Little Cigars vs 3R4F Cigarette: Physical Properties and HPHC Yields.
ABSTRACT: Objective:Our objective was to characterize physical properties and semivolatile harmful and potentially harmful constituent yields in the mainstream smoke (MSS) of 4 popular little cigars compared to the 3R4F reference cigarette. Methods:We used the ISO and Canadian Intense Regimen protocols to generate MSS for Cheyenne (Full Flavor and Menthol) and Swisher Sweets (Original and Sweet Cherry) little cigars; and the 3R4F. We examined physical properties such as length, tobacco filler mass, pressure drop, and ventilation for each product. Nicotine, benzo[a]pyrene, and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) yields were determined in the MSS. Results:Little cigars were longer (~15mm), contained more tobacco filler (100-200 mg), and had a higher pressure drop (~1.3X) compared to the 3R4F. Ventilation holes were found only on the filter paper of the 3R4F. Nicotine transmitted to the MSS was similar for all products under the intense smoking protocol. The highest yields of TSNAs and benzo(a)pyrene were measured for the little cigars. Conclusions:Little cigars may deliver similar levels of nicotine but higher levels of carcinogens to the MSS compared to cigarettes. Thus, previous reports on the toxicity of tobacco smoke based on cigarettes might not apply to little cigar products.
Project description:This study analyzed commercial waterpipe tobacco products in accordance with the newly developed ISO 22486 as well as with commercial waterpipes and charcoals using the ISO 22486 puffing regime for comparison. The aerosols from these products were analyzed for their nicotine, humectant, tobacco specific nitrosamine, carbonyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and metal yields. Significant differences were observed among the waterpipe tobacco products when analyzed in accordance with the ISO standard 22486 and with different commercial waterpipes and charcoals. The concentrations of CO and benzo[a]pyrene observed in the consumers' configuration using the ISO 22486 puffing regime (with lit charcoal) were higher than those obtained with the ISO standard using electrical heating, with the yields for carbonyl compounds being lower or higher. The use of the recently published ISO standard for generating water pipe tobacco aerosols should be complemented with analysis by using the consumers' configuration. The necessity for this was demonstrated by the differences in CO and benzo[a]pyrene yields in the present work. It appears that the temperature (280°C) selected for electrical heating of waterpipe tobacco products in ISO 22486 is somewhat lower than that obtained with commercial charcoals, resulting in a generally lower yield of nicotine and total collected matter. In addition, there is a need to evaluate the contribution of commercial charcoals to the concentration of constituents in waterpipe aerosols. This is particularly true for compounds resulting from charcoal combustion, such as CO and benzo[a]pyrene.
Project description:The pharmacological effects of tobacco products are primarily mediated by nicotine; however, research suggests that several non-nicotine tobacco constituents may alter the reinforcing effects of nicotine. This study evaluated the reinforcing effects of aqueous solutions of smoke/aerosol condensate from cigarettes, little cigars, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and waterpipe tobacco in a self-administration procedure to determine if abuse liability of these tobacco products differed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?64 total) were trained to self-administer intravenous nicotine (30??g/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Following nicotine dose-effect assessment (1, 7.5, 15, and 30??g/kg/infusion), rats were given access to smoke/aerosol condensate derived from their assigned tobacco product. Rats responded for smoke/aerosol condensate containing 1, 7.5, 15, and 30??g/kg/infusion nicotine, with the ratio of nicotine:non-nicotine constituents held constant across doses for each tobacco product. Responding for nicotine or smoke/aerosol condensate was also assessed on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Cigarette, little cigar, and e-cigarette smoke/aerosol condensates shifted the nicotine dose-effect curve leftward, whereas waterpipe tobacco smoke condensate shifted the dose-effect curve rightward. Smoke/aerosol condensate from all tobacco products produced similar levels of responding compared to nicotine alone during the progressive ratio phase. Results suggest that non-nicotine constituents in cigarettes, little cigars, and e-cigarettes differentially enhance nicotine's reinforcing potency. In contrast, waterpipe tobacco blunted nicotine's reinforcing potency, suggesting that it may contain unique constituents that dampen nicotine's reinforcing effects.
Project description:Although nicotine accounts for a great deal of the neurodevelopmental damage associated with maternal smoking or second-hand exposure, tobacco smoke contains thousands of potentially neurotoxic compounds. We used PC12 cells, a standard in vitro model of neurodifferentiation, to compare tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to nicotine, matching TSE exposure (with its inherent nicotine content) to parallel concentrations of nicotine, or to benzo[a]pyrene, a tobacco combustion product. TSE promoted the transition from cell replication to differentiation, resulting in fewer, but larger cells with greater neurite extension. TSE also biased differentiation into the dopaminergic versus the cholinergic phenotype, evidenced by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity but not choline acetyltransferase. Nicotine likewise promoted differentiation at the expense of cell numbers, but its effect on growth and neurite extension was smaller than that of TSE; furthermore, nicotine did not promote the dopaminergic phenotype. Benzo[a]pyrene had effects opposite to those of TSE, retarding neurodifferentiation, which resulted in higher cell numbers, smaller cells, reduced neurite information, and impaired emergence of both dopaminergic and cholinergic phenotypes. Our studies show that the complex mixture of compounds in tobacco smoke exerts direct effects on neural cell replication and differentiation that resemble those of nicotine in some ways but not others, and most importantly, that are greater in magnitude than can be accounted for from just the nicotine content of TSE. Thus, fetal tobacco smoke exposure, including lower levels associated with second-hand smoke, could be more injurious than would be anticipated from measured levels of nicotine or its metabolites.
Project description:In this study 11 commercial roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco brands sold in Spain and the reference tobacco 3R4F have been smoked and several components of the mainstream tobacco smoke have been analyzed. Cigarettes were prepared using commercial tubes, and were smoked under smoking conditions based on the ISO 3308. The gaseous and condensed fractions of the smoke from RYO brands and 3R4F have been analyzed and compared. RYO tobaccos, as opposed to 3R4F, present lower amounts of condensed products in the traps than in the filters. In general, RYO tobaccos also provide lower yields of most of the compounds detected in the gas fraction. The yield of CO is between 15.4 and 20.4 mg/cigarette. In most of the cases studied, RYO tobaccos deliver higher amounts of nicotine than the 3R4F tobacco. On average, the yield of the different chemical families of compounds appearing in the particulate matter retained in the cigarette filters tends to be around three times higher than those obtained from 3R4F, whereas similar values have been obtained in the particulate matter retained in the traps located after the filters. It can be concluded that RYO tobaccos are not less hazardous than the reference tobacco, which may be contrary to popular belief.
Project description:Flavored tobacco products are increasing in popularity but remain unregulated, with the exception of the ban on flavored conventional cigarettes. Lack of regulation of cigarillos and little cigars allows vendors to have their own version of popular flavors, each with different chemical components. A new classification system was created for flavored cigars in order to easily communicate our results with the scientific community. To understand the physicochemical characteristics of flavored little cigars and cigarillo smoke, size distribution and concentration of particulate matter in smoke were determined. Acellular reactive oxygen species generation was measured as an indirect measurement of the potential to cause oxidative stress in cells. In addition, cigarillo smoke extract treatment on bronchial epithelial (Beas-2b) cells were assessed to determine the flavor-induced cellular toxicity. Flavored cigars/cigarillos showed significant variability in the tested parameters between flavors as well as brands of the same flavor, but most of the cigars showed higher potential of generating oxidative stress, than research grade cigarettes. Flavored cigars produced maximum particle concentrations at 1.0?m and 4.0 ?m compared with 3R4F reference research cigarettes. A differential cytotoxic response was observed with cigarillo smoke extract treatments, with "fruits/candy" and "drinks" being the most toxic, but were not more cytotoxic than smoke from cigarettes. These cigarillos with flavors must be well characterized for toxicity in order to prevent adverse effects caused by exposure to flavor chemicals. Our study provides insight into understanding the potential health effects of flavor-infused cigars/cigarillos and the need for the regulation of those flavoring chemicals in these products. Future research is directed to determine the flavoring toxicity of little cigars and cigarillos in vivo studies.
Project description:Use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) is associated with oral cavity cancer and other health risks. Comprehensive analysis for chemical composition and toxicity is needed to compare conventional and newer STPs with lower tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) yields. Seven conventional and 12 low-TSNA moist snuff products purchased in the U.S., Sweden, and South Africa were analyzed for 18 chemical constituents (International Agency for Research on Cancer classified carcinogens), pH, nicotine, and free nicotine. Chemicals were compared in each product using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and principle component analysis (PCA). Conventional compared to low-TSNA moist snuff products had higher ammonia, benzo[a]pyrene, cadmium, nickel, nicotine, nitrate, and TSNAs and had lower arsenic in dry weight content and per mg nicotine. Lead and chromium were significantly higher in low-TSNA moist snuff products. PCA showed a clear difference for constituents between conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff products. Differences among products were reduced when considered on a per mg nicotine basis. As one way to contextualize differences in constituent levels, probabilistic lifetime cancer risk was estimated for chemicals included in The University of California's carcinogenic potency database (CPDB). Estimated probabilistic cancer risks were 3.77-fold or 3-fold higher in conventional compared to low-TSNA moist snuff products under dry weight or under per mg nicotine content, respectively. In vitro testing for the STPs indicated low level toxicity and no substantial differences. The comprehensive chemical characterization of both conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff products from this study provides a broader assessment of understanding differences in carcinogenic potential of the products. In addition, the high levels and probabilistic cancer risk estimates for certain chemical constituents of smokeless tobacco products will further inform regulatory decision makers and aid them in their efforts to reduce carcinogen exposure in smokeless tobacco products.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We examined mainstream total particulate matter, nicotine, cotinine, menthol, pyrene, carbon monoxide (CO) and semivolatile furan yields from a commercial waterpipe with two methods for heating the tobacco, quick-light charcoal (charcoal) and electric head (electric) and two water bowl preparations: with (ice) and without ice (water).<h4>Methods</h4>Emissions from a single brand of popular waterpipe tobacco (10 g) were generated using machine smoking according to a two-stage puffing regimen developed from human puffing topography. Tobacco and charcoal consumption were calculated for each machine smoking session as mass lost, expressed as a fraction of presmoking mass.<h4>Results</h4>The heating method had the greatest effect on toxicant yields. Electric heating resulted in increases in the fraction of tobacco consumed (2.4 times more, p<0.0001), mainstream nicotine (1.4 times higher, p=0.002) and semivolatile furan yields (1.4 times higher, p<0.03), and a decrease in mainstream CO and pyrene yields (8.2 and 2.1 times lower, respectively, p<0.001) as compared with charcoal. Adding ice to the bowl resulted in higher furan yields for electric heating. Menthol yields were not different across the four conditions and averaged 0.16±0.03 mg/session. 2-Furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde yields were up to 230 and 3900 times higher, respectively, than those reported for cigarettes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Waterpipe components used to heat the tobacco and water bowl preparation can significantly affect mainstream toxicant yields. Mainstream waterpipe tobacco smoke is a significant source of inhalation exposure to semivolatile furans with human carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. These data highlight the need for acute and chronic inhalation toxicity data for semivolatile furans and provide support for the establishment of limits governing sugar additives in waterpipe tobacco and educational campaigns linking waterpipe tobacco smoking behaviours with their associated harm.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies that assess waterpipe tobacco smoking behaviour and toxicant exposure generally use controlled laboratory environments with small samples that may not fully capture real-world variability in human behaviour and waterpipe products. This study aimed to conduct real-time sampling of waterpipe tobacco use in natural environments using an in situ device. METHODS:We used the REALTIME sampling instrument: a validated, portable, self-powered device designed to sample automatically a fixed percentage of the aerosol flowing through the waterpipe mouthpiece during every puff. We recruited participants at café and home settings in Jordan and measured puffing behaviour in addition to inhalation exposure of total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile aldehydes. We correlated total inhaled volume with five selected toxicants and calculated the regression line of this relationship. RESULTS:Averaged across 79 singleton sessions (52% male, mean age 27.0, 95% home sessions), sessions lasted 46.9?min and participants drew 290 puffs and inhaled 214 L per session. Mean quantities of inhaled toxicants per session were 1910?mg TPM, 259?mg CO, 5.0?mg nicotine, 117?ng benzo[a]pyrene and 198?ng formaldehyde. We found positive correlations between total inhaled volume and TPM (r=0.472; p<0.001), CO (r=0.751; p<0.001), nicotine (r=0.301, p=0.035) and formaldehyde (r=0.526; p<0.001), but a non-significant correlation for benzo[a]pyrene (r=0.289; p=0.056). CONCLUSIONS:In the natural environment, waterpipe tobacco users inhale large quantities of toxicants that induce tobacco-related disease, including cancer. Toxicant content per waterpipe session is at least equal, but for many toxicants several magnitudes of order higher, than that of a cigarette. Health warnings based on early controlled laboratory studies were well founded; if anything our findings suggest a greater exposure risk.
Project description:While much is known about the demand for cigarettes, research on the demand for non-cigarette tobacco products and the cross-price impacts among those products is limited. This study aims to comprehensively examine the own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for tobacco and nicotine replacement products (NRPs) in the U.S. We analyzed market-level quarterly data on sales and prices of 15 different types of tobacco products and NRPs from 2007 to 2014, compiled from retail store scanner data. Fixed effects models with controls were used to estimate their own-price elasticities and cross-price elasticities between cigarettes and the other 14 products. Our results show that, except for cigars, the demand for combustible tobacco products was generally elastic, with the estimated own-price elasticity >1 (10% increase in prices reduces sales by >10%). The own-price elasticities for smokeless tobacco products were smaller than those for combustible tobacco, although not always significant. The demand for electronic cigarettes and NRPs was found to be elastic. The cross-price elasticities with respect to cigarettes were positive for cigarillos, little cigars, loose tobacco, pipe tobacco, electronic cigarettes and NRPs, but only results for little cigars, loose tobacco, pipe tobacco, and dissolvable lozenges were consistently significant. Our findings suggest demand for tobacco products and NRPs was responsive to changes in their own prices. Substitutions or positive cross-price impacts between cigarettes and certain other products exist. It is important that tobacco control policies take into account both own- and cross-price impacts among tobacco products and NRTs.
Project description:Monitoring use of tobacco products among pregnant women is a public health priority, yet few studies in U.S. national samples have been reported on this topic. We examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of pregnant women. Data were obtained from all pregnant women (?18 years) in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH, 2013-2014) Study (N=388). Prevalence of current and prior use of tobacco/nicotine products was examined overall and among current cigarette smokers. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine correlates of use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah and cigars. Overall prevalence was highest for cigarettes (13.8%), followed by e-cigarettes (4.9%), hookah (2.5%) and cigars (2.3%), and below 1% for all other products. Prevalence of using other tobacco products is much higher among current smokers than the general population, with e-cigarettes (28.5%) most prevalent followed by cigars (14.0%), hookah (12.4%), smokeless (4.7%), snus (4.6%), and pipes (2.1%). Sociodemographic characteristics (poverty, low educational attainment, White race) and past-year externalizing psychiatric symptoms were correlated with current cigarette smoking. In turn, current cigarette smoking and past year illicit drug use were correlated with using e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigars. These results underscore that tobacco/nicotine use during pregnancy extends beyond cigarettes. The results also suggest that use of these other products should be included in routine clinical screening on tobacco use, and the need for more intensive tobacco control and regulatory strategies targeting pregnant women.