Phenolic Compounds from Belamcanda chinensis Seeds.
ABSTRACT: Two new sucrose derivatives, namely, belamcanosides A (1) and B (2), together with five other known compounds (3-7), were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic data. Especially, the absolute configurations of fructose and glucose residues in 1 and 2 were assigned by acid hydrolysis, followed by derivatization and gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Among the known compounds, (-)-hopeaphenol (3), (+)-syringaresinol (4), and quercetin (5), were isolated from B. chinensis for the first time. In addition, biological evaluation of 1 and 2 against cholesterol synthesis and metabolism at the gene level was carried out. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 could regulate the expression of cholesterol synthesis and metabolism-associated genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), squalene epoxidase (SQLE), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and sortilin (SORT1) genes in HepG2 cells.
Project description:Noncoding gene variants at the SORT1 locus are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, as well as with coronary artery disease. SORT1 encodes a protein called sortilin, and hepatic sortilin modulates LDL metabolism by targeting apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to the lysosome. Sortilin is also expressed in macrophages, but its role in macrophage uptake of LDL and in atherosclerosis independent of plasma LDL-C levels is unknown.To determine the effect of macrophage sortilin expression on LDL uptake, foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis.We crossed Sort1(-/-) mice onto a humanized Apobec1(-/-); hAPOB transgenic background and determined that Sort1 deficiency on this background had no effect on plasma LDL-C levels but dramatically reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta and aortic root. To test whether this effect was a result of macrophage sortilin deficiency, we transplanted Sort1(-/-);LDLR(-/-) or Sort1(+/+);LDLR(-/-) bone marrow into Ldlr(-/-) mice and observed a similar reduction in atherosclerosis in mice lacking hematopoetic sortilin without an effect on plasma LDL-C levels. In an effort to determine the mechanism by which hematopoetic sortilin deficiency reduced atherosclerosis, we found no effect of sortilin deficiency on macrophage recruitment or lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release in vivo. In contrast, sortilin-deficient macrophages had significantly reduced uptake of native LDL ex vivo and reduced foam cell formation in vivo, whereas sortilin overexpression in macrophages resulted in increased LDL uptake and foam cell formation.Macrophage sortilin deficiency protects against atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage uptake of LDL. Sortilin-mediated uptake of native LDL into macrophages may be an important mechanism of foam cell formation and contributor to atherosclerosis development.
Project description:The sorting receptor Sortilin functions in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional lipid uptake, storage, and metabolism contribute to several major human diseases including atherosclerosis and obesity. Sortilin associates with cardiovascular disease; however, the role of Sortilin in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism remains unclear. Here we show that in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) atherosclerosis model, Sortilin deficiency (Sort1-/-) in female mice suppresses Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 (Npc1l1) mRNA levels, reduces body and white adipose tissue weight, and improves brown adipose tissue function partially via transcriptional downregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 and Liver X receptor. Female Ldlr-/-Sort1-/- mice on a high-fat/cholesterol diet had elevated plasma Fibroblast growth factor 21 and Adiponectin, an adipokine that when reduced is associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease-related factors. Additionally, Sort1 deficiency suppressed cholesterol absorption in both female mice ex vivo intestinal tissue and human colon Caco-2 cells in a similar manner to treatment with the NPC1L1 inhibitor ezetimibe. Together our findings support a novel role of Sortilin in energy regulation and lipid homeostasis in female mice, which may be a potential therapeutic target for obesity and cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Aberrant metabolism of cancer cells is well appreciated, but the identification of cancer subsets with specific metabolic vulnerabilities remains challenging. We conducted a chemical biology screen and identified a subset of neuroendocrine tumors displaying a striking pattern of sensitivity to inhibition of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway enzyme squalene epoxidase (SQLE). Using a variety of orthogonal approaches, we demonstrate that sensitivity to SQLE inhibition results not from cholesterol biosynthesis pathway inhibition, but rather surprisingly from the specific and toxic accumulation of the SQLE substrate, squalene. These findings highlight SQLE as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of neuroendocrine tumors, particularly small cell lung cancers.
Project description:Recent GWAS have identified SNPs at a human chromosom1 locus associated with coronary artery disease risk and LDL cholesterol levels. The SNPs are also associated with altered expression of hepatic sortilin-1 (SORT1), which encodes a protein thought to be involved in apoB trafficking and degradation. Here, we investigated the regulation of Sort1 expression in mouse models of obesity. Sort1 expression was markedly repressed in both genetic (ob/ob) and high-fat diet models of obesity; restoration of hepatic sortilin-1 levels resulted in reduced triglyceride and apoB secretion. Mouse models of obesity also exhibit increased hepatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ER stress, and we found that administration of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin to ob/ob mice reduced ER stress and increased hepatic sortilin-1 levels. Conversely, genetically increased hepatic mTORC1 activity was associated with repressed Sort1 and increased apoB secretion. Treating WT mice with the ER stressor tunicamycin led to marked repression of hepatic sortilin-1 expression, while administration of the chemical chaperone PBA to ob/ob mice led to amelioration of ER stress, increased sortilin-1 expression, and reduced apoB and triglyceride secretion. Moreover, the ER stress target Atf3 acted at the SORT1 promoter region as a transcriptional repressor, whereas knockdown of Atf3 mRNA in ob/ob mice led to increased hepatic sortilin-1 levels and decreased apoB and triglyceride secretion. Thus, in mouse models of obesity, induction of mTORC1 and ER stress led to repression of hepatic Sort1 and increased VLDL secretion via Atf3. This pathway may contribute to dyslipidemia in metabolic disease.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified a link between genetic variation at the human chromosomal locus 1p13.3 and coronary artery disease. The gene encoding sortilin (SORT1) has been implicated as the causative gene within the locus, as sortilin regulates hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. Here we demonstrated that sortilin also directly affects atherogenesis, independent of its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, deletion of Sort1 did not alter plasma cholesterol levels, but reduced the development of both early and late atherosclerotic lesions. We determined that sortilin is a high-affinity receptor for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-?. Moreover, macrophages and Th1 cells (both of which mediate atherosclerotic plaque formation) lacking sortilin had reduced secretion of IL-6 and IFN-?, but not of other measured cytokines. Transfer of sortilin-deficient BM into irradiated atherosclerotic mice reduced atherosclerosis and systemic markers of inflammation. Together, these data demonstrate that sortilin influences cytokine secretion and that targeting sortilin in immune cells attenuates inflammation and reduces atherosclerosis.
Project description:RATIONALE:Genome-wide association studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms near the SORT1 locus strongly associated with decreased plasma LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels and protection from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction. The minor allele of the causal SORT1 single-nucleotide polymorphism locus creates a putative C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?)-binding site in the SORT1 promoter, thereby increasing in homozygotes sortilin expression by 12-fold in liver, which is rich in this transcription factor. Our previous studies in mice have showed reductions in plasma LDL-C and its principal protein component, apoB (apolipoprotein B) with increased SORT1 expression, and in vitro studies suggested that sortilin promoted the presecretory lysosomal degradation of apoB associated with the LDL precursor, VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein). OBJECTIVE:To determine directly that SORT1 overexpression results in apoB degradation and to identify the mechanisms by which this reduces apoB and VLDL secretion by the liver, thereby contributing to understanding the clinical phenotype of lower LDL-C levels. METHODS AND RESULTS:Pulse-chase studies directly established that SORT1 overexpression results in apoB degradation. As noted above, previous work implicated a role for lysosomes in this degradation. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we now demonstrate that the sortilin-mediated route of apoB to lysosomes is unconventional and intersects with autophagy. Increased expression of sortilin diverts more apoB away from secretion, with both proteins trafficking to the endosomal compartment in vesicles that fuse with autophagosomes to form amphisomes. The amphisomes then merge with lysosomes. Furthermore, we show that sortilin itself is a regulator of autophagy and that its activity is scaled to the level of apoB synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:These results strongly suggest that an unconventional lysosomal targeting process dependent on autophagy degrades apoB that was diverted from the secretory pathway by sortilin and provides a mechanism contributing to the reduced LDL-C found in individuals with SORT1 overexpression.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant tumor and a major cause of mortality and morbidity in southern China. However, the mechanism is still elusive. Here, we focused on studying the role of squalene epoxidase (SQLE), a key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, in the progression of NPC. Clinical study revealed that SQLE expression was significantly upregulated in NPC tissues compared to normal tissues from mRNA level and patients with high expression of SQLE showed a poor prognosis. In vitro experiments showed that SQLE overexpression led to a significant proliferation of cells whereas SQLE knockdown showed an opposite result. In vivo studies also showed that SQLE promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Further study revealed that SQLE promoted NPC proliferation by cholesteryl ester accumulation instead of cholesterol. Mechanism studies indicated that cholesteryl ester promoted NPC cell proliferation by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibition of this pathway in SQLE-overexpressed or cholesteryl ester-treated cells resulted in a significant reduction of NPC cell proliferation. These results indicate that the oncogenic effect of SQLE in NPC mainly resulted from cholesteryl ester accumulation and PI3K/AKT is a promising target for NPC with SQLE overexpression.
Project description:The liver plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism. Impaired hepatic cholesterol homeostasis causes intracellular free cholesterol accumulation and hepatocyte injury. Sortilin 1 (SORT1) is a lysosomal trafficking receptor that was identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as a novel regulator of cholesterol metabolism in humans. Here we report that SORT1 deficiency protected against cholesterol accumulation-induced liver injury and inflammation in mice. Using an LC-MS/MS-based proteomics approach, we identified liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as a novel SORT1-interacting protein. Mechanistic studies further showed that SORT1 may regulate CES1 lysosomal targeting and degradation and that SORT1 deficiency resulted in higher liver CES1 protein abundance. Previous studies have established an important role of hepatic CES1 in promoting intracellular cholesterol mobilization, cholesterol efflux, and bile acid synthesis. Consistently, high cholesterol atherogenic diet-challenged Sort1 knock-out mice showed less hepatic free cholesterol accumulation, increased bile acid synthesis, decreased biliary cholesterol secretion, and the absence of gallstone formation. SORT1 deficiency did not alter hepatic ceramide and fatty acid metabolism in high cholesterol atherogenic diet-fed mice. Finally, knockdown of liver CES1 in mice markedly increased the susceptibility to high cholesterol diet-induced liver injury and abolished the protective effect against cholesterol lipotoxicity in Sort1 knock-out mice. In summary, this study identified a novel SORT1-CES1 axis that regulates cholesterol-induced liver injury, which provides novel insights that improve our current understanding of the molecular links between SORT1 and cholesterol metabolism. This study further suggests that therapeutic inhibition of SORT1 may be beneficial in improving hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in metabolic and inflammatory liver diseases.
Project description:Squalene epoxidase (SQLE), also known as squalene monooxygenase, catalyzes the stereospecific conversion of squalene to 2,3(S)-oxidosqualene, a key step in cholesterol biosynthesis. SQLE inhibition is targeted for the treatment of hypercholesteremia, cancer, and fungal infections. However, lack of structure-function understanding has hindered further progression of its inhibitors. We have determined the first three-dimensional high-resolution crystal structures of human SQLE catalytic domain with small molecule inhibitors (2.3?Å and 2.5?Å). Comparison with its unliganded state (3.0?Å) reveals conformational rearrangements upon inhibitor binding, thus allowing deeper interpretation of known structure-activity relationships. We use the human SQLE structure to further understand the specificity of terbinafine, an approved agent targeting fungal SQLE, and to provide the structural insights into terbinafine-resistant mutants encountered in the clinic. Collectively, these findings elucidate the structural basis for the specificity of the epoxidation reaction catalyzed by SQLE and enable further rational development of next-generation inhibitors.
Project description:Hepatic VLDL overproduction is a characteristic feature of diabetes and an important contributor to diabetic dyslipidemia. Hepatic sortilin 1 (Sort1), a cellular trafficking receptor, is a novel regulator of plasma lipid metabolism and reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides by inhibiting hepatic apolipoprotein B production. Elevated circulating free fatty acids play key roles in hepatic VLDL overproduction and the development of dyslipidemia. This study investigated the regulation of hepatic Sort1 in obesity and diabetes and the potential implications in diabetic dyslipidemia. Results showed that hepatic Sort1 protein was markedly decreased in mouse models of type I and type II diabetes and in human individuals with obesity and liver steatosis, whereas increasing hepatic Sort1 expression reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the saturated fatty acid palmitate activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and inhibited Sort1 protein by mechanisms involving Sort1 protein ubiquitination and degradation. Consistently, hepatic ERK signaling was activated in diabetic mice, whereas blocking ERK signaling by an ERK inhibitor increased hepatic Sort1 protein in mice. These results suggest that increased saturated fatty acids downregulate liver Sort1 protein, which may contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in obesity and diabetes.