Evaluation of Two Strategies for Community-Based Safety Monitoring during Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Campaigns in Senegal, Compared with the National Spontaneous Reporting System.
ABSTRACT: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine has been introduced in 12 African countries. Additional strategies for safety monitoring are needed to supplement national systems of spontaneous reporting that are known to under represent the incidence of adverse reactions.This study aimed to determine if adverse event (AE) reporting could be improved using a smartphone application provided to village health workers, or by active follow-up using a symptom card provided to caregivers.Two strategies to improve reporting of AEs during SMC campaigns were evaluated, in comparison with the national system of spontaneous reporting, in 11 health post areas in Senegal. In each health post, an average of approximately 4000 children under 10 years of age received SMC treatment each month for 3 months during the 2015 malaria transmission season-a total of 134,000 treatments. In three health posts (serving approximately 14,000 children), caregivers were encouraged to report any adverse reactions to the nurse at the health post or to a community health worker (CHW) in their village, who had been trained to use a smartphone application to report the event (enhanced spontaneous reporting). In two health posts (approximately 10,000 children), active follow-up of children at home was organized after each SMC campaign to ask about AEs that caregivers had been asked to record on a symptom card (active surveillance). Six health posts (approximately 23,000 children) followed the national system of spontaneous reporting using the national reporting (yellow) form. Each AE report was assessed by a panel to determine likely association with SMC drugs.The incidence of reported AEs was 2.4, 30.6, and 21.6 per 1000 children treated per month, using the national system, enhanced spontaneous reporting, and active surveillance, respectively. The most commonly reported symptoms were vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. The incidence of vomiting, known to be caused by amodiaquine, was similar using both innovative methods (10/1000 in the first month, decreasing to 2.5/1000 in the third month). Despite increased surveillance, no serious adverse drug reactions were detected.Training CHWs in each village and health facility staff to report AEs using a mobile phone application led to much higher reporting rates than through the national system. This approach is feasible and acceptable, and could be further improved by strengthening laboratory investigation and the collection of control data immediately prior to SMC campaigns.
Project description:Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is recommended for children under 5 in the Sahel and sub-Sahel. The burden in older children may justify extending the age range, as has been done effectively in Senegal. We examine costs of door-to-door SMC delivery to children up to 10?years by community health workers (CHWs). We analysed incremental financial and economic costs at district level and below from a health service perspective. We examined project accounts and prospectively collected data from 405 CHWs, 46 health posts, and 4 district headquarters by introducing questionnaires in advance and completing them after each monthly implementation round. Affordability was explored by comparing financial costs of SMC to relevant existing health expenditure levels. Costs were disaggregated by administration month and by health service level. We used linear regression models to identify factors associated with cost variation between health posts. The financial cost to administer SMC to 180?000 children over one malaria season, reaching ?93% of children with all three intended courses of SMC was $234?549 (constant 2010 USD) or $0.50 per monthly course administered. Excluding research-participation incentives, the financial cost was $0.32 per resident (all ages) in the catchment area, which is 1.2% of Senegal's general government expenditure on health per capita. Economic costs were 18.7% higher than financial costs at $278?922 or $0.59 per course administered and varied widely between health posts, from $0.38 to $2.74 per course administered. Substantial economies of scale across health posts were found, with the smallest health posts incurring highest average costs per monthly course administered. SMC for children up to 10 is likely to be affordable, particularly where it averts substantial curative care costs. Estimates of likely costs and cost-effectiveness of SMC in other contexts must account for variation in average costs across delivery months and health posts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is recommended that children aged 3 months to five years of age living in areas of seasonal transmission in the sub-Sahel should receive Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ) during the malaria transmission season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of SMC with SPAQ in children when delivered by community health workers in three districts in Senegal where SMC was introduced over three years, in children from 3 months of age to five years of age in the first year, then in children up to 10 years of age. METHODS:A surveillance system was established to record all deaths and all malaria cases diagnosed at health facilities and a pharmacovigilance system was established to detect adverse drug reactions. Health posts were randomized to introduce SMC in a stepped wedge design. SMC with SPAQ was administered once per month from September to November, by nine health-posts in 2008, by 27 in 2009 and by 45 in 2010. RESULTS:After three years, 780,000 documented courses of SMC had been administered. High coverage was achieved. No serious adverse events attributable to the intervention were detected, despite a high level of surveillance. CONCLUSIONS:SMC is being implemented in countries of the sub-Sahel for children under 5 years of age, but in some areas the age distribution of cases of malaria may justify extending this age limit, as has been done in Senegal. Our results show that SMC is well tolerated in children under five and in older children. However, pharmacovigilance should be maintained where SMC is implemented and provision for strengthening national pharmacovigilance systems should be included in plans for SMC implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00712374.
Project description:Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is currently recommended for children under five in areas where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. We explored children's caregivers' and community health workers' (CHWs) responses to an extended 5-month SMC programme.Thirteen in-depth interviews and eight focus group discussions explored optimal and suboptimal 'uptake' of SMC to examine facilitators and barriers to caregivers' uptake.There did not appear to be major differences between caregivers of children with optimal and sub-optimal SMC uptake in terms of their knowledge of malaria, their perceptions of the effect of SMC on a child's health, nor their understanding of chemoprevention. Caregivers experienced difficulty in prioritising SMC for well children, perceiving medication being for treatment rather than prevention. Prior to the study, caregivers had become accustomed to rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for malaria, and therefore blood testing for malaria during the baseline survey at the start of the SMC programme may have positively influenced uptake. Facilitators of uptake included caregivers' trust in and respect for administrators of SMC (including CHWs), access to medication and supportive (family) networks. Barriers to uptake related to poor communication of timings of community gatherings, travel distances, absence during SMC home deliveries, and limited demand for SMC due to lack of previous experience. Future delivery of SMC by trained CHWs would be acceptable to caregivers.A combination of caregivers' physical access to SMC medication, the drug regimen, trust in the medical profession and perceived norms around malaria prevention all likely influenced caregivers' level of uptake. SMC programmes need to consider: 1) developing supportive, accessible and flexible modes of drug administration including home delivery and village community kiosks; 2) improving demand for preventive medication including the harnessing of learnt trust; and 3) developing community-based networks for users to support optimal uptake of SMC.
Project description:Provision of basic water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in health-care facilities is gaining increased attention, given growing acceptance of its importance to the maternal and newborn quality of care agenda and the universal health coverage framework. Adopting and contextualizing an emerging World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Program Monitoring service ladder approach to national data collected in 2010/2011, we estimated the national coverage of primary health centers (PHCs) (N = 8,831), auxiliary PHCs (N = 22,853), village health posts (N = 28,692), and village maternity clinics (N = 14,396) with basic WASH services in Indonesia as part of a Sustainable Development Goal baseline assessment. One quarter of PHCs did not have access to a combination of basic water and sanitation (WatSan) services (23.6%) with significant regional variation (10.6-59.8%), whereas more than two-third of PHCs (72.0%) lacked handwashing facility with soap in all three locations (general consulting room, immunization room, and delivery room). More than a half of the three lower health service level facility types lacked basic WatSan services. National health facility monitoring systems need to be urgently strengthened for tracking the progress and addressing gaps in basic WASH services in health facilities in Indonesia.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Adverse events (AE) are a common occurrence in healthcare systems; however, the frequency of AEs occurring in South Africa and especially Emergency Departments (ED) is unknown. The aims of this study were to describe the frequency of AEs experienced by Healthcare providers (HCP) and the frequency of formal reporting thereafter over a 12-month period.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross sectional descriptive study was performed amongst HCPs at Helen Joseph Hospital and Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital EDs. The questionnaire incorporated ED relevant AEs using the South African National Procedural Manual for Patient Safety Incident Reporting and Learning.<h4>Results</h4>The questionnaires from 51 doctors and 49 nurses were analysed. All HCPs experienced >10 AEs over 1 year. Nurses were 21 times more likely than doctors to report >10 AEs (p < 0.001). Twenty four percent of AEs experienced were deemed to be minor, very minor or not adverse.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There are low levels of formal AE reporting, especially amongst doctors, within Johannesburg Academic EM Departments despite large numbers of AEs experienced. There are multiple barriers, which influence these reporting practices. Improved reporting systems are needed to affect a change in the current environment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a strategy for malaria control recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2012 for Sahelian countries. The Mali National Malaria Control Programme adopted a plan for pilot implementation and nationwide scale-up by 2016. Given that SMC is a relatively new approach, there is an urgent need to assess the costs and cost effectiveness of SMC when implemented through the routine health system to inform decisions on resource allocation.<h4>Methods</h4>Cost data were collected from pilot implementation of SMC in Kita district, which targeted 77,497 children aged 3-59 months. Starting in August 2014, SMC was delivered by fixed point distribution in villages with the first dose observed each month. Treatment consisted of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine once a month for four consecutive months, or rounds. Economic and financial costs were collected from the provider perspective using an ingredients approach. Effectiveness estimates were based upon a published mathematical transmission model calibrated to local epidemiology, rainfall patterns and scale-up of interventions. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated for the cost per malaria episode averted, cost per disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted, and cost per death averted.<h4>Results</h4>The total economic cost of the intervention in the district of Kita was US $357,494. Drug costs and personnel costs accounted for 34% and 31%, respectively. Incentives (payment other than salary for efforts beyond routine activities) accounted for 25% of total implementation costs. Average financial and economic unit costs per child per round were US $0.73 and US $0.86, respectively; total annual financial and economic costs per child receiving SMC were US $2.92 and US $3.43, respectively. Accounting for coverage, the economic cost per child fully adherent (receiving all four rounds) was US $6.38 and US $4.69, if weighted highly adherent, (receiving 3 or 4 rounds of SMC). When costs were combined with modelled effects, the economic cost per malaria episode averted in children was US $4.26 (uncertainty bound 2.83-7.17), US $144 (135-153) per DALY averted and US $ 14,503 (13,604-15,402) per death averted.<h4>Conclusions</h4>When implemented at fixed point distribution through the routine health system in Mali, SMC was highly cost-effective. As in previous SMC implementation studies, financial incentives were a large cost component.
Project description:The rapid expansion of the Internet and computing power in recent years has opened up the possibility of using social media for pharmacovigilance. While this general concept has been proposed by many, central questions remain as to whether social media can provide earlier warnings for rare and serious events than traditional signal detection from spontaneous report data.Our objective was to examine whether specific product-adverse event pairs were reported via social media before being reported to the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).A retrospective analysis of public Facebook and Twitter data was conducted for 10 recent FDA postmarketing safety signals at the drug-event pair level with six negative controls. Social media data corresponding to two years prior to signal detection of each product-event pair were compiled. Automated classifiers were used to identify each 'post with resemblance to an adverse event' (Proto-AE), among English language posts. A custom dictionary was used to translate Internet vernacular into Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) Preferred Terms. Drug safety physicians conducted a manual review to determine causality using World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) assessment criteria. Cases were also compared with those reported in FAERS.A total of 935,246 posts were harvested from Facebook and Twitter, from March 2009 through October 2014. The automated classifier identified 98,252 Proto-AEs. Of these, 13 posts were selected for causality assessment of product-event pairs. Clinical assessment revealed that posts had sufficient information to warrant further investigation for two possible product-event associations: dronedarone-vasculitis and Banana Boat Sunscreen--skin burns. No product-event associations were found among the negative controls. In one of the positive cases, the first report occurred in social media prior to signal detection from FAERS, whereas the other case occurred first in FAERS.An efficient semi-automated approach to social media monitoring may provide earlier insights into certain adverse events. More work is needed to elaborate additional uses for social media data in pharmacovigilance and to determine how they can be applied by regulatory agencies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the completeness of child health records maintained and collected within community health information system in Ethiopia. METHODS:A household listing was carried out in 221 enumeration areas in food insecure areas of Ethiopia to determine the presence of a child less than 24-months. This list of children was then compared against the information stored at the local health posts. A household survey was administered to a sample of 2155 households that had a child less than 24-months of age to assess determinants and consequences of exclusion from the health post registers. RESULTS:Out of the 10,318 children identified during the listing, 36% were found from the health post records. Further analysis based on the household survey data indicated that health posts that had adopted nationally recommended recordkeeping practices had more complete records (p?<?0.01) and that children residing farther from health posts were less likely to be found from the registers (p?<?0.05). Mothers whose child was found from the registers were more likely to know a health extension worker (p?<?0.01), had a contact with one (p?<?0.01), and their child was more likely to have received growth monitoring (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE:The incompleteness of the data collected at the health posts poses a challenge for effective implementation of the national health extension program and various complementary programs in Ethiopia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is recommended in the Sahel region of Africa for children under 5 years of age, for up to 4 months of the year. It may be appropriate to include older children, and to provide protection for more than 4 months. We evaluated the effectiveness of SMC using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine given over 5 months to children under 10 years of age in Saraya district in south-east Senegal in 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Twenty-four villages, including 2,301 children aged 3-59 months and 2,245 aged 5-9 years, were randomised to receive SMC with community case management (CCM) (SMC villages) or CCM alone (control villages). In all villages, community health workers (CHWs) were trained to treat malaria cases with artemisinin combination therapy after testing with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). In SMC villages, CHWs administered SMC to children aged 3 months to 9 years once a month for 5 months. The study was conducted from 27 July to 31 December 2011. The primary outcome was malaria (fever or history of fever with a positive RDT). The prevalence of anaemia and parasitaemia was measured in a survey at the end of the transmission season. Molecular markers associated with resistance to SMC drugs were analysed in samples from incident malaria cases and from children with parasitaemia in the survey. SMC was well tolerated with no serious adverse reactions. There were 1,472 RDT-confirmed malaria cases in the control villages and 270 in the SMC villages. Among children under 5 years of age, the rate difference was 110.8/1,000/month (95% CI 64.7, 156.8; p < 0.001) and among children 5-9 years of age, 101.3/1,000/month (95% CI 66.7, 136.0; p < 0.001). The mean haemoglobin concentration at the end of the transmission season was higher in SMC than control villages, by 6.5 g/l (95% CI 2.0, 11; p = 0.007) among children under 5 years of age, and by 5.2 g/l (95% CI 0.4, 9.9; p = 0.035) among children 5-9 years of age. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 18% in children under 5 years of age and 25% in children 5-9 years of age in the control villages, and 5.7% and 5.8%, respectively, in these 2 age groups in the SMC villages, with prevalence differences of 12.5% (95% CI 6.8%, 18.2%; p < 0.001) in children under 5 years of age and 19.3% (95% CI 8.3%, 30.2%; p < 0.001) in children 5-9 years of age. The pfdhps-540E mutation associated with clinical resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was found in 0.8% of samples from malaria cases but not in the final survey. Twelve children died in the control group and 14 in the SMC group, a rate difference of 0.096/1,000 child-months (95% CI 0.99, 1.18; p = 0.895). Limitations of this study include that we were not able to obtain blood smears for microscopy for all suspected malaria cases, such that we had to rely on RDTs for confirmation, which may have included false positives. CONCLUSIONS:In this study SMC for children under 10 years of age given over 5 months was feasible, well tolerated, and effective in preventing malaria episodes, and reduced the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia. SMC with CCM achieved high coverage and ensured children with malaria were promptly treated with artemether-lumefantrine. TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01449045.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaria in pregnancy has devastating consequences for both the expectant mother and baby. Annually, 88.2 (70%) of the 125.2 million pregnancies in malaria endemic regions occur in the Asia-Pacific region. The control of malaria in pregnancy in most of Asia relies on passive case detection and prevention with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. Indonesia was the first country in the region to introduce, in 2012, malaria screening at pregnant women's first antenatal care visit to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy. The study assessed health providers' acceptability and perceptions on the feasibility of implementing the single screening and treatment (SST) strategy in the context of the national programme in two endemic provinces of Indonesia. METHODS:Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 86 health providers working in provision of antenatal care (midwives, doctors, laboratory staff, pharmacists, and heads of drug stores), heads of health facilities and District Health Office staff in West Sumba and Mimika districts in East Nusa Tenggara and Papua provinces, respectively. RESULTS:Health providers of all cadres were accepting of SST as a preventive strategy, showing a strong preference for microscopy over rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as the method of screening. Implementation of the policy was inconsistent in both sites, with least extensive implementation reported in West Sumba compared to Mimika. SST was predominantly implemented at health centre level using microscopy, whereas implementation at community health posts was said to occur in less than half the selected health facilities. Lack of availability of RDTs was cited as the major factor that prevented provision of SST at health posts, however as village midwives cannot prescribe medicines women who test positive are referred to health centres for anti-malarials. Few midwives had received formal training on SST or related topics. CONCLUSIONS:The study findings indicate that SST was an acceptable strategy among health providers, however implementation was inconsistent with variation across different localities within the same district, across levels of facility, and across different cadres within the same health facility. Implementation should be re-invigorated through reorientation and training of health providers, stable supplies of more sensitive RDTs, and improved data capture and reporting.