Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Aim:Determine the metabolic profile and identify risk factors of women transitioning from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods:237 women diagnosed with GDM underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), anthropometrics assessment, and completed lifestyle questionnaires six years after pregnancy. Blood was analysed for clinical variables (e.g., insulin, glucose, HbA1c, adiponectin, leptin, and lipid levels) and NMR metabolomics. Based on the OGTT, women were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and T2DM. Results:Six years after GDM, 19% of subjects had T2DM and 19% IGT. After BMI adjustment, the IGT group had lower HDL, higher leptin, and higher free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and the T2DM group higher triglyceride, FFA, and C-reactive protein levels than the NGT group. IGT and T2DM groups reported lower physical activity. NMR measurements revealed that levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the valine metabolite 3-hydroxyisobyturate were higher in T2DM and IGT groups and correlated with measures of insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Conclusion:In addition to well-known clinical risk factors, BCAAs and 3-hydroxyisobyturate are potential markers to be evaluated as predictors of metabolic risk after pregnancy complicated by GDM.
Project description:TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 and glucose tolerance on free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism.We recruited 120 individuals, half homozygous for the major CC allele and half homozygous for the minor TT allele at rs7903146; each underwent a 2-h, 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid concentrations were measured on blood collected before and during the OGTT.Total FFA concentrations and percent FA species during OGTT were not different in CC and TT carriers when males and females were considered together. However, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations and percentages were greater in TT than CC females during the OGTT. TT carriers with high HOMA-IR had significantly greater fasting FFA concentrations, lower disposition index (DI) and greater AUC of glucose than high HOMA-IR CC carriers, whereas no such differences were observed in the low HOMA-IR group. We found that fasting (826±25 vs. 634±22?mol/L, P<0.0001) and OGTT plasma FFA concentrations were greater in IGT than NGT subjects, and the difference remained after adjusting for sex, age, BMI, and genotype. Finally, IGT subjects had greater MUFA concentrations and percentages than NGT subjects during OGTT.Despite similar fasting insulin and glucose, fasting plasma FFA are greater in IGT than NGT adults. Insulin resistance and sex influence plasma FFA responses amongst carriers of the minor T allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146.
Project description:Objective:Insulin secretion (IS) declines with age, which increases the risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults. IS is regulated by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Here we tested the hypotheses that incretin release is lower in older adults and that this decline is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Research Design:A total of 40 young (25 ± 3 years) and 53 older (74 ± 7 years) lean nondiabetic subjects underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Based on the OGTT, subjects were divided into three groups: young subjects with normal glucose tolerance (Y-NGT; n = 40), older subjects with normal glucose tolerance (O-NGT; n = 32), and older subjects with IGT (O-IGT; n = 21). Main Outcome Measures:Plasma insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were measured every 15 to 30 minutes. We quantitated insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and insulin secretory rate (ISR) by deconvolution of C-peptide with the calculation of β-cell glucose sensitivity. Results:Matsuda index, early phase ISR (0 to 30 minutes), and parameters of β-cell function were lower in O-IGT than in Y-NGT subjects but not in O-NGT subjects. GLP-1 concentrations were elevated in both older groups [GLP-1 area under the curve (AUC)0-120 was 2.8 ± 0.1 in Y-NGT, 3.8 ± 0.5 in O-NGT, and 3.7 ± 0.4 nmol/L∙120 minutes in O-IGT subjects; P < 0.05], whereas GIP secretion was higher in O-NGT than in Y-NGT subjects (GIP AUC0-120 was 4.7 ± 0.3 in Y-NGT, 6.0 ± 0.4 in O-NGT, and 4.8 ± 0.3 nmol/L∙120 minutes in O-IGT subjects; P < 0.05). Conclusions:Aging is associated with an exaggerated GLP-1 secretory response. However, it was not sufficient to increase insulin first-phase release in O-IGT and overcome insulin resistance.
Project description:Insulin resistance and dysregulation of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism are core defects in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals. Impaired muscle mitochondrial function (reduced ATP synthesis) also has been described in insulin-resistant T2DM and obese subjects. We examined whether reduction in plasma FFA concentration with acipimox improved ATP synthesis rate and altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Eleven NGT obese and 11 T2DM subjects received 1) OGTT, 2) euglycemic insulin clamp with muscle biopsy, and 3) (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tibialis anterior muscle before and after acipimox (250 mg every 6 h for 12 days). ATP synthesis rate and ROS generation were measured in mitochondria isolated from muscle tissue ex vivo with chemoluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. Acipimox 1) markedly reduced the fasting plasma FFA concentration and enhanced suppression of plasma FFA during oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin clamp in obese NGT and T2DM subjects and 2) enhanced insulin-mediated muscle glucose disposal and suppression of hepatic glucose production. The improvement in insulin sensitivity was closely correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA in obese NGT (r = 0.81) and T2DM (r = 0.76) subjects (both P < 0.001). Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate increased by >50% in both obese NGT and T2DM subjects and was strongly correlated with the decrease in plasma FFA and increase in insulin-mediated glucose disposal (both r > 0.70, P < 0.001). Production of ROS did not change after acipimox. Reduction in plasma FFA in obese NGT and T2DM individuals improves mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate, indicating that the mitochondrial defect in insulin-resistant individuals is, at least in part, reversible.
Project description:In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO) for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion) has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO) and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO) models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO). ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001), and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10(-5)±9.36×10(-5) min(-1)pM(-1)), IFG (5.30×10(-5)±5.18×10(-5)) and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10(-5)±1.95×10(-5), 2.38×10(-5)±2.28×10(-5) and 2.38×10(-5)±2.09×10(-5) respectively). No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%), with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically diverse subject groups. The SIMO model may therefore be of value for the quantification of glucose homeostasis from clinical OGTT data.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that any degree of abnormal glucose homeostasis detected on antepartum screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) should be associated with an increased risk of postpartum pre-diabetes or diabetes.In this prospective cohort study, 487 women underwent 1) antepartum GDM screening by a glucose challenge test (GCT) and a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 2) postpartum metabolic characterization by OGTT at 3 months after delivery. Four baseline glucose tolerance groups were defined on the basis of the antepartum GCT/OGTT: 1) GDM (n = 137); 2) gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) (n = 91); 3) abnormal GCT with normal glucose tolerance on an OGTT (abnormal GCT NGT) (n = 166); and 4) normal GCT with NGT on an OGTT (normal GCT NGT) (n = 93).The prevalence of postpartum glucose intolerance (pre-diabetes or diabetes) increased across the groups from normal GCT NGT (3.2%) to abnormal GCT NGT (10.2%) to GIGT (16.5%) to GDM (32.8%) (P(trend) < 0.0001). On logistic regression analysis, all three categories of abnormal glucose homeostasis in pregnancy independently predicted postpartum glucose intolerance: abnormal GCT NGT odds ratio (OR) 3.6 (95% CI 1.01-12.9); GIGT OR 5.7 (1.6-21.1); and GDM OR 14.3 (4.2-49.1). Furthermore, both in pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum, insulin sensitivity (IS(OGTT)) and pancreatic beta-cell function (insulinogenic index/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) progressively decreased across the groups from normal GCT NGT to abnormal GCT NGT to GIGT to GDM (all P(trend) < 0.0001).Any degree of abnormal glucose homeostasis in pregnancy independently predicts an increased risk of glucose intolerance postpartum.
Project description:Gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT), defined by a single abnormal value on antepartum 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), is a metabolically heterogeneous disorder. Indeed, the antepartum metabolic phenotype of women with a single abnormal value at 1 h during the OGTT (1-h GIGT) resembles that of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), whereas GIGT at 2 or 3 h (2/3-h GIGT) is similar to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Thus, we hypothesized that 1-h GIGT would be associated with the same adverse outcomes as GDM, i.e., increased infant birth weight and postpartum metabolic dysfunction.A total of 361 women underwent an antepartum glucose challenge test (GCT) and a 3-h OGTT, assessment of obstetrical outcome at delivery, and metabolic characterization by OGTT at 3 months postpartum. The antepartum GCT/OGTT identified five study groups: GDM (n = 97), 1-h GIGT (n = 28), 2/3-h GIGT (n = 34), abnormal GCT NGT (abnormal GCT with NGT on OGTT) (n = 128), and normal GCT NGT (normal GCT with NGT on OGTT) (n = 74).Caesarian section rate was higher in women with 1-h GIGT, but birth weight did not differ significantly between the non-GDM groups (P = 0.1978). At 3 months postpartum, glycemia (area under the glucose curve) progressively increased across the groups from normal GCT NGT to abnormal GCT NGT to 2/3-h GIGT to 1-h GIGT to GDM (P < 0.0001), while both insulin sensitivity (IS(OGTT)) and beta-cell function (insulinogenic index/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) progressively decreased (P = 0.002 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The strongest independent negative predictors of insulinogenic index/HOMA-IR were GDM (t = -4.1, P < 0.0001) and 1-h GIGT (t = -3.8, P = 0.0002).Like GDM, 1-h GIGT is associated with postpartum glycemia, insulin resistance, and beta-cell dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Left ventricle mass (LVM) can be influenced by various conditions including hypertension and/or inherent cardiomyopathies. Dysglycemia is also thought to exert an anabolic effect on heart tissue by hyperinsulinemia and thereby promoting increased LVM. The primary aim of this study was to assess the influence of dysglycemia on LVM evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients admitted with a first myocardial infarction (MI) without hypertension. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of dysglycemia on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality during long-term follow-up. METHODS:Patients admitted with a first MI without known history of hypertension were included. All patients without previously known type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) had a standardized 2-hour OGTT performed and were categorized as: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and newly detected T2DM (new T2DM). LVM was measured by echocardiography using Devereaux formula and indexed by body surface area. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of confounders (dysglycemia by OGTT, known T2DM, age, sex and type of MI) on LVM. Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the impact of dysglycemia on all-cause mortality and a composite endpoint of MACE (all-cause mortality, MI, revascularisation due to stable angina, coronary artery bypass graft, ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke). RESULTS:Two-hundred-and-five patients were included and followed up to 14 years. In multivariate regression analysis, LVM was only significantly increased in patients categorized as new T2DM (β = 25.3; 95% CI [7.5-43.0]) and known T2DM (β = 37.3; 95% CI [10.0-64.5]) compared to patients with NGT. Patients with new T2DM showed higher rates of MACE and all-cause mortality compared to patients with IFG/IGT and NGT; however no significantly increased hazard ratio was detected. CONCLUSIONS:Dysglycemia is associated with increasing LVM in normotensive patients with a first acute myocardial infarction and the strongest association was observed in patients with new T2DM and patients with known T2DM. Dysglycemia in normotensive patients with a first MI is not an independent predictor of neither MACE nor all-cause mortality during long-term follow-up compared to normotensive patients without dysglycemia.
Project description:Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and mild glucose intolerance in pregnancy identify women at increased risk of future type 2 diabetes. In this context, we queried whether metabolic changes that occur in the 1st year postpartum vary in relation to gestational glucose tolerance status.Three-hundred-and-ninety-two women underwent glucose challenge test (GCT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnancy followed by repeat OGTT at both 3 months' postpartum and 12 months' postpartum. The antepartum testing defined four gestational glucose tolerance groups: GDM (n = 107); gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) (n = 75); abnormal GCT with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) on OGTT (abnormal GCT NGT) (n = 137); and normal GCT with NGT on OGTT (normal GCT NGT) (n = 73).The prevalence of dysglycemia progressively increased across the groups from normal GCT NGT to abnormal GCT NGT to GIGT to GDM at both 3 months' postpartum (2.7% to 10.2% to 18.7% to 34.6%, P < 0.0001) and 12 months' postpartum (2.7% to 11.7% to 17.3% to 32.7%, P < 0.0001). Between 3 and 12 months' postpartum, the groups did not differ with respect to changes in waist circumference, weight, or insulin sensitivity. Importantly, however, they exhibited markedly different changes in beta-cell function (Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 [ISSI-2]) (P = 0.0036), with ISSI-2 declining in both the GDM and GIGT groups. Furthermore, on multiple linear regression analysis, both GDM (t = -3.06, P = 0.0024) and GIGT (t = -2.18, P = 0.03) emerged as independent negative predictors of the change in ISSI-2 between 3 and 12 months' postpartum.Women with GDM and GIGT exhibit declining beta-cell function in the 1st year postpartum that likely contributes to their future diabetic risk.
Project description:Homeostatic control of blood glucose is regulated by a complex feedback loop between glucose and insulin, of which failure leads to diabetes mellitus. However, physiological and pathological nature of the feedback loop is not fully understood. We made a mathematical model of the feedback loop between glucose and insulin using time course of blood glucose and insulin during consecutive hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in 113 subjects with variety of glucose tolerance including normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We analyzed the correlation of the parameters in the model with the progression of glucose intolerance and the conserved relationship between parameters. The model parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion significantly declined from NGT to IGT, and from IGT to T2DM, respectively, consistent with previous clinical observations. Importantly, insulin clearance, an insulin degradation rate, significantly declined from NGT, IGT to T2DM along the progression of glucose intolerance in the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was positively correlated with a product of insulin sensitivity and secretion assessed by the clamp analysis or determined with the mathematical model. Insulin clearance was correlated negatively with postprandial glucose at 2h after oral glucose tolerance test. We also inferred a square-law between the rate constant of insulin clearance and a product of rate constants of insulin sensitivity and secretion in the model, which is also conserved among NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. Insulin clearance shows a conserved relationship with the capacity of glucose disposal among the NGT, IGT and T2DM subjects. The decrease of insulin clearance predicts the progression of glucose intolerance.
Project description:We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, RaOGTT, and Rd (all P < 0.0001) in all groups with a tendency for a greater (~20%) peak RaOGTT value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P < 0.05), while unchanged in subjects with IGT and T2D. In conclusion, while a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise increased the postprandial glucose response in NGT subjects, glucose tolerance following exercise was preserved in the two hyperglycemic groups. Thus, postprandial plasma glucose responses immediately following exercise are dependent on the underlying degree of glycemic control.