Distribution, mobility, and anchoring of lignin-related oxidative enzymes in Arabidopsis secondary cell walls.
ABSTRACT: Lignin is an important phenolic biopolymer that provides strength and rigidity to the secondary cell walls of tracheary elements, sclereids, and fibers in vascular plants. Lignin precursors, called monolignols, are synthesized in the cell and exported to the cell wall where they are polymerized into lignin by oxidative enzymes such as laccases and peroxidases. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a peroxidase (PRX64) and laccase (LAC4) are shown to localize differently within cell wall domains in interfascicular fibers: PRX64 localizes to the middle lamella whereas LAC4 localizes throughout the secondary cell wall layers. Similarly, laccases localized to, and are responsible for, the helical depositions of lignin in protoxylem tracheary elements. In addition, we tested the mobility of laccases in the cell wall using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. mCHERRY-tagged LAC4 was immobile in secondary cell wall domains, but mobile in the primary cell wall when ectopically expressed. A small secreted red fluorescent protein (sec-mCHERRY) was engineered as a control and was found to be mobile in both the primary and secondary cell walls. Unlike sec-mCHERRY, the tight anchoring of LAC4 to secondary cell wall domains indicated that it cannot be remobilized once secreted, and this anchoring underlies the spatial control of lignification.
Project description:Lignin is a key secondary cell wall chemical constituent, and is both a barrier to biomass utilization and a potential source of bioproducts. The Arabidopsis transcription factors MYB58 and MYB63 have been shown to upregulate gene expression of the general phenylpropanoid and monolignol biosynthetic pathways. The overexpression of these genes also results in dwarfism. The vascular integrity, soluble phenolic profiles, cell wall lignin, and transcriptomes associated with these MYB-overexpressing lines were characterized. Plants with high expression of MYB58 and MYB63 had increased ectopic lignin and the xylem vessels were regular and open, suggesting that the stunted growth is not associated with loss of vascular conductivity. MYB58 and MYB63 overexpression lines had characteristic soluble phenolic profiles with large amounts of monolignol glucosides and sinapoyl esters, but decreased flavonoids. Because loss of function lac4 lac17 mutants also accumulate monolignol glucosides, we hypothesized that LACCASE overexpression might decrease monolignol glucoside levels in the MYB-overexpressing plant lines. When laccases related to lignification (LAC4 or LAC17) were co-overexpressed with MYB63 or MYB58, the dwarf phenotype was rescued. Moreover, the overexpression of either LAC4 or LAC17 led to wild-type monolignol glucoside levels, as well as wild-type lignin levels in the rescued plants. Transcriptomes of the rescued double MYB63-OX/LAC17-OX overexpression lines showed elevated, but attenuated, expression of the MYB63 gene itself and the direct transcriptional targets of MYB63. Contrasting the dwarfism from overabundant monolignol production with dwarfism from lignin mutants provides insight into some of the proposed mechanisms of lignin modification-induced dwarfism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding lignin biosynthesis and composition is of central importance for sustainable bioenergy and biomaterials production. Species of the genus Miscanthus have emerged as promising bioenergy crop due to their rapid growth and modest nutrient requirements. However, lignin polymerization in Miscanthus is poorly understood. It was previously shown that plant laccases are phenol oxidases that have multiple functions in plant, one of which is the polymerization of monolignols. Herein, we link a newly discovered Miscanthus laccase, MsLAC1, to cell wall lignification. Characterization of recombinant MsLAC1 and Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing MsLAC1 were carried out to understand the function of MsLAC1 both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:Using a comprehensive suite of molecular, biochemical and histochemical analyses, we show that MsLAC1 localizes to cell walls and identify Miscanthus transcription factors capable of regulating MsLAC1 expression. In addition, MsLAC1 complements the Arabidopsis lac4-2 lac17 mutant and recombinant MsLAC1 is able to oxidize monolignol in vitro. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing MsLAC1 show higher G-lignin content, although recombinant MsLAC1 seemed to prefer sinapyl alcohol as substrate. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, our results suggest that MsLAC1 is regulated by secondary cell wall MYB transcription factors and is involved in lignification of xylem fibers. This report identifies MsLAC1 as a promising breeding target in Miscanthus for biofuel and biomaterial applications.
Project description:Both tracheary elements and fiber cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD) during xylem development. In this study we investigated the role of papain-like cysteine protease CEP1 in PCD in the xylem of Arabidopsis. CEP1 was located in the cell wall of xylem cells, and CEP1 expression levels in inflorescence stems increased during stem maturation. cep1 mutant plants exhibited delayed stem growth and reduced xylem cell number compared to wild-type plants. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that organelle degradation was delayed during PCD, and thicker secondary walls were present in fiber cells and tracheary elements of the cep1 mutant. Transcriptional analyses of the maturation stage of the inflorescence stem revealed that genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components, including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as wood-associated transcriptional factors, were up-regulated in the cep1 mutant. These results suggest that CEP1 is directly involved in the clearing of cellular content during PCD and regulates secondary wall thickening during xylem development.
Project description:The detail understanding of physiological/biochemical characteristics of individual laccase isoenzymes in fungi is necessary for fundamental and application purposes, but our knowledge is still limited for most of fungi due to difficult to express laccases heterologously. In this study, two novel laccase genes, named lac3 and lac4, encoding proteins of 547 and 532-amino acids preceded by 28 and 16-residue signal peptides, respectively, were cloned from the edible basidiomycete Coprinus comatus. They showed 70% identity but much lower homology with other fungal laccases at protein level (less than 58%). Two novel laccase isoenzymes were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris by fusing an additional 10 amino acids (Thr-Pro-Phe-Pro-Pro-Phe-Asn-Thr-Asn-Ser) tag at N-terminus, and the volumetric activities could be dramatically enhanced from undetectable level to 689 and 1465 IU/l for Lac3 and Lac4, respectively. Both laccases possessed the lowest Km and highest kcat/Km value towards syringaldazine, followed by ABTS, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethylphenol similar as the low redox potential laccases from other microorganisms. Lac3 and Lac4 showed resistant to SDS, and retained 31.86% and 43.08% activity in the presence of 100 mM SDS, respectively. Lac3 exhibited higher decolorization efficiency than Lac4 for eleven out of thirteen different dyes, which may attribute to the relatively higher catalytic efficiency of Lac3 than Lac4 (in terms of kcat/Km) towards syringaldazine and ABTS. The mild synergistic decolorization by two laccases was observed for triphenylmethane dyes but not for anthraquinone and azo dyes.
Project description:A fluorescence microscopy method to directly follow the localization of defined proteins in Staphylococcus was hampered by the unstable fluorescence of fluorescent proteins. Here, we constructed plasmid (pCX) encoded red fluorescence (RF) mCherry (mCh) hybrids, namely mCh-cyto (no signal peptide and no sorting sequence), mCh-sec (with signal peptide), and mCh-cw (with signal peptide and cell wall sorting sequence). The S. aureus clones targeted mCh-fusion proteins into the cytosol, the supernatant and the cell envelope respectively; in all cases mCherry exhibited bright fluorescence. In staphylococci two types of signal peptides (SP) can be distinguished: the +YSIRK motif SP(lip) and the -YSIRK motif SP(sasF). mCh-hybrids supplied with the +YSIRK motif SP(lip) were always expressed higher than those with -YSIRK motif SP(sasF). To study the location of the anchoring process and also the influence of SP type, mCh-cw was supplied on the one hand with +YSIRK motif (mCh-cw1) and the other hand with -YSIRK motif (mCh-cw2). MCh-cw1 preferentially localized at the cross wall, while mCh-cw2 preferentially localized at the peripheral wall. Interestingly, when treated with sub-lethal concentrations of penicillin or moenomycin, both mCh-cw1 and mCh-cw2 were concentrated at the cross wall. The shift from the peripheral wall to the cross wall required Sortase A (SrtA), as in the srtA mutant this effect was blunted. The effect is most likely due to antibiotic mediated increase of free anchoring sites (Lipid II) at the cross wall, the substrate of SrtA, leading to a preferential incorporation of anchored proteins at the cross wall.
Project description:The single-celled cotton fibers, produced from seed coat epidermal cells are the largest natural source of textile fibers. The economic value of cotton fiber lies in its length and quality. The multifunctional laccase enzymes play important roles in cell elongation, lignification and pigmentation in plants and could play crucial role in cotton fiber quality. Genome-wide analysis of cultivated allotetraploid (G. hirsutum) and its progenitor diploid (G. arboreum and G. raimondii) cotton species identified 84, 44 and 46 laccase genes, respectively. Analysis of chromosomal location, phylogeny, conserved domain and physical properties showed highly conserved nature of laccases across three cotton species. Gene expression, enzymatic activity and biochemical analysis of developing cotton fibers was performed using G. arboreum species. Of the total 44, 40 laccases showed expression during different stages of fiber development. The higher enzymatic activity of laccases correlated with higher lignin content at 25 DPA (Days Post Anthesis). Further, analysis of cotton fiber phenolic compounds showed an overall decrease at 25 DPA indicating possible incorporation of these substrates into lignin polymer during secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Overall data indicate significant roles of laccases in cotton fiber development, and presents an excellent opportunity for manipulation of fiber development and quality.
Project description:Lignin has enabled plants to colonize land, grow tall, transport water within their bodies, and protect themselves against various stresses. Consequently, this polyphenolic polymer, impregnating cellulosic plant cell walls, is the second most abundant polymer on Earth. Yet, despite its great physiological, ecological, and economical importance, our knowledge of lignin biosynthesis in vivo, especially the polymerization steps within the cell wall, remains vague-specifically, the respective roles of the two polymerizing enzymes classes, laccases and peroxidases. One reason for this lies in the very high numbers of laccases and peroxidases encoded by 17 and 73 homologous genes, respectively, in <i>Arabidopsis</i> Here, we have focused on a specific lignin structure, the ring-like Casparian strips (CSs) within the root endodermis. By reducing candidate numbers using cellular resolution expression and localization data and by boosting stacking of mutants using CRISPR-Cas9, we mutated the majority of laccases in <i>Arabidopsis</i> in a nonuple mutant-essentially abolishing laccases with detectable endodermal expression. Yet, we were unable to detect even slight defects in CS formation. By contrast, we were able to induce a complete absence of CS formation in a quintuple peroxidase mutant. Our findings are in stark contrast to the strong requirement of xylem vessels for laccase action and indicate that lignin in different cell types can be polymerized in very distinct ways. We speculate that cells lignify differently depending on whether lignin is localized or ubiquitous and whether cells stay alive during and after lignification, as well as the composition of the cell wall.
Project description:Plant laccases are thought to function in the oxidation of monolignols which leads to higher order lignin formation. Only a hand-full of laccases in plants have been functionally evaluated, and as such little is known about the breadth of their impact on cell wall chemistry or structure. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized laccase from Populus, encoded by locus Potri.008G064000, whose reduced expression resulted in transgenic Populus trees with changes in syringyl/guaiacyl ratios as well as altered sugar release phenotypes. These phenotypes are consistent with plant biomass exhibiting reduced recalcitrance. Interestingly, the transgene effect on recalcitrance is dependent on a mild pretreatment prior to chemical extraction of sugars. Metabolite profiling suggests the transgene modulates phenolics that are associated with the cell wall structure. We propose that this particular laccase has a range of functions related to oxidation of phenolics and conjugation of flavonoids that interact with lignin in the cell wall.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some prominent cultured plant cell lines, such as the BY-2 cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. 'Bright Yellow 2') and the T87 cell line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh., ecotype Columbia) are used as model plant cells. These suspension cell culture systems are highly applicable for investigating various aspects of plant cell biology. However, no such prominent cultured cell lines exist in bamboo species. RESULTS:We standardized a novel xylogenic suspension culture model in order to unveil the process of lignification in living bamboo cells. Initial signs of lignin deposition were able to be observed by a positive phloroglucinol-HCl reaction at day 3 to 5 under lignification conditions (LG), i.e., modified half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (m1/2MS) containing 10??M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 3% sucrose. Two types of xylogenic differentiation, both fiber-like elements (FLEs) with cell wall thickening and tracheary elements (TEs) with formation of perforations in the cell wall, were observed under these conditions. The suspension cells rapidly formed secondary cell wall components that were highly lignified, making up approximately 25% of the cells on a dry weight basis within 2?weeks. Detailed features involved in cell growth, differentiation and death during lignification were characterized by laser scanning microscopic imaging. Changes in transcript levels of xylogenesis-related genes were assessed by RT-PCR, which showed that the transcription of key genes like PAL1, C4H, CCoAOMT, and CCR was induced at day 4 under LG conditions. Furthermore, interunit linkage of lignins was compared between mature bamboo culms and xylogenic suspension cells by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR spectroscopy. The presence of the most common interunit linkages, including ?-aryl ether (?-O-4), phenylcoumaran (?-5) and resinol (?-?) structures was identified in the bamboo cultured cell lignin (BCCL) by HSQC NMR. In addition to these common features of lignin, several differences in lignin substructures were also found between the BCCL and the bamboo milled wood lignin (BMWL). CONCLUSIONS:Our xylogenic suspension culture model could be used for detailed characterization of physiological and molecular biological events in living bamboo cells.
Project description:Wood is a highly intractable food source, yet many insects successfully colonize and thrive in this challenging niche. Overcoming the lignin barrier of wood is a key challenge in nutrient acquisition, but full depolymerization of intact lignin polymers has only been conclusively demonstrated in fungi and is not known to occur by enzymes produced by insects or bacteria. Previous research validated that lignocellulose and hemicellulose degradation occur within the gut of the wood boring insect, Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle), and that a fungal species, Fusarium solani (ATCC MYA 4552), is consistently associated with the larval stage. While the nature of this relationship is unresolved, we sought to assess this fungal isolate's ability to degrade lignocellulose and cell wall polysaccharides and to extract nutrients from woody tissue. This gut-derived fungal isolate was inoculated onto a wood-based substrate and shotgun proteomics using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was employed to identify 400 expressed proteins. Through this approach, we detected proteins responsible for plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation, including proteins belonging to 28 glycosyl hydrolase families and several cutinases, esterases, lipases, pectate lyases, and polysaccharide deacetylases. Proteinases with broad substrate specificities and ureases were observed, indicating that this isolate has the capability to digest plant cell wall proteins and recycle nitrogenous waste under periods of nutrient limitation. Additionally, several laccases, peroxidases, and enzymes involved in extracellular hydrogen peroxide production previously implicated in lignin depolymerization were detected. In vitro biochemical assays were conducted to corroborate MudPIT results and confirmed that cellulases, glycosyl hydrolases, xylanases, laccases, and Mn- independent peroxidases were active in culture; however, lignin- and Mn- dependent peroxidase activities were not detected While little is known about the role of filamentous fungi and their associations with insects, these findings suggest that this isolate has the endogenous potential to degrade lignocellulose and extract nutrients from woody tissue.