Differential miRNA expression profiling reveals miR-205-3p to be a potential radiosensitizer for low- dose ionizing radiation in DLD-1 cells.
ABSTRACT: Enhanced radiosensitivity at low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) (0.2 to 0.6 Gy) has been reported in several cell lines. This phenomenon, known as low doses hyper-radiosensitivity (LDHRS), appears as an opportunity to decrease toxicity of radiotherapy and to enhance the effects of chemotherapy. However, the effect of low single doses IR on cell death is subtle and the mechanism underlying LDHRS has not been clearly explained, limiting the utility of LDHRS for clinical applications. To understand the mechanisms responsible for cell death induced by low-dose IR, LDHRS was evaluated in DLD-1 human colorectal cancer cells and the expression of 80 microRNAs (miRNAs) was assessed by qPCR array. Our results show that DLD-1 cells display an early DNA damage response and apoptotic cell death when exposed to 0.6 Gy. miRNA expression profiling identified 3 over-expressed (miR-205-3p, miR-1 and miR-133b) and 2 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-122-5p, and miR-134-5p) upon exposure to 0.6 Gy. This miRNA profile differed from the one in cells exposed to high-dose IR (12 Gy), supporting a distinct low-dose radiation-induced cell death mechanism. Expression of a mimetic miR-205-3p, the most overexpressed miRNA in cells exposed to 0.6 Gy, induced apoptotic cell death and, more importantly, increased LDHRS in DLD-1 cells. Thus, we propose miR-205-3p as a potential radiosensitizer to low-dose IR.
Project description:Exposure to high-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to development of a strong acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mammals. ARS manifests after a latency period and it is important to develop fast prognostic biomarkers for its early detection and assessment. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the gold standard of biological dosimetry, but it fails after high doses of IR. Therefore, it is important to establish novel biomarkers of exposure that are fast and reliable also in the high dose range. Here, we investigated the applicability of miRNA levels in mouse serum. We found significantly increased levels of miR-375-3p following whole body exposure to 7?Gy of X-rays. In addition, we analyzed their levels in various organs of control mice and found them to be especially abundant in the pancreas and the intestine. Following a dose of 7?Gy, extensive cell death occurred in these tissues and this correlated negatively with the levels of miR-375-3p in the organs. We conclude that high expressing tissues of miR-375-3p may secrete this miRNA in serum following exposure to 7?Gy. Therefore, elevated miR-375-3p in serum may be a predictor of tissue damage induced by exposure to a high radiation dose.
Project description:Introduction:Acute exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is hazardous or even lethal. Accurate estimation of the doses of IR exposure is critical to wisely determining the following treatments. Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles harboring biomolecules and mediate the communications among cells and tissues to influence biological processes. Screening out the microRNAs (miRNAs) contained in exosomes as biomarkers can be useful for estimating the IR exposure doses and exploring the correlation between these miRNAs and the occurrence of disease. Methods:We treated mice with 2.0, 6.5, and 8.0 Gy doses of IR and collected the mice sera at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposure. Then, the serum exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifuge and the small RNA portion was extracted for sequencing and the following bioinformatics analysis. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate the potential dose-specific markers. Results:Fifty-six miRNAs (31 upregulated, 25 downregulated) were differentially expressed after exposure of the above 3 IR doses and may act as common IR exposure miRNA markers. Bioinformatic analysis also identified several dosage-specific responsive miRNAs. Importantly, IR-induced miR-151-3p and miR-128-3p were significantly and stably increased at 24 hours in different mouse strains with distinct genetic background after exposed to 8.0 Gy of IR. Conclusion:Our study shows that miR-151-3p and miR-128-3p can be used as dose-specific biomarkers of 8.0 Gy IR exposure, which can be used to determine the exposure dose by detecting the amount of the 2 miRNAs in serum exosomes.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the primary cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a low 5-year survival rate even in fully resected early-stage disease. Novel biomarkers to identify patients at higher risk of relapse are needed. We studied the prognostic value of 84 circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in 182 patients with resected early-stage NSCLC (99 adenocarcinoma (ADC), 83 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) from whom peripheral blood samples were collected pre-surgery. miRNA expression was analyzed in relation to disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In univariable analyses, five miRNAs (miR-26a-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-21-5p) were significantly associated with DFS in SCC, and four (miR-130b-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-126-3p, and miR-205-5p) remained significantly associated with OS. In ADC, miR-222-3p, miR-22-3p, and mir-93-5p were significantly associated with DFS, miR-22-3p remaining significant for OS. Given the high-dimensionality of the dataset, multivariable models were obtained using a regularized Cox regression including all miRNAs and clinical covariates. After adjustment for disease stage, only miR-126-3p showed an independent prognostic role, with higher values associated with longer DFS in SCC patients. With regard to ADC and OS, no miRNA remained significant in multivariable analysis. Further investigation into the role of miR-126 as a prognostic marker in early-stage NSCLC is warranted.
Project description:Breast cancer (BC) is the foremost cause of cancer-related deaths in women. BC patients are oftentimes presented with lymph node metastasis (LNM), which increases their risk of recurrence. Compelling data have recently implicated microRNAs in promoting BC metastasis. Therefore, the identification of microRNA (miRNA)-based molecular signature associated with LNM could provide an opportunity for a more personalized treatment for BC patients with high risk of LNM. In current study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in matched primary breast and LNM and identified 40 miRNAs, which were differentially expressed in LNM compared to primary tumors. The expression of 14 miRNAs (Up: hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, hsa-miR-146a-5p, hsa-miR-142-5p and down: hsa-miR-200a-3p, hsa-miR-200b-3p, hsa-miR-200c-3p, hsa-miR-205-5p, hsa-miR-210-3p, hsa-miR-214-3p, hsa-miR-141-3p, hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-125a-5p, and hsa-let-7c-5p) was subsequently validated in a second cohort of 32 breast and 32 matched LNM tumor tissues. Mechanistically, forced expression of hsa-miR-205-5p, or hsa-miR-214-3p epigenetically inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell migration. Global gene expression profiling on MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing hsa-miR-205-5p, or hsa-miR-214-3p in combination with in silico target prediction and ingenuity pathway analyses identified multiple bona fide targets for hsa-miR-205-5p, hsa-miR-214-3p affecting cellular proliferation and migration. Interestingly, interrogation of the expression levels of hsa-miR-205 and hsa-miR-214 in the METABRIC breast cancer dataset revealed significantly poor overall survival in patients with downregulated expression of miR-205 [HR = 0.75 (0.61-0.91)], p = 0.003 and hsa-miR-214 [HR = 0.74 (0.59-0.93) p = 0.008]. Our data unraveled the miRNA-transcriptional landscape associated with LNM and provide novel insight on the role of several miRNAs in promoting BC LNM, and suggest their potential utilization in the clinical management of BC patients.
Project description:Current evidence indicates that there is a relationship between microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene silencing and low-dose irradiation (LDIR) responses. Here, alterations of miRNA expression in response to LDIR exposure in male BALB/c mice and three different types of hepatocytes were investigated. The miRNome of the LDIR-exposed mouse spleens (0.01?Gy, 6.5?mGy/h) was analyzed, and the expression of miRNA and mRNA was validated by qRT-PCR. Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and luciferase assays were also performed to evaluate the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes and to gain insight into the regulation of miRNA expression. The expression of miRNA-193b-3p was down-regulated in the mouse spleen and liver and in various hepatocytes (NCTC, Hepa, and HepG2 cell lines) in response to LDIR. The down-regulation of miR-193b-3p expression was caused by histone deacetylation on the miR-193b-3p promoter in the HepG2 cells irradiated with 0.01?Gy. However, the alteration of histone deacetylation and miR-193b-3p and Rad51 expression in response to LDIR was restored by pretreatment with N-acetyl-cyctein. In conclusion, we provide evidence that miRNA responses to LDIR include the modulation of cellular stress responses and repair mechanisms.
Project description:The cellular response to DNA damage is vital for maintaining genomic stability and preventing undue cell death or cancer formation. The DNA damage response (DDR), most robustly mobilized by double-strand breaks (DSBs), rapidly activates an extensive signaling network that affects numerous cellular systems, leading to cell survival or programmed cell death. A major component of the DDR is the widespread modulation of gene expression. We analyzed transcriptional responses to ionizing radiation (IR) in 5 human cell lines to elucidate the scope of this response and identify its gene targets. According to the mRNA expression profiles most of the responses were cell line-specific. Data analysis identified significant enrichment for p53 target genes and cell cycle-related pathways among groups of up-regulated and down-regulated genes, respectively. Expression profiles were measured using affymetrix chips in IR- irradiated G361 cells and their time-matched untreated controls. Time points recorded were 0, 3 and 6 hrs. IR dose: 5 Gy Expression profiles were measured using affymetrix chips in IR- irradiated HepG2 cells and their time-matched untreated controls. Time points recorded were 0, 3 and 6 hrs. IR dose: 5 Gy Expression profiles were measured using affymetrix chips in IR- irradiated TK6 cells and their time-matched untreated controls. Time points recorded were 0, 3 and 6 hrs. IR dose: 5 Gy Expression profiles were measured using affymetrix chips in IR- irradiated U2OS cells and their time-matched untreated controls. Time points recorded were 0, 3 and 6 hrs. IR dose: 5 Gy Expression profiles were measured using affymetrix chips in IR- irradiated BJ cells and their time-matched untreated controls. Time points recorded were 0, 3 and 6 hrs. IR dose: 5 Gy
Project description:The impact of low-dose ionizing radiation (IR) on human brain has recently attracted attention due to increased use of IR for diagnostic purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate low-dose radiation response in hippocampus. Female C57Bl/6 mice were irradiated with 0 (control), 0.063, 0.125 or 0.5 Gy and quantitative label-free proteomic analysis of hippocampus was performed after 24 months. Key pathways were validated by immunoblotting. CREB signaling and CREB-associated pathways were the most affected ones at all doses. The two lower doses seemed to induce CREB pathway, whereas the exposure to 0.5 Gy deactivated CREB. Similarly, the lowest dose (0.063 Gy) was anti-inflammatory reducing the number of activated microglia (IBA1), whilst induction of activated microglia and reactive astroglia (GFAP) was found at 0.5 Gy suggesting increased inflammation and astrogliosis, respectively. Apoptotic markers BAX and cleaved CASP-3 and oxidative stress markers (carbonylation, NRF-2) were increased only at the highest dose. Since activated CREB pathway plays a central role in learning and memory, these data suggest neuroprotection at the lowest dose (0.063 Gy) but neurodegeneration at 0.5 Gy. These effects become significant only in old animals (24 m) and support the hypothesis of radiation-induced accelerated aging in the brain.
Project description:Radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients is limited by resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the roles and mechanisms of microRNAs in radioresistance are obscure. Here, we investigated that microRNA-205 (miR-205) was upregulated in radioresistant (RR) ESCC cells compared with the parental cells. Overexpression of miR-205 promoted colony survival post-IR, whereas depletion of miR-205 sensitized ESCC cells to IR in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrated that miR-205 promoted radioresistance by enhancing DNA repair, inhibiting apoptosis and activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, miR-205, upregulated post-IR, was demonstrated to be activated by Sp1 in parallel with its host gene, miR-205HG, both of which showed a perfect correlation. We also identified and validated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), as a target of miR-205 that promoted radioresistance via PI3K/AKT pathway. Lastly, increased miR-205 expression was closely associated with decreased PTEN expression in ESCC tissues and miR-205 expression predicted poor prognosis in patients with ESCC. Taken together, these findings identify miR-205 as a critical determinant of radioresistance and a biomarker of prognosis. The Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation of miR-205 promotes radioresistance through PTEN via PI3K/AKT pathway in ESCC. Inhibition of miR-205 expression may be a new strategy for radiotherapy in ESCC.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play a vital role in tumor progression. However, the role of linc00645-induced accelerated malignant behavior in glioblastoma (GBM) remains unknown. In the present study, linc00645 expression was significantly upregulated in GBM tissues and cell lines. High level of linc00645 was associated with poor overall survival in GBM patients. Knockdown of linc00645 suppressed the proliferation, stemness, migration, invasion, and reversed transforming growth factor (TGF)-?-induced motility of glioma cell lines. Furthermore, linc00645 directly interacted with miR-205-3p and upregulated of miR-205-3p impeded efficiently the increase of ZEB1 induced by linc00645 overexpression. Moreover, knockdown of linc00645 significantly suppressed the progression of glioma cells in vivo. miR-205-3p was a target of linc00645 and linc00645 modulates TGF-?-induced glioma cell migration and invasion via miR-205-3p. Taken together, our findings identified the linc00645/miR-205-3p/ZEB1 signaling axis as a key player in EMT of glioma cells triggered by TGF-?. These data elucidated that linc00645 plays an oncogenic role in glioma and it may serve as a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma in humans.
Project description:Delphinidin is a flavonoid belonging to dietary anthocyanidin family that has been reported to possess diverse anti-tumoral activities. However, the effects of delphinidin on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we aimed to investigate the anti-cancer activity of delphinidin in CRC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of delphinidin on the viability, metastatic characteristics, signaling, and microRNA (miR) profile of human CRC cell lines used were analyzed. In vivo metastasis was also evaluated using xenograft animal models. Our findings showed that delphinidin (<100 ?M) inhibited the colony formation of DLD-1, SW480, and SW620 cells, but non-significantly affected cell viability. Delphinidin also suppressed the migratory ability and invasiveness of the tested CRC cell lines, downregulated integrin ?V/?3 expression, inhibited focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src/paxillin signaling, and interfered with cytoskeletal construction. Analysis of the miR expression profile revealed a number of miRs, particularly miR-204-3p, that were significantly upregulated and downregulated by delphinidin. Abolishing the expression of one upregulated miR, miR-204-3p, with an antagomir restored delphinidin-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasiveness in DLD-1 cells as well as the ?V/?3-integrin/FAK/Src axis. Delphinidin also inhibited the lung metastasis of DLD-1 cells in the xenograft animal model. Collectively, these results indicate that the migration and invasion of CRC cells are inhibited by delphinidin, and the mechanism may involve the upregulation of miR-204-3p and consequent suppression of the ?V/?3-integrin/FAK axis. These findings suggest that delphinidin exerts anti-metastatic effects in CRC cells by inhibiting integrin/FAK signaling and indicate that miR-204-3p may play an important role in CRC metastasis.