies that address only the antimicrobial activities of nanoparticles on common bacterial models should be performed by standardized susceptibility assays, thus generating replicable, comparable reports regarding the antimicrobial potency of nanomaterials.