TP53INP1 inhibits hypoxia-induced vasculogenic mimicry formation via the ROS/snail signalling axis in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Tumour protein p53-inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) is a tumour suppressor associated with malignant tumour metastasis. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a new tumour vascular supply pattern that significantly influences tumour metastasis and contributes to a poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanism of the relationship between TP53INP1 and breast cancer VM formation is unknown. Here, we explored the underlying mechanism by which TP53INP1 regulates VM formation in vitro and in vivo. High TP53INP1 expression was not only negatively correlated with a poor prognosis but also had a negative relationship with VE-cadherin, HIF-1? and Snail expression. TP53INP1 overexpression inhibited breast cancer invasion, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and VM formation; conversely, TP53INP1 down-regulation promoted these processes in vitro by functional experiments and Western blot analysis. We established a hypoxia model induced by CoCl2 and assessed the effects of TP53INP1 on hypoxia-induced EMT and VM formation. In addition, we confirmed that a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signalling pathway participated in TP53INP1-mediated VM formation. Together, our results show that TP53INP1 inhibits hypoxia-induced EMT and VM formation via the ROS/GSK-3?/Snail pathway in breast cancer, which offers new insights into breast cancer clinical therapy.
Project description:Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a nonangiogenesis-dependent pathway that promotes tumor growth and disease progression. Nodal signaling has several vital roles in both embryo development and cancer progression. However, the effects of Nodal signaling on VM formation in breast cancer and its underlying mechanisms are ill-defined. We analyzed the relationship between Nodal signaling and VM formation in one hundred human breast cancer cases and the results showed that the expression of Nodal was significantly correlated with VM formation, tumor metastasis, differentiation grade, TNM stage and poor prognosis. Furthermore, up-regulation of Nodal expression promoted VM formation of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of Nodal expression restrained VM formation. In addition, Nodal induced EMT and up-regulated the expression of Slug, Snail and c-Myc. We found that blocking the Smad2/3 pathway by administering SB431542 inhibited VM formation in breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. Taken together, Nodal signaling through the Smad2/3 pathway up-regulated Slug, Snail and c-Myc to induce EMT, thereby promoting VM formation. Our study suggests that the Nodal signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic target to inhibit VM formation and improve prognosis in breast cancer patients.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests molecular and phenotypic association between treatment resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer. Compared with the well-defined molecular events of miR-200a in EMT, the role of miR-200a in therapy resistance remains to be elucidated.Breast cancer cells transfected with mimic or inhibitor for miR-200a was assayed for chemoresistance in vitro. miR-200a expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in breast cancer patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy. Luciferase assays, cell proliferation assay were performed to identify the targets of miR-200a and the mechanism by which it promotes treatment resistance. Survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognosis value of miR-200a.In this study, our results showed ectopic expression of miR-200a promotes chemoresistance in breast cancer cell lines to several chemotherapeutic agents, whereas inhibition of miR-200a enhances gemcitabine chemosensitivity in resistance cancer cells. We found overexpression of miR-200a was closely associated with poor response to preoperative chemotherapy and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, knockdown of YAP1 and TP53INP1 phenocopied the effects of miR-200a overexpression, and confirmed that TP53INP1 is a novel target of miR-200a. Remarkably, TP53INP1 expression is inversely correlated with miR-200a expression in Breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, these clinical and experimental results demonstrate that miR-200a is a determinant of chemoresistance of breast cancer.Upregulated miR-200a enhances treatment resistance via antagonizing TP53INP1 and YAP1 in breast cancer.
Project description:Hypoxia is an element of the tumour microenvironment that impacts upon numerous cellular factors linked to clinical aggressiveness in cancer. One such factor, Snail, a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been implicated in key tumour biological processes such as invasion and metastasis. In this study we set out to investigate regulation of EMT in hypoxia, and the importance of Snail in cell migration and clinical outcome in breast cancer.Four breast cancer cell lines were exposed to 0.1% oxygen and expression of EMT markers was monitored. The migratory ability was analysed following Snail overexpression and silencing. Snail expression was assessed in 500 tumour samples from premenopausal breast cancer patients, randomised to either 2 years of tamoxifen or no adjuvant treatment.Exposure to 0.1% oxygen resulted in elevated levels of Snail protein, along with changes in vimentin and E-cadherin expression, and in addition increased migration of MDA-MB-468 cells. Overexpression of Snail increased the motility of MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas silencing of the protein resulted in decreased migratory propensity of MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, nuclear Snail expression was associated with tumours of higher grade and proliferation rate, but not with disease recurrence. Interestingly, Snail negativity was associated with impaired tamoxifen response (P=0.048).Our results demonstrate that hypoxia induces Snail expression but generally not a migratory phenotype, suggesting that hypoxic cells are only partially pushed towards EMT. Furthermore, our study supports the link between Snail and clinically relevant features and treatment response.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with decreased adhesion and acquisition of metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is mediated, in part, by two transcription repressors, Snail and Slug, that are known to be targets of the Notch signaling pathway, and JAGGED1-induced Notch activation increases EMT. However, the events that lead to increased Notch activity during EMT of breast cancer cells are unknown.The accumulation of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) under hypoxia was detected by western blot analysis, and their effects on Notch signaling were measured by an in vitro Notch reporter assay. The expression of Notch target genes under hypoxia was tested by real-time PCR. The knockdown of HIF-1alpha was mediated by retroviral delivery of shRNA. The expression of Slug and Snail under hypoxia was measured by real-time PCR. Breast cancer cell migration and invasion under hypoxia were tested with cell migration and invasion kits.Hypoxia increased the expression of Notch target genes such as HES1 and HEY1 in breast cancer cells, as was expression of Notch receptors and ligands. The mechanism is likely to involve the accumulation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in these cells by hypoxia, which synergised with the Notch co-activator MAML1 in potentiating Notch activity. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha was found to bind to HES1 promoter under hypoxia. Knockdown of HIF-1alpha with shRNA inhibited both HES1 and HEY1 expression under hypoxia. Hypoxia increased the expression of Slug and Snail, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin, hallmarks of EMT. Notch pathway inhibition abrogated the hypoxia-mediated increase in Slug and Snail expression, as well as decreased breast cancer cell migration and invasion.Hypoxia-mediated Notch signaling may have an important role in the initiation of EMT and subsequent potential for breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a blood supply modality that occurs independently of endothelial cell angiogenesis. Hypoxia and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induce VM formation by remodeling the extracellular matrix. Our previous study demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2?) promotes the progress of EMT in pancreatic cancer; however, whether HIF-2? promotes VM formation in pancreatic cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated HIF-2? expression and VM by immunohistochemistry in 70 pancreatic cancer patients as well as the role of Twist1and Twist2 in HIF-2?-induced VM in vitro and in vivo. We found that the overexpression of HIF-2? and VM were correlated with poor tumor differentiation, late clinical stage and lymph node metastasis, and a poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the upregulation of HIF-2? in SW1990 cells induced VM formation, whereas the opposite results were found after silencing HIF-2? in AsPC-1 cells. A mechanistic study indicated that HIF-2? might regulate the binding of twist1 to vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) to promote VM formation in pancreatic cancer cells, and that the P1 (-421bp) and P4 (-2110bp) regions of the Twist1 binding sequences are positive regulatory elements for VE-cadherin. In addition, we confirmed that the overexpression of HIF-2? increased Twist1 expression and promoted tumor growth and VM formation in pancreatic cancer xenografts in nude mice. These findings indicated that HIF-2? might play a critical role in VM and that HIF-2? and the pathway of HIF-2? inducing VM formation are potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is over-expressed and secreted in various cancer cells in particular in response to hypoxia. Recent studies have shown that, under hypoxic conditions, glioblastoma (GBM) cells display the ability to drive blood-perfused vasculogenic mimicry (VM). The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of MIF in the regulation of hypoxia-induced VM in GBM cells. By analyzing clinical specimens, we observed the co-localization of MIF, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and VM in hypoxic regions of gliomas. In vitro, the exposure of GBM cells (U87 and U251) to hypoxia increased the expression of MIF and CXCR4 and induced VMs. Other data demonstrated that ectogenic rhMIF promoted VMs in GBM cells and knock-down endogenous MIF attenuated hypoxia-induced VMs. In addition, we demonstrated that MIF augmented VM formation ability by enhancing the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the CXCR4-AKT pathway. Moreover, in vivo, the subcutaneous injection of rhMIF resulted in the progression of EMT and VMs formation. On the contrary, CXCR4-AKT pathway inhibitors blocked the effects of rhMIF on EMT and VMs formation. Collectively, our results support a critical role for the MIF-CXCR4 signaling axis in regulating hypoxia-induced VMs formation, indicating the potential usefulness of MIF as a notable target for the anti-vascularization treatment of GBM.
Project description:Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) refers to the unique capability of aggressive tumour cells to mimic the pattern of embryonic vasculogenic networks. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulator slug have been implicated in the tumour invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between slug and VM formation is not clear. In the study, we demonstrated that slug expression was associated with EMT and cancer stem cell (CSCs) phenotype in HCC patients. Importantly, slug showed statistically correlation with VM formation. We consistently demonstrated that an overexpression of slug in HCC cells significantly increased CSCs subpopulation that was obvious by the increased clone forming efficiency in soft agar and by flowcytometry analysis. Meantime, the VM formation and VM mediator overexpression were also induced by slug induction. Finally, slug overexpression lead to the maintenance of CSCs phenotype and VM formation was demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that slug induced the increase and maintenance of CSCs subpopulation and contributed to VM formation eventually. The related molecular pathways may be used as novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of HCC angiogenesis and metastasis.
Project description:Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) has shown to promote metastasis and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Also, we have previously reported that vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is associated with invasion, metastasis and poor survival in HCC patients. In the present study, we investigated molecular function of LOXL2 in HCC and VM. We used the immunohistochemical and CD31/periodic acid-Schiff double staining to detect the relationship between LOXL2 and VM formation. We performed the gain and loss of function studies and analysed the migratory, invasion and tube formation in HCC cell lines. We analysed the function of LOXL2 in VM formation and HCC metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. We have showed that LOXL2 was overexpression in HCC and was positively correlated with tumour grade, metastasis, VM formation and poor survival in 201 HCC patients. Secondly, our studies have showed that LOXL2 overexpression in HCC cells significantly promoted migration, invasion and tube formation. Finally, we found that LOXL2 may increase SNAIL expression, thereby enabling VM. Our study indicated that LOXL2 may promote VM formation and tumour metastasis by collaborating with SNAIL in HCC. What's more, the overexpression of LOXL2 indicated a poor prognosis in HCC patients.
Project description:Tumour vasculature supports the growth and progression of solid cancers with both angiogenesis (endothelial cell proliferation) and vasculogenic mimicry (VM, the formation of vascular structures by cancer cells themselves) predictors of poor patient outcomes. Increased circulating platelet counts also predict poor outcome for cancer patients but the influence of platelets on tumour vasculature is incompletely understood. Herein, we show with in vitro assays that platelets did not influence angiogenesis but did actively inhibit VM formation by cancer cell lines. Both platelet sized beads and the releasates from platelets were partially effective at inhibiting VM formation suggesting that direct contact maximises the effect. Platelets also promoted cancer cell invasion in vitro. B16F10 melanomas in Bcl-xPlt20/Plt20 thrombocytopenic mice showed a higher content of VM than their wildtype counterparts while angiogenesis did not differ. In a xenograft mouse model of breast cancer with low-dose aspirin to inactivate the platelets, the burden of MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cells was reduced and the gene expression profile of the cancer cells was altered; but no effect on tumour vasculature was observed. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the action of platelets on VM formation and their involvement in cancer progression.
Project description:The tumour microenvironment can be a potent carcinogen, not only by facilitating cancer progression and activating dormant cancer cells, but also by stimulating tumour formation. We have previously investigated stromelysin-1/matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), a stromal enzyme upregulated in many breast tumours, and found that MMP-3 can cause epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant transformation in cultured cells, and genomically unstable mammary carcinomas in transgenic mice. Here we explain the molecular pathways by which MMP-3 exerts these effects: exposure of mouse mammary epithelial cells to MMP-3 induces the expression of an alternatively spliced form of Rac1, which causes an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS stimulate the expression of the transcription factor Snail and EMT, and cause oxidative damage to DNA and genomic instability. These findings identify a previously undescribed pathway in which a component of the breast tumour microenvironment alters cellular structure in culture and tissue structure in vivo, leading to malignant transformation.