Saturated long-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria contribute to enhanced colonic motility in rats.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The gut microbiota is closely associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorder, but the mechanism(s) by which bacteria interact with and affect host GI motility remains unclear. In this study, through using metabolomic and metagenomic analyses, an animal model of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) characterized by accelerated colonic motility and gut dysbiosis was used to investigate the mechanism underlying microbiota-driven motility dysfunction. RESULTS:An excess of intracolonic saturated long-chain fatty acids (SLCFAs) was associated with enhanced bowel motility in NMS rats. Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) and stearic acid (C18:0), as the most abundant odd- and even-numbered carbon SLCFAs in the colon lumen, can promote rat colonic muscle contraction and increase stool frequency. Increase of SLCFAs was positively correlated with elevated abundances of Prevotella, Lactobacillus, and Alistipes. Functional annotation found that the level of bacterial LCFA biosynthesis was highly enriched in NMS group. Essential synthetic genes Fabs were largely identified from the genera Prevotella, Lactobacillus, and Alistipes. Pseudo germ-free (GF) rats receiving fecal microbiota from NMS donors exhibited increased defecation frequency and upregulated bacterial production of intracolonic SLCFAs. Modulation of gut dysbiosis by neomycin effectively attenuated GI motility and reduced bacterial SLCFA generation in the colon lumen of NMS rats. CONCLUSIONS:These findings reveal a previously unknown relationship between gut bacteria, intracolonic SLCFAs, and host GI motility, suggesting the importance of SLCFA-producing bacteria in GI motility disorders. Further exploration of this relationship could lead to a precise medication targeting the gut microbiota for treating GI motility disorders.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:High-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders can lead to impaired sperm production. We aim to investigate if HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis can functionally influence spermatogenesis and sperm motility. DESIGN:Faecal microbes derived from the HFD-fed or normal diet (ND)-fed male mice were transplanted to the mice maintained on ND. The gut microbes, sperm count and motility were analysed. Human faecal/semen/blood samples were collected to assess microbiota, sperm quality and endotoxin. RESULTS:Transplantation of the HFD gut microbes into the ND-maintained (HFD-FMT) mice resulted in a significant decrease in spermatogenesis and sperm motility, whereas similar transplantation with the microbes from the ND-fed mice failed to do so. Analysis of the microbiota showed a profound increase in genus Bacteroides and Prevotella, both of which likely contributed to the metabolic endotoxaemia in the HFD-FMT mice. Interestingly, the gut microbes from clinical subjects revealed a strong negative correlation between the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella and sperm motility, and a positive correlation between blood endotoxin and Bacteroides abundance. Transplantation with HFD microbes also led to intestinal infiltration of T cells and macrophages as well as a significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the epididymis, suggesting that epididymal inflammation have likely contributed to the impairment of sperm motility. RNA-sequencing revealed significant reduction in the expression of those genes involved in gamete meiosis and testicular mitochondrial functions in the HFD-FMT mice. CONCLUSION:We revealed an intimate linkage between HFD-induced microbiota dysbiosis and defect in spermatogenesis with elevated endotoxin, dysregulation of testicular gene expression and localised epididymal inflammation as the potential causes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03634644.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota dysbiosis and their host metabolic phenotype alteration is an important factor in human disease development. A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), has been effectively used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate whether CSGS modulates the host metabolic phenotype under the condition of gut microbiota dysbiosis. The metabonomics studies of biochemical changes in urine and feces of antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the CSGS treatment reduced the metabolic phenotype perturbation induced by antibiotic. In addition, there was a strong correlation between gut microbiota genera and urinary and fecal metabolites. Moreover, the correlation analysis and the metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA) identified that three key metabolic pathways including glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and bile acid metabolism were the most relevant pathways involved in antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. These findings provided a comprehensive understanding of the protective effects of CSGS on the host metabolic phenotype of the gut microbiota dysbiosis rats, and further as a new source for drug leads in gut microbiota-targeted disease management.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is difficult to treat PCOS because of its complex etiology and pathogenesis. Here, we characterized the roles of gut microbiota on the pathogenesis and treatments in letrozole (a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor) induced PCOS rat model. Changes in estrous cycles, hormonal levels, ovarian morphology and gut microbiota by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR were determined. The results showed that PCOS rats displayed abnormal estrous cycles with increasing androgen biosynthesis and exhibited multiple large cysts with diminished granulosa layers in ovarian tissues. Meanwhile, the composition of gut microbiota in letrozole-treated rats was different from that in the controls. Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus and Clostridium were lower while Prevotella was higher in PCOS rats when compared with control rats. After treating PCOS rats with Lactobacillus and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy rats, it was found that the estrous cycles were improved in all 8 rats in FMT group, and in 6 of the 8 rats in Lactobacillus transplantation group with decreasing androgen biosynthesis. Their ovarian morphologies normalized. The composition of gut microbiota restored in both FMT and Lactobacillus treated groups with increasing of Lactobacillus and Clostridium, and decreasing of Prevotella. These results indicated that dysbiosis of gut microbiota was associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. Microbiota interventions through FMT and Lactobacillus transplantation were beneficial for the treatments of PCOS rats.
Project description:Dysbiosis of gut microbiota during the progression of HBV-related liver disease is not well understood, as there are very few reports that discuss the featured bacterial taxa in different stages. The aim of this study was to reveal the featured bacterial species whose abundances are directly associated with HBV disease progression, that is, progression from healthy subjects to, chronic HBV infection, chronic hepatitis B to liver cirrhosis. Approximately 400 fecal samples were collected, and 97 samples were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing after age and BMI matching. Compared with the healthy individuals, significant gut microbiota alterations were associated with the progression of liver disease. LEfSe results showed that the HBV infected patients had higher Fusobacteria, Veillonella, and Haemophilus abundance while the healthy individuals had higher levels of Prevotella and Phascolarctobacterium. Indicator analysis revealed that 57 OTUs changed as the disease progressed, and their combination produced an AUC value of 90% (95% CI: 86-94%) between the LC and non-LC groups. In addition, the abundances of OTU51 (Dialister succinatiphilus) and OTU50 (Alistipes onderdonkii) decreased as the disease progressed, and these results were further verified by qPCR. The LC patients had the higher bacterial network complexity, which was accompanied with a lower abundance of potential beneficial bacterial taxa, such as Dialister and Alistipes, while they had a higher abundance of pathogenic species within Actinobacteria. The compositional and network changes in the gut microbiota in varied CHB stages, suggest the potential contributions of gut microbiota in CHB disease progression.
Project description:Background:Accumulative evidence showed that gut microbiota was important in regulating the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hugan Qingzhi tablet (HQT), a lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory medicinal formula, has been used to prevent and treat NAFLD. However, its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to confirm whether HQT reversed the gut microbiota dysbiosis in NAFLD rats. Methods:We established an NAFLD model of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), which was given different interventions, and measured the level of liver biochemical indices and inflammatory factors. Liver tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O. Changes in the gut microbiota composition were analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results:The hepatic histology and biochemical data displayed that HQT exhibited protective effects on HFD-induced rats. Moreover, HQT also reduced the abundance of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in HFD-fed rats and modified the gut microbial species at the genus level, increasing the abundances of gut microbiota which were reported to have an effect on relieving NAFLD, such as Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, Bifidobacteria, Alistipes, and Anaeroplasma, and significantly inhibiting the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, Holdemanella, Allobaculum, and Blautia, which were reported to be potentially related to NAFLD. Spearman's correlation analysis found that [Ruminococcus]_gauvreauii_group, Lachnoclostridium, Blautia, Allobaculum, and Holdemanella exhibited significant (p < 0.001) positive correlations with triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, interleukin-6, interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and body weight and negative correlations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001). The norank_f__Bacteroidales_S24-7_group and Alistipes showed an opposite trend. Moreover, the HQT could promote flavonoid biosynthesis compared with the HFD group. Conclusion:In summary, the HQT has potential applications in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD, which may be closely related to its modulatory effect on the gut microbiota.
Project description:Inadequate immunologic, metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis has been related to either an alteration of the gut microbiota or to vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed whether vitamin D deficiency alters rat gut microbiota. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard or a vitamin D-free diet for seven weeks. The microbiome composition was determined in fecal samples by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The vitamin D-free diet produced mild changes on ?- diversity but no effect on ?-diversity in the global microbiome. Markers of gut dysbiosis like Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio or the short chain fatty acid producing bacterial genera were not significantly affected by vitamin D deficiency. Notably, there was an increase in the relative abundance of the Enterobacteriaceae, with significant rises in its associated genera Escherichia, Candidatus blochmannia and Enterobacter in vitamin D deficient rats. Prevotella and Actinomyces were also increased and Odoribacteraceae and its genus Butyricimonas were decreased in rats with vitamin D-free diet. In conclusion, vitamin D deficit does not induce gut dysbiosis but produces some specific changes in bacterial taxa, which may play a pathophysiological role in the immunologic dysregulation associated with this hypovitaminosis.
Project description:Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the earliest and most common food allergy and can be elicited by both IgE- or non-IgE-mediated mechanism. We previously described dysbiosis in children with IgE-mediated CMA and the effect of dietary treatment with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (EHCF) alone or in combination with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). On the contrary, the gut microbiota in non-IgE-mediated CMA remains uncharacterized. In this study we evaluated gut microbiota composition and fecal butyrate levels in children affected by non-IgE-mediated CMA. We found a gut microbiota dysbiosis in non-IgE-mediated CMA, driven by an enrichment of Bacteroides and Alistipes. Comparing these results with those previously obtained in children with IgE-mediated CMA, we demonstrated overlapping signatures in the gut microbiota dysbiosis of non-IgE-mediated and IgE-mediated CMA children, characterized by a progressive increase in Bacteroides from healthy to IgE-mediated CMA patients. EHCF containg LGG was more strongly associated with an effect on dysbiosis and on butyrate production if compared to what observed in children treated with EHCF alone. If longitudinal cohort studies in children with CMA will confirm these results, gut microbiota dysbiosis could be a relevant target for innovative therapeutic strategies in children with non-IgE-mediated CMA.
Project description:Alterations of gut microbiota are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in different populations and several bacterial species were found to contribute to the tumorigenesis. The potential use of gut microbes as markers for early diagnosis has also been reported. However, cohort specific noises may distort the structure of microbial dysbiosis in CRC and lead to inconsistent results among studies. In this regard, our study targeted at exploring changes in gut microbiota that are universal across populations at species level.Based on the combined analysis of 526 metagenomic samples from Chinese, Austrian, American, and German and French cohorts, seven CRC-enriched bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia, Alistipes finegoldii, and Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans) have been identified across populations. The seven enriched bacterial markers classified cases from controls with an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.80 across the different populations. Abundance correlation analysis demonstrated that CRC-enriched and CRC-depleted bacteria respectively formed their own mutualistic networks, in which the latter was disjointed in CRC. The CRC-enriched bacteria have been found to be correlated with lipopolysaccharide and energy biosynthetic pathways.Our study identified potential diagnostic bacterial markers that are robust across populations, indicating their potential universal use for non-invasive CRC diagnosis. We also elucidated the ecological networks and functional capacities of CRC-associated microbiota.
Project description:Effects of marine microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa 55% ethanol extract (CPE55) on lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and regulation mechanism in high fat diet-fed induced hyperlipidaemia rats were investigated. Structure characterizations of major compounds in CPE55 were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The compositions of gut microbiota in rats were analyzed by high-throughput next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Oral administration with CPE55 markedly alleviated dyslipidemia through improving adverse blood lipid profile and inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. CPE55 has downregulated the gene expression levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and upregulated adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase-?. It has also improved the abundance of bacteria Alistipes, Prevotella, Alloprevotella, and Ruminococcus1 and decreased the abundances of Turicibacter and Lachnospira. Turicibacter and Lachnospira were both positive correlations of metabolic phenotypes. The findings above illustrated that CPE55 might be developed as food ingredients to ameliorate lipid metabolic disorders and hyperlipidaemia.