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Biosynthesis of Thiamin Pyrophosphate.

ABSTRACT: The biosynthesis of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) in prokaryotes, as represented by the Escherichia coli and the Bacillus subtilis pathways, is summarized in this review. The thiazole heterocycle is formed by the convergence of three separate pathways. First, the condensation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate, catalyzed by 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (Dxs), gives 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP). Next, the sulfur carrier protein ThiS-COO- is converted to its carboxyterminal thiocarboxylate in reactions catalyzed by ThiF, ThiI, and NifS (ThiF and IscS in B. subtilis). Finally, tyrosine (glycine in B. subtilis) is converted to dehydroglycine by ThiH (ThiO in B. subtilis). Thiazole synthase (ThiG) catalyzes the complex condensation of ThiS-COSH, dehydroglycine, and DXP to give a thiazole tautomer, which is then aromatized to carboxythiazole phosphate by TenI (B. subtilis). Hydroxymethyl pyrimidine phosphate (HMP-P) is formed by a complicated rearrangement reaction of 5-aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) catalyzed by ThiC. ThiD then generates hydroxymethyl pyrimidine pyrophosphate. The coupling of the two heterocycles and decarboxylation, catalyzed by thiamin phosphate synthase (ThiE), gives thiamin phosphate. A final phosphorylation, catalyzed by ThiL, completes the biosynthesis of TPP, the biologically active form of the cofactor. This review reviews the current status of mechanistic and structural studies on the enzymes involved in this pathway. The availability of multiple orthologs of the thiamin biosynthetic enzymes has also greatly facilitated structural studies, and most of the thiamin biosynthetic and salvage enzymes have now been structurally characterized.

SUBMITTER: Jurgenson CT 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6039189 | BioStudies | 2009-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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