Genome-wide identification and comprehensive analysis of the NAC transcription factor family in Sesamum indicum.
ABSTRACT: The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) family constitutes a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, involved in many aspects of physiological processes and a variety of abiotic stresses. There is little information concerning the NAC family in Sesamum indicum. In this study, 87 sesame NAC genes were identified and phylogenetically clustered into 12 groups with Arabidopsis NAC genes. A total of 83 SiNAC genes were distributed non-randomly on the 16 linkage groups in sesame. Four and 49 SiNACs were found to be tandemly and segmentally duplicated, respectively. Expression profiles of SiNAC genes in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower, seed, and capsule) and in response to drought and waterlogging stresses by using RNA-seq data demonstrated that 23 genes were highly expressed in all tissues, 18 and 31 SiNACs respond strongly to drought and waterlogging stresses, respectively. In addition, the expression of 30 SiNAC genes distributed in different subgroups was analyzed with quantitative real-time RT-PCR under cold, osmotic, and salt stresses, revealed that their expression patterns vary in response to abiotic stresses. SiNAC genes displayed diverse expression patterns among the different tissues and stress treatments, suggested that their contribution to plant growth and development in sesame and multiple stress resistance in sesame. In this study, NAC transcription factors were analyzed in sesame and some specific candidate SiNAC genes in response to abiotic stress for functional study were identified. This study provides valuable information to deepen our understanding of the abiotic stress responses by NAC transcription factors in sesame.
Project description:Sesame is a source of a healthy vegetable oil, attracting a growing interest worldwide. Abiotic stresses have devastating effects on sesame yield; hence, studies have been performed to understand sesame molecular responses to abiotic stresses, but the core abiotic stress-responsive genes (CARG) that the plant reuses in response to an array of environmental stresses are unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of 72 RNA-Seq datasets from drought, waterlogging, salt and osmotic stresses and identified 543 genes constantly and differentially expressed in response to all stresses, representing the sesame CARG. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of the CARG revealed three functional modules controlled by key transcription factors. Except for salt stress, the modules were positively correlated with the abiotic stresses. Network topology of the modules showed several hub genes predicted to play prominent functions. As proof of concept, we generated over-expressing Arabidopsis lines with hub and non-hub genes. Transgenic plants performed better under drought, waterlogging, and osmotic stresses than the wild-type plants but did not tolerate the salt treatment. As expected, the hub gene was significantly more potent than the non-hub gene. Overall, we discovered several novel candidate genes, which will fuel investigations on plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world's most important oil crops. However, it is susceptible to abiotic stresses in general, and to waterlogging and drought stresses in particular. The molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in sesame have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY domain transcription factors play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to stresses. However, little is known about the number, location, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes in sesame. RESULTS:We performed a comprehensive study of the WRKY gene family in sesame and identified 71 SiWRKYs. In total, 65 of these genes were mapped to 15 linkage groups within the sesame genome. A phylogenetic analysis was performed using a related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to investigate the evolution of the sesame WRKY genes. Tissue expression profiles of the WRKY genes demonstrated that six SiWRKY genes were highly expressed in all organs, suggesting that these genes may be important for plant growth and organ development in sesame. Analysis of the SiWRKY gene expression patterns revealed that 33 and 26 SiWRKYs respond strongly to waterlogging and drought stresses, respectively. Changes in the expression of 12 SiWRKY genes were observed at different times after the waterlogging and drought treatments had begun, demonstrating that sesame gene expression patterns vary in response to abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we analyzed the WRKY family of transcription factors encoded by the sesame genome. Insight was gained into the classification, evolution, and function of the SiWRKY genes, revealing their putative roles in a variety of tissues. Responses to abiotic stresses in different sesame cultivars were also investigated. The results of our study provide a better understanding of the structures and functions of sesame WRKY genes and suggest that manipulating these WRKYs could enhance resistance to waterlogging and drought.
Project description:Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop. However, multiple abiotic stresses severely affect sesame growth and production. Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), such as raffinose and stachyose, play an important role in desiccation tolerance of plants and developing seeds. In the present study, three types of key enzymes, galactinol synthase (GolS), raffinose synthase (RafS) and stachyose synthase (StaS), responsible for the biosynthesis of RFOs were identified at the genome-wide scale in sesame. A total of 7 SiGolS and 15 SiRS genes were identified in the sesame genome. Transcriptome analyses showed that SiGolS and SiRS genes exhibited distinct expression profiles in different tissues and seed developmental stages. Comparative expression analyses under various abiotic stresses indicated that most of SiGolS and SiRS genes were significantly regulated by drought, osmotic, salt, and waterlogging stresses, but slightly affected by cold stress. The up-regulation of several SiGolS and SiRS genes by multiple abiotic stresses suggested their active implication in sesame abiotic stress responses. Taken together, these results shed light on the RFOs-mediated abiotic stress resistance in sesame and provide a useful framework for improving abiotic stress resistance of sesame through genetic engineering.
Project description:Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that impair sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) productivity mainly when it occurs at flowering stage. However up to now, very few studies have attempted to investigate the molecular responses of sesame to drought stress. In this experiment, two genotypes having contrasting responses to drought (tolerant and sensitive) were submitted to progressive drought followed by recovering stage at flowering stage. RNAs were isolated from roots of plants before drought stress, at 3-time points during progressive drought, after rewatering, and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. These RNA-Seq resources (BioSample IDs: SAMN06130606 and SAMN06130607) provided an opportunity to elucidate the molecular responses of sesame to drought and find out some candidate genes for drought tolerance improvement.
Project description:Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) gene family is one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and members of this family play important roles in multiple biological processes such as light signaling, seed maturation, flower development as well as abiotic and biotic stress responses. Nonetheless, genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the bZIP family is lacking in the important oil crop sesame. In the present study, 63 bZIP genes distributed on 14 linkage groups were identified in sesame, and denominated as SibZIP01-SibZIP63. Besides, all members of SibZIP family were divided into nine groups based on the phylogenetic relationship of Arabidopsis bZIPs, which was further supported by the analysis of their conserved motifs and gene structures. Promoter analysis showed that all SibZIP genes harbor cis-elements related to stress responsiveness in their promoter regions. Expression analyses of SibZIP genes based on transcriptome data showed that these genes have different expression patterns in different tissues. Additionally, we showed that a majority of SibZIPs (85.71%) exhibited significant transcriptional changes in responses to abiotic stresses, including drought, waterlogging, osmotic, salt, and cold, suggesting that SibZIPs may play a cardinal role in the regulation of stress responses in sesame. Together, these results provide new insights into stress-responsive SibZIP genes and pave the way for future studies of SibZIPs-mediated abiotic stress response in sesame.
Project description:An increasing number of candidate genes related to abiotic stress tolerance are being discovered and proposed to improve the existing cultivars of the high oil-bearing crop sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). However, the in planta functional validation of these genes is remarkably lacking. In this study, we cloned a novel sesame R2-R3 MYB gene SiMYB75 which is strongly induced by drought, sodium chloride (NaCl), abscisic acid (ABA) and mannitol. SiMYB75 is expressed in various sesame tissues, especially in root and its protein is predicted to be located in the nucleus. Ectopic over-expression of SiMYB75 in Arabidopsis notably promoted root growth and improved plant tolerance to drought, NaCl and mannitol treatments. Furthermore, SiMYB75 over-expressing lines accumulated higher content of ABA than wild-type plants under stresses and also increased sensitivity to ABA. Physiological analyses revealed that SiMYB75 confers abiotic stress tolerance by promoting stomatal closure to reduce water loss; inducing a strong reactive oxygen species scavenging activity to alleviate cell damage and apoptosis; and also, up-regulating the expression levels of various stress-marker genes in the ABA-dependent pathways. Our data suggested that SiMYB75 positively modulates drought, salt and osmotic stresses responses through ABA-mediated pathways. Thus, SiMYB75 could be a promising candidate gene for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crop species including sesame.
Project description:The present study was designed to investigate the duration-dependent changes in the biochemical attributes of sesame in response to waterlogging stress. Sesame plants (Sesamum indicum L. cv. BARI Til-4) were subjected to waterlogging for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days during the vegetative stage and data were measured following waterlogging treatment. The present study proves that waterlogging causes severe damage to different attributes of the sesame plant. The plants showed an increasing trend in lipid peroxidation as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methylglyoxal contents that corresponded to increased stress duration. A prolonged period of waterlogging decreased leaf relative water content and proline content. Photosynthetic pigments, like chlorophyll (chl) a, b, and chl (a+b) and carotenoid contents, also decreased over time in stressed plants. Glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents increased under waterlogging, while the GSH/GSSG ratio and ascorbate content decreased, indicating the disruption of redox balance in the cell. Ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity increased under waterlogging, while dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase activity mostly decreased. Waterlogging modulated the glyoxalase system mostly by enhancing glyoxalase II activity, with a slight increase in glyoxalase I activity. The present study also demonstrates the induction of oxidative stress via waterlogging in sesame plants and that stress levels increase with increased waterlogging duration.
Project description:Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive picture of the sesame gene expression pattern in response to waterlogging stress. These results will help dissect the mechanism of the sesame response to waterlogging and identify candidate genes to improve its tolerance.
Project description:Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+) efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.
Project description:Water stress (drought and waterlogging) is severe abiotic stress to plant growth and development. Melatonin, a bioactive plant hormone, has been widely tested in drought situations in diverse plant species, while few studies on the role of melatonin in waterlogging stress conditions have been published. In the current review, we analyze the biostimulatory functions of melatonin on plants under both drought and waterlogging stresses. Melatonin controls the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and positively changes the molecular defense to improve plant tolerance against water stress. Moreover, the crosstalk of melatonin and other phytohormones is a key element of plant survival under drought stress, while this relationship needs further investigation under waterlogging stress. In this review, we draw the complete story of water stress on both sides-drought and waterlogging-through discussing the previous critical studies under both conditions. Moreover, we suggest several research directions, especially for waterlogging, which remains a big and vague piece of the melatonin and water stress puzzle.