SGLT2 inhibition in a kidney with reduced nephron number: modeling and analysis of solute transport and metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors enhance urinary glucose, Na+ and fluid excretion, and lower hyperglycemia in diabetes by targeting Na+ and glucose reabsorption along the proximal convoluted tubule. A goal of this study was to predict the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. To that end, we employed computational rat kidney models to explore how SGLT2 inhibition affects renal solute transport and metabolism when nephron populations are normal or reduced. Model simulations suggested that in a nondiabetic rat, acute and chronic SGLT2 inhibition induces glucosuria, diuresis, natriuresis, and kaliuresis. Those effects were stronger with chronic SGLT2 inhibition (due to SGLT1 downregulation) and tempered by nephron loss. In a diabetic rat with normal nephron number, acute SGLT2 inhibition similarly elevated urine fluid, Na+, and K+ excretion, whereas the urinary excretory effects of chronic SGLT2 inhibition were attenuated in proportion to its plasma glucose level lowering effect. Nephron loss in a diabetic kidney was predicted to lower the glucosuric and blood glucose-reducing effect of chronic SGLT2 inhibition, but due to the high luminal glucose delivery in the remaining hyperfiltering nephrons, nephron loss enhanced proximal tubular paracellular Na+ secretion, thereby augmenting the natriuretic, diuretic, and kaliuretic effects. A proposed shift in oxygen-consuming active transport to the outer medulla, which may simulate systemic hypoxia and enhance erythropoiesis, was also preserved with nephron loss. These effects may contribute to the protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on blood pressure and heart failure observed in diabetic patients with chronic kidney diseases.
Project description:Pharmacological inhibition of the proximal tubular sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) leads to glycosuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings. As a consequence of their ability to modulate tubuloglomerular feedback, SGLT2 inhibitors, like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, reduce intraglomerular pressure and single nephron GFR, potentially affording renoprotection. To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally) nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial. When compared with untreated rats, both sham surgery and 5/6 nephrectomised rats that had received dapagliflozin experienced substantial glycosuria. Nephrectomised rats developed hypertension, heavy proteinuria and declining GFR that was unaffected by the administration of dapagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT2 inhibition did not attenuate the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis or overexpression of the profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 mRNA in the kidneys of 5/6 nephrectomised rats. While not precluding beneficial effects in the diabetic setting, these findings indicate that SGLT2 inhibition does not have renoprotective effects in this classical model of progressive non-diabetic CKD.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have pleiotropic properties beyond blood glucose-lowering effects and modify important nonglycemic pathways, leading to end-organ protection. SGLT2 inhibitors display renoprotective effects in diabetic kidney disease, which creates a rationale for testing the therapeutic potential of this drug class in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. Here, we have shown that dapagliflozin provided glomerular protection in mice with protein-overload proteinuria induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA), to a similar extent as an ACE inhibitor used as standard therapy for comparison. Dapagliflozin limited proteinuria, glomerular lesions, and podocyte dysfunction and loss. We provide the observation that SGLT2 was expressed in podocytes and upregulated after BSA injections. Through in vitro studies with cultured podocytes loaded with albumin we have identified what we believe to be a novel mechanism of action for SGLT2 inhibitor that directly targets podocytes and relies on the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton architecture. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors represent a possible future therapeutic option for some patients with proteinuric glomerular disease who do not have as yet an effective treatment will require ad hoc clinical studies.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), which is specifically expressed on the apical side of proximal tubular cells, is involved in the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the glomeruli, and its inhibitors are gaining publicity as potent antihyperglycemic drugs. In some clinical trials, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted cardiovascular and kidney protective effects, which appeared to be partly independent of the original glucose-lowering effect. SGLT2 inhibitors have both direct and indirect renoprotective effects. The direct effects involve the suppression of hyperplasia/hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis in the proximal tubular cells, utilization of ketone bodies, restored tubuloglomerular feedback, decreased oxygen consumption, improvement in anemia, and preconditioning against ischemia/reperfusion. The indirect effects involve a reduction in insulin levels and resistance, uric acid concentration, body weight, and blood pressure. However, safety concerns remain, including consequences of an enhanced glucose load in the lower nephron, leg amputation, bone fractures, and therapeutic efficacy in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.
Project description:Recent large placebo-controlled trials of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors revealed desirable effects on heart failure (HF) and renal dysfunction; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. The characteristic changes in the early stage of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) are myocardial and interstitial fibrosis, resulting in diastolic and subsequent systolic dysfunction, which leads to clinical HF. Pericytes are considered to play crucial roles in myocardial and interstitial fibrosis. In both DCM and diabetic retinopathy (DR), microaneurysm formation and a decrease in capillaries occur, triggered by pericyte loss. Furthermore, tubulointerstitial fibrosis develops in early diabetic nephropathy (DN), in which pericytes and mesangial cells are thought to play important roles. Previous reports indicate that pericytes and mesangial cells play key roles in the pathogenesis of DCM, DR and DN. SGLT2 is reported to be functionally expressed in pericytes and mesangial cells, and excessive glucose and Na+ entry through SGLT2 causes cellular dysfunction in a diabetic state. Since SGLT2 inhibitors can attenuate the high glucose-induced dysfunction of pericytes and mesangial cells, the desirable effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on HF and renal dysfunction might be explained by their direct actions on these cells in the heart and kidney microvasculature.
Project description:The authors hypothesized that despite similar cardiovascular event rates, the improved cardiovascular survival from sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition, seen clinically, could be via a direct cytoprotective effect, including protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Langendorff-perfused hearts, from diabetic and nondiabetic rats, fed long-term for 4 weeks with canagliflozin, had lower infarct sizes; this being the first demonstration of canagliflozin's cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in both diabetic and nondiabetic animals. By contrast, direct treatment of isolated nondiabetic rat hearts with canagliflozin, solubilized in the isolated Langendorff perfusion buffer, had no impact on infarct size. This latter study demonstrates that the infarct-sparing effect of long-term treatment with canagliflozin results from either a glucose-independent effect or up-regulation of cardiac prosurvival pathways. These results further suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors could be repurposed as novel cardioprotective interventions in high-risk cardiovascular patients irrespective of diabetic status.
Project description:Inflammasome-driven release of interleukin(IL)-1? is a central element of many forms of sterile inflammation and has been evident to promote the onset and progression of diabetic kidney disease. We microdissected glomerular and tubulointerstitial samples from kidney biopsies of patients with diabetic kidney disease and found expression of IL-1? mRNA. Immunostaining of such kidney biopsies across a broad spectrum of diabetic kidney disease stages revealed IL-1? positivity in a small subset of infiltrating immune cell. Thus, we speculated on a potential of IL-1? as a therapeutic target and neutralizing the biological effects of murine IL-1? with a novel monoclonal antibody in uninephrectomized diabetic db/db mice with progressive type 2 diabetes- and obesity-related single nephron hyperfiltration, podocyte loss, proteinuria, and progressive decline of total glomerular filtration rate (GFR). At 18 weeks albuminuric mice were randomized to intraperitoneal injections with either anti-IL-1? or control IgG once weekly for 8 weeks. During this period, anti-IL-1? IgG had no effect on food or fluid intake, body weight, and fasting glucose levels. At week 26, anti-IL-1? IgG had reduced renal mRNA expression of kidney injury markers (Ngal) and fibrosis (Col1, a-Sma), significantly attenuated the progressive decline of GFR in hyperfiltrating diabetic mice, and preserved podocyte number without affecting albuminuria or indicators of single nephron hyperfiltration. No adverse effect were observed. Thus, IL-1? contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes and might therefore be a valuable therapeutic target, potentially in combination with drugs with different mechanisms-of-action such as RAS and SGLT2 inhibitors.
Project description:Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is an important cause of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition (SGLT2i) therapy attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy, but it remains unclear whether SGLT2i provides renoprotection in nondiabetic CKD such as FSGS. The primary aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of 8 wk of dapagliflozin on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in humans and in experimental FSGS. Secondary end points were related to changes in renal hemodynamic function, proteinuria, and blood pressure (BP). GFR (inulin) and renal plasma flow (para-aminohippurate), proteinuria, and BP were measured in patients with FSGS ( n = 10), and similar parameters were measured in subtotally nephrectomized (SNx) rats. In response to dapagliflozin, changes in GFR, renal plasma flow, and 24-h urine protein excretion were not statistically significant in humans or rats. Systolic BP (SBP) decreased in SNx rats (196 ± 26 vs. 165 ± 33 mmHg; P < 0.001), whereas changes were not statistically significant in humans (SBP 112.7 ± 8.5 to 112.8 ± 11.2 mmHg, diastolic BP 71.8 ± 6.5 to 69.6 ± 8.4 mmHg; P = not significant), although hematocrit increased (0.40 ± 0.05 to 0.42 ± 0.05%; P = 0.03). In archival kidney tissue from a separate patient cohort, renal parenchymal SGLT2 mRNA expression was decreased in individuals with FSGS compared with controls. Short-term treatment with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin did not modify renal hemodynamic function or attenuate proteinuria in humans or in experimental FSGS. This may be related to downregulation of renal SGLT2 expression. Studies examining the impact of SGLT2i on markers of kidney disease in patients with other causes of nondiabetic CKD are needed.
Project description:The rationale for using sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has evolved over the last decade. Due to the effects on glucosuria and body weight loss, SGLT2 inhibitors were originally approved for glycemic control in T2D. Since glucosuria is attenuated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stages 3-5, initial regulatory approval for SGLT2 inhibitor use was limited to patients with T2D and preserved estimated glomerular filtration rate. Over time, however, it has become increasingly apparent that these therapies have a variety of important pharmacodynamic and clinical effects beyond glycemic lowering, including antihypertensive and antialbuminuric properties, and the ability to reduce glomerular hypertension. Importantly, these sodium-related effects are preserved across CKD stages, despite attenuated glycemic effects, which are lost at CKD Stage 4. With the completion of cardiovascular (CV) outcome safety trials-EMPA-REG OUTCOME, CANVAS Program and DECLARE TIMI-58-in addition to reductions in CV events, SGLT2 inhibition consistently reduces hard renal endpoints. Importantly, these CV and renal effects are independent of glycemic control. Subsequent data from the recent CREDENCE trial-the first dedicated renal protection trial with SGLT-2 inhibition-demonstrated renal and CV benefits in albuminuric T2D patients, pivotal results that have expanded the clinical importance of these therapies. Ongoing trials will ultimately determine whether SGLT2 inhibition will have a role in renal protection in other clinical settings, including nondiabetic CKD and type 1 diabetes.
Project description:Sodium glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibition has renoprotective effects in diabetic kidney disease. Whether similar effects can be achieved also in non-diabetic kidney disease is speculative. Chronic kidney disease was induced in C57BL/6N mice by feeding an oxalate-rich diet for 14 days, known to induce nephrocalcinosis-related tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis without directly affecting the glomerular compartment. Empagliflozin treatment started from day 0 of oxalate feeding had no effect on the decline of glomerular filtration rate, crystal deposition, blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine levels on day 7 and 14. Tissue morphometry of tubular injury and kidney mRNA levels of kidney injury molecule-1 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 were comparable between empagliflozin- and vehicle-treated mice with oxalate nephropathy on day 7 and 14. Similarly, empagliflozin did not affect markers of interstitial fibrosis, including silver, alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA) and collagen 1 staining, and mRNA levels of fibronectin-1, collagen 1?1, fibroblast-specific protein-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2 on day 7 and 14. Thus, the specific renoprotective mechanisms-of-action of SGLT2 inhibition in diabetic kidney disease do not apply to chronic oxalosis, a non-diabetic form of chronic kidney disease.
Project description:AIM:To evaluate the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:We conducted systematic searches of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to June 2016 and included randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in adult type 2 diabetic patients reporting estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) changes. Data were synthesized using the random-effects model. RESULTS:Forty-seven studies with 22,843 participants were included. SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with a significant change in eGFR in general (weighted mean difference (WMD), -0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [-0.90 to 0.23]) or in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (WMD -0.78 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [-2.52 to 0.97]). SGLT2 inhibition was associated with eGFR reduction in short-term trials (WMD -0.98 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [-1.42 to -0.54]), and with eGFR preservation in long-term trials (WMD 2.01 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [0.86 to 3.16]). Urine ACR reduction after SGLT2 inhibition was not statistically significant in type 2 diabetic patients in general (WMD -7.24 mg/g, 95% CI [-15.54 to 1.06]), but was significant in patients with CKD (WMD -107.35 mg/g, 95% CI [-192.53 to -22.18]). CONCLUSIONS:SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with significant changes in eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes, likely resulting from a mixture of an initial reduction of eGFR and long-term renal function preservation. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with statistically significant albuminuria reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD.