Reticuloendotheliosis virus and avian leukosis virus subgroup J synergistically increase the accumulation of exosomal miRNAs.
ABSTRACT: Co-infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J and reticuloendotheliosis virus induces synergistic pathogenic effects and increases mortality. However, the role of exosomal miRNAs in the molecular mechanism of the synergistic infection of the two viruses remains unknown.In this study, exosomal RNAs from CEF cells infected with ALV-J, REV or both at the optimal synergistic infection time were analysed by Illumina RNA deep sequencing. A total of 54 (23 upregulated and 31 downregulated) and 16 (7 upregulated and 9 downregulated) miRNAs were identified by comparing co-infection with two viruses, single-infected ALV-J and REV, respectively. Moreover, five key miRNAs, including miR-184-3p, miR-146a-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-3538 and miR-155, were validated in both exosomes and CEF cells by qRT-PCR. GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis of the miRNA target genes showed that the five differentially expressed miRNAs participated in virus-vector interaction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy metabolism and cell growth.We demonstrated that REV and ALV-J synergistically increased the accumulation of exosomal miRNAs, which sheds light on the synergistic molecular mechanism of ALV-J and REV.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify the miRNAs in CEF in response to synergistic infection of ALV-J and REV, as well as attempt to reveal the mechanism underlying pathogenesis and immune suppression symptoms. Overall design: CEFs infected with Mock, ALV-J, REV or both viruses were analyzed using miRNA whole-genome sequencing at 72 hpi,
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coinfection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is common in chickens, and the molecular mechanism of the synergistic pathogenic effects of the coinfection is not clear. Exosomes have been identified as new players in the pathogenesis of retroviruses. The different functions of exosomes depend on their cargo components. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to investigate the function of co-regulation differentially expressed proteins in exosomes on coinfection of ALV-J and REV. METHODS:Here, viral replication in CEF cells infected with ALV-J, REV or both was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Then, we analyzed the exosomes isolated from supernatants of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells single infected and coinfected with ALV-J and REV by mass spectrometry. KEGG pathway enrichment analyzed the co-regulation differentially expressed proteins in exosomes. Next, we silenced and overexpressed tripartite motif containing 62 (TRIM62) to evaluate the effects of TRIM62 on viral replication and the expression levels of NCK-association proteins 1 (NCKAP1) and actin-related 2/3 complex subunit 5 (ARPC5) determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:The results showed that coinfection of ALV-J and REV promoted the replication of each other. Thirty proteins, including TRIM62, NCK-association proteins 1 (NCKAP1, also known as Nap125), and Arp2/3-5, ARPC5, were identified. NCKAP1 and ARPC5 were involved in the actin cytoskeleton pathway. TRIM62 negatively regulated viral replication and that the inhibition of REV was more significant than that on ALV-J in CEF cells coinfected with TRIM62. In addition, TRIM62 decreased the expression of NCKAP1 and increased the expression of ARPC5 in coinfected CEF cells. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our results indicated that coinfection with ALV-J and REV competitively promoted each other's replication, the actin cytoskeleton played an important role in the coinfection mechanism, and TRIM62 regulated the actin cytoskeleton.
Project description:Chronic infection with Schistosoma japonicum or Schistosoma mansoni results in hepatic fibrosis of the human host. The staging of fibrosis is crucial for prognosis and to determine the need for treatment of patients with schistosomiasis. This study aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between the levels of serum exosomal micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) (exomiRs) and fibrosis progression in schistosomiasis. Reference gene (RG) validation was initially carried out for the analysis of serum exomiRs expression in staging liver fibrosis caused by schistosome infection. The expression levels of liver fibrosis-associated exomiRs in serum were determined in a murine schistosomiasis model and in a cohort of Filipino schistosomiasis japonica patients (n = 104) with different liver fibrosis grades. Of twelve RG candidates validated, miR-103a-3p and miR-425-5p were determined to be the most stable genes in the murine schistosomiasis model and subjects from the schistosomiasis-endemic area, respectively. The temporal expression profiles of nine fibrosis-associated serum exomiRs, as well as their correlations with the liver pathologies, were determined in C57BL/6 mice during S. japonicum infection. The serum levels of three exomiRs (miR-92a-3p, miR-146a-5p and miR-532-5p) were able to distinguish subjects with fibrosis grades I-III from those with no fibrosis, but only the serum level of exosomal miR-146a-5p showed potential for distinguishing patients with mild (grades 0-I) versus severe fibrosis (grades II-III). The current data imply that serum exomiRs can be a supplementary tool for grading liver fibrosis in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis with moderate accuracy.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes the chronic inflammation of the joints. Intercellular communication containing synovial fibroblasts seems to play a major role in RA pathogenesis. In this study, to better understand intercellular communication related to RA pathogenesis, we identified exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from synovial fibroblasts. Exosomes were collected from an RA synovial fibroblast (RASF) cell line, namely, MH7A, with or without stimulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). We used small RNA sequencing to analyze the profile of small RNAs, including miRNAs, in MH7A exosomes and cells. By using differential expression analysis, we identified four miRNAs (miR-155-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-323a-5p, and miR-1307-3p) that are upregulated in exosomes with TNF-? stimulation. The identification of miR-155-5p and miR-146a-5p which have been reported in RA patients demonstrated the validity of our experimental model. Other two miRNAs were newly identified. miR-323a-5p was predicted to target the protein encoding gene CD6, which attenuates T-cell activation signals, and miR-1307-3p was predicted to target the protein encoding gene N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), which inhibits osteoclast-related gene expression. The results suggested that these miRNAs might be involved in RA pathogenesis. We hope our results will help us understand the role of RASF exosomes in RA pathogenesis.
Project description:Exosomes seem to play an important role in hepatits C virus (HCV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection by shielding their cargo from the host immune responses, with microRNAs being key exosomal components. Little is known about their involvement in a mixed HCV/HEV infection or at the early stages of infection, such as in asymptomatic blood donors (BDs). To obtain preliminary data, we have compared the exosomal microRNA expression profiles in four each of HCV RNA-positive, HEV RNA-positive and negative blood donors and four patients, one of whom was a rare patient with HCV/HEV co-infection. Exosomes were purified from sera by a combination of a precipitation and density gradient centrifugation and exosomal microRNA was analysed using Taqman array cards. Out of 33 deregulated miRNAs, miR-885-5p and miR-365 were upregulated in HCV BDs, miR-627-5p was downregulated in HCV BD and miR-221 was downregulated in HCV patients and BDs. In HEV infection, miR-526b appeared specifically downregulated. Six miRNAs (miR-628-3p, miR-194, miR-151-3p, miR-512-3p, miR-335 and miR-590) indicated a potential involvement in both infections. First time preliminary data on pre- and post-antiviral treatment exosomal microRNA profiles of the HEV/HCV co-infected patient revealed a pool of 77 upregulated and 43 downregulated miRNAs to be further investigated for their potential roles in these viral infections.
Project description:Exosomes, the extracellular vesicles that contain functional proteins and RNAs, regulate cell-cell communication. Recently, our group reported that levels of various microRNAs (miRNAs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomes were highly increased in influenza virus-infected mice and that one of those miRNAs, miR-483-3p, was involved in the potentiation of the innate immune responses to influenza virus infection in mouse type II pneumocytes. Here, we evaluated exosomal miR-483-3p levels in the serum of influenza virus-infected mice and found that miR-483-3p levels were significantly increased during infection with a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus. Moreover, miR-483-3p-enriched exosomes derived from type II pneumocytes potentiated the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in vascular endothelial cells. Our findings suggest that serum exosomal transfer of miR-483-3p might be involved in the inflammatory pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza virus infection.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen, causing serious illness in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Upon detection by macrophages, which are key players of the innate immune response against infection, L. monocytogenes induces specific host cell responses which need to be tightly controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Here, we ask whether and how host miRNAs, which represent an important mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation in a wide array of biological processes, are altered by a model pathogen upon live infection of murine bone marrow derived macrophages. We first report that L. monocytogenes subverts the host genome-wide miRNA profile of macrophages in vitro. Specifically, we show that miR-155, miR-146a, miR-125a-3p/5p and miR-149 were amongst the most significantly regulated miRNAs in infected macrophages. Strikingly, these miRNAs were highly upregulated upon infection with the Listeriolysin-deficient L. monocytogenes mutant ?hly, that cannot escape from the phagosome thus representing a vacuolar-contained infection. The vacuolar miRNA response was significantly reduced in macrophages deficient for MyD88. In addition, miR-146a and miR-125a-3p/5p were regulated at transcriptional levels upon infection, and miR-125a-3p/5p were found to be TLR2 responsive. Furthermore, miR-155 transactivation in infection was regulated by NF-?B p65, while miR-146a and miR-125a-3p/5p expression was unaffected in p65-deficient primary macrophages upon L. monocytogenes infection. Our results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes promotes significant changes in the miRNA expression profile in macrophages, and reveal a vacuolar-dependent miRNA signature, listeriolysin-independent and MyD88-dependent. These miRNAs are predicted to target immune genes and are therefore most likely involved in regulation of the macrophage innate immune response against infection at post-transcriptional levels.
Project description:In this study, we found a much higher proportion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were in active cell division phase than that of control cells which indicated that REV can affect the fate of CEF. So, we performed high-throughput sequencing and transcriptomic analysis to identify functional miRNAs, in order to figure out the possible mechanism in the interaction of REV with CEF. In total, 50 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified. Then target genes of DEmiRNAs were predicted and identified by transcriptome profile results. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment were conducted to analyze the identified target genes of miRNAs which showed that metabolism, cell cycle, and apoptosis were the most related pathways involved in infection of REV. We analyzed the genes related to cell cycle which indicated that CyclinD1-CDK6 complex played an important role in regulating the transition of the cell cycle from G1 phase to S phase during REV infection. Fluorescence microscope identification showed that REV inhibited the apoptosis of CEF which was in accordance with transcriptome results. A novel miRNA, named novel-72 was found, KEGG analysis was conducted to predict the biological function of its target genes which showed that those target genes were significantly enriched in mTOR signaling pathway and functioned to promote cell cycle and cell growth during the REV infection. In conclusion, REV could induce the up-regulation of cell metabolism, cell cycle and mTOR signaling pathway while inhibit apoptosis of the cell.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. Reliable biomarkers are required for the non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of IgAN. This study aims to investigate the difference in urinary exosomal microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles between patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and healthy controls, which may provide clues to identify novel potential non-invasive miRNA biomarkers for renal diseases. METHODS:Urine samples were collected from eighteen healthy controls and eighteen patients with IgAN. Differential centrifugation was performed to isolate exosomes from urine samples. High-throughput sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were sequentially used to screen and further validate miRNA expression profiles in urinary exosomes of patients with IgAN in two independent cohorts. RESULTS:Urinary exosomes were successfully isolated to obtain exosomal miRNAs. MiR-215-5p and miR-378i were significantly upregulated in urinary exosomes of patients with IgAN compared with healthy controls (P<.01), while miR-29c and miR-205-5p were significantly downregulated (P<.05). MiR-215-5p, miR-378i, miR-365b-3p and miR-135b-5p were found to have altered expression in patients with IgAN from validation cohorts, which was consistent with the high-throughput sequencing analysis. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that there is a significant difference in urinary exosomal miRNA profiles between patients with IgAN and healthy controls. These exosomal miRNAs, such as miR-29c, miR-146a and miR-205 may potentially serve as novel non-invasive biomarkers for IgAN.
Project description:Background:A reliable noninvasive biomarker is not yet available for endometriosis diagnosis. Novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of endometriosis are urgently needed. The molecular constituents of exosomes, especially exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs), have considerable potential as novel biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed at exploring aberrant exosomal miRNA profiles by using miRNA microarray and at providing more accurate molecular biomarkers of endometriosis. Methods:Exosomes were isolated from the serum of patients with endometriosis and negative controls and identified by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blot. Exosomal miRNAs were profiled by miRNA microarrays. The expression of selective serum exosomal miRNA was validated by qRT-PCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were established to explore the diagnostic value of selective miRNAs. Finally, GO annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were used to display possible functions associated with the two miRNAs. Results:A total of 24 miRNAs showed differential levels of enrichment with P < 0.05 and |log2?fold?change| > 1 by miRNA microarrays. Among the six selective miRNAs (i.e., miR-134-5p, miR-197-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-320a, miR-494-3p, and miR-939-5p), qRT-PCR analysis revealed that miR-22-3p and miR-320a were significantly upregulated in serum exosomes from patients with endometriosis compared with negative individuals. ROC curve revealed that the serum exosomal miR-22-3p and miR-320a yielded the area under the curve values of 0.855 and 0.827, respectively. Conclusion:Our results demonstrated that exosomal miR-22-3p and miR-320a were significantly increased in the sera of patients with endometriosis. The two miRNAs may be useful potential biomarkers for endometriosis diagnosis.