Probing DNA Base-Dependent Leaving Group Kinetic Effects on the DNA Polymerase Transition State.
ABSTRACT: We examine the DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) transition state (TS) from a leaving group pre-steady-state kinetics perspective by measuring the rate of incorporation of dNTPs and corresponding novel ?,?-CXY-dNTP analogues, including individual ?,?-CHF and -CHCl diastereomers with defined stereochemistry at the bridging carbon, during the formation of right (R) and wrong (W) base pairs. Brønsted plots of log kpol versus p Ka4 of the leaving group bisphosphonic acids are used to interrogate the effects of the base identity, the dNTP analogue leaving group basicity, and the precise configuration of the C-X atom in R and S stereoisomers on the rate-determining step ( kpol). The dNTP analogues provide a range of leaving group basicity and steric properties by virtue of monohalogen, dihalogen, or methyl substitution at the carbon atom bridging the ?,?-bisphosphonate that mimics the natural pyrophosphate leaving group in dNTPs. Brønsted plot relationships with negative slopes are revealed by the data, as was found for the dGTP and dTTP analogues, consistent with a bond-breaking component to the TS energy. However, greater multiplicity was shown in the linear free energy relationship, revealing an unexpected dependence on the nucleotide base for both A and C. Strong base-dependent perturbations that modulate TS relative to ground-state energies are likely to arise from electrostatic effects on catalysis in the pol active site. Deviations from a uniform linear Brønsted plot relationship are discussed in terms of insights gained from structural features of the prechemistry DNA polymerase active site.
Project description:Kinetics studies of dNTP analogues having pyrophosphate-mimicking ?,?-pCXYp leaving groups with variable X and Y substitution reveal striking differences in the chemical transition-state energy for DNA polymerase ? that depend on all aspects of base-pairing configurations, including whether the incoming dNTP is a purine or pyrimidine and if base-pairings are right (T•A and G•C) or wrong (T•G and G•T). Brønsted plots of the catalytic rate constant (log(kpol)) versus pKa4 for the leaving group exhibit linear free energy relationships (LFERs) with negative slopes ranging from -0.6 to -2.0, consistent with chemical rate-determining transition-states in which the active-site adjusts to charge-stabilization demand during chemistry depending on base-pair configuration. The Brønsted slopes as well as the intercepts differ dramatically and provide the first direct evidence that dNTP base recognition by the enzyme-primer-template complex triggers a conformational change in the catalytic region of the active-site that significantly modifies the rate-determining chemical step.
Project description:Deoxynucleotide misincorporation efficiencies can span a wide 104-fold range, from ?10-2 to ?10-6, depending principally on polymerase (pol) identity and DNA sequence context. We have addressed DNA pol fidelity mechanisms from a transition-state (TS) perspective using our "tool-kit" of dATP- and dGTP-?,? substrate analogues in which the pyrophosphate leaving group (p Ka4 = 8.9) has been replaced by a series of bisphosphonates covering a broad acidity range spanning p Ka4 values from 7.8 (CF2) to 12.3 [C(CH3)2]. Here, we have used a linear free energy relationship (LFER) analysis, in the form of a Brønsted plot of log( kpol) versus p Ka4, for Y-family error-prone pol ? and X-family pols ? and ? to determine the extent to which different electrostatic active site environments alter kpol values. The apparent chemical rate constant ( kpol) is the rate-determining step for the three pols. The pols each exhibit a distinct catalytic signature that differs for formation of right (A·T) and wrong (G·T) incorporations observed as changes in slopes and displacements of the Brønsted lines, in relation to a reference LFER. Common to this signature among all three pols is a split linear pattern in which the analogues containing two halogens show kpol values that are systematically lower than would be predicted from their p Ka4 values measured in aqueous solution. We discuss how metal ions and active site amino acids are responsible for causing "effective" p Ka4 values that differ for dihalo and non-dihalo substrates as well as for individual R and S stereoisomers for CHF and CHCl.
Project description:DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) from rat brain, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, was used as a model to study the factors responsible for substrate specificity [kpol, Kd(app) and kpol/Kd(app)] and fidelity during DNA synthesis. The roles of two active-site residues, Asn-279 and Tyr-271, were examined by construction of N279A, N279Q, Y271A, Y271F and Y271S mutants followed by structural analyses by NMR and CD and functional analyses by pre-steady-state kinetics. The results are summarized as follows. (i) None of the two-dimensional NMR spectra of the mutants was significantly perturbed relative to that for wild-type pol beta, suggesting that Tyr-271 and Asn-279 are not important for the global structure of the protein. (ii) CD analyses of guanidinium hydrochloride-induced denaturation showed that all mutants behaved similarly to the wild type in the free energy of denaturation, suggesting that Tyr-271 and Asn-279 are not critical for the conformational stability of pol beta. (iii) The Kd(app) for the correct dNTP was lower than that for the incorrect dNTP by a factor of 10-30 in the case of wild-type pol beta. Upon mutation to give N279A and N279Q, the Kd(app) for the correct dNTP increased by a factor of 15-25. As a consequence, the Kd(app) values for the correct and incorrect nucleotides were similar for N279A and N279Q, suggesting that the main function of the side chain of Asn-279 is in discrimination between the binding of correct and incorrect dNTPs. (iv) In the case of the Y271A mutant, the fidelity and the catalytic efficiency kpol/Kd(app) were little perturbed relative to the wild type. However, both the kpol and Kd(app) values for dNTP were 4-8 times lower in the case of the Y271A mutant than the corresponding values for wild-type pol beta. Since the chemical step may not be rate-limiting for wild-type pol beta, the effect on kpol could be quite significant if it is caused by a perturbation in the chemical step. (v) Pol beta displayed the greatest specificity towards the G:C base pair, which is incorporated during base excision repair of G:U and G:T mispairs. This specificity was slightly enhanced for the Y271F mutant.
Project description:Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis was used to compare the catalytic properties of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) for single-base gap-filling and regular duplex DNA synthesis. The rate of polymerization (kpol) and the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of dNTP (Kd) were determined with single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrates for all four possible correct base pairs and twelve possible incorrect base pairs, and the results were compared with those obtained previously with non-gapped primer/template duplex DNA substrates. For correct dNTP incorporation, the use of single-nucleotide gapped DNA led to significant decreases in the Kd of dNTP. Although kpol was little affected, the catalytic efficiency kpol/Kd increased significantly owing to the decreases in Kd. In contrast, for incorrect dNTP incorporation, the use of single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrates did not affect the Kd of dNTP appreciably but caused the kpol (and thus kpol/Kd) for incorrect dNTP incorporation to increase. As a consequence the fidelity of Pol beta was not significantly affected by the use of single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrates. In addition we show that under processive polymerization conditions the processivity of Pol beta increases in the gap-filling synthesis owing to a decreased rate of DNA dissociation. Finally, with a single-nucleotide gapped DNA substrate the rate-limiting conformational change step before chemistry was also observed. However, the preceding fast conformational change observed with duplex DNA substrates was not clearly detected. A possible cause is that in the complex with the gapped DNA, the 8 kDa N-terminal domain of Pol beta already exists in a closed conformation. This interpretation was supported by tryptic digestion experiments.
Project description:We report high-resolution crystal structures of DNA polymerase (pol) ? in ternary complex with a panel of incoming dNTPs carrying acidity-modified 5'-triphosphate groups. These novel dNTP analogues have a variety of halomethylene substitutions replacing the bridging oxygen between P? and P? of the incoming dNTP, whereas other analogues have alkaline substitutions at the bridging oxygen. Use of these analogues allows the first systematic comparison of effects of 5'-triphosphate acidity modification on active site structures and the rate constant of DNA synthesis. These ternary complex structures with incoming dATP, dTTP, and dCTP analogues reveal the enzyme's active site is not grossly altered by the acidity modifications of the triphosphate group, yet with analogues of all three incoming dNTP bases, subtle structural differences are apparent in interactions around the nascent base pair and at the guanidinium groups of active site arginine residues. These results are important for understanding how acidity modification of the incoming dNTP's 5'-triphosphate can influence DNA polymerase activity and the significance of interactions at arginines 183 and 149 in the active site.
Project description:We used a series of dNTP analogues in conjunction with templates containing modified bases to elucidate the role that N(2) of a purine plays during dNTP polymerization by human DNA polymerase alpha. Removing N(2) from dGTP had small effects during correct incorporation opposite C but specifically increased misincorporation opposite A. Adding N(2) to dATP and related analogues had small and variable effects on the efficiency of polymerization opposite T. However, the presence of N(2) greatly enhanced polymerization of these dATP analogues opposite a template C. The ability of N(2) to enhance polymerization opposite C likely results from formation of a hydrogen bond between the purine N(2) and pyrimidine O(2). Even in those cases where formation of a wobble base pair, tautomerization, and/or protonation of the base pair between the incoming dNTP and template base cannot occur (e.g., 2-pyridone.purine (or purine analogue) base pairs), N(2) enhanced formation of the base pair. Importantly, N(2) had similar effects on dNTP polymerization both when added to the incoming purine dNTP and when added to the template base being replicated. The mechanistic implications of these results regarding how pol alpha discriminates between right and wrong dNTPs are discussed.
Project description:K289M is a variant of DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) that has previously been identified in colorectal cancer. The expression of this variant leads to a 16-fold increase in mutation frequency at a specific site in vivo and a reduction in fidelity in vitro in a sequence context-specific manner. Previous work shows that this reduction in fidelity results from a decreased level of discrimination against incorrect nucleotide incorporation at the level of polymerization. To probe the transition state of the K289M mutator variant of pol ?, single-turnover kinetic experiments were performed using ?,?-CXY dGTP analogues with a wide range of leaving group monoacid dissociation constants (pKa4), including a corresponding set of novel ?,?-CXY dCTP analogues. Surprisingly, we found that the values of the log of the catalytic rate constant (kpol) for correct insertion by K289M, in contrast to those of wild-type pol ?, do not decrease with increased leaving group pKa4 for analogues with pKa4 values of <11. This suggests that one of the relative rate constants differs for the K289M reaction in comparison to that of the wild type (WT). However, a plot of log(kpol) values for incorrect insertion by K289M versus pKa4 reveals a linear correlation with a negative slope, in this respect resembling kpol values for misincorporation by the WT enzyme. We also show that some of these analogues improve the fidelity of K289M. Taken together, our data show that Lys289 critically influences the catalytic pathway of pol ?.
Project description:Replicative DNA polymerases are able to discriminate between very similar substrates with high accuracy. One mechanism by which E. coli DNA polymerase I checks for Watson-Crick geometry is through a hydrogen bonding fork between Arg668 and the incoming dNTP and the minor groove of the primer terminus. The importance of the Arg-fork was examined by disrupting it with either a guanine to 3-deazaguanine substitution at the primer terminus or the use of a carbocyclic deoxyribose analog of dUTP. Using thio-substituted dNTPs and differential quench techniques, we determined that when the Arg-fork was disrupted, the rate-limiting step changed from a conformational change to phosphodiester bond formation. This result indicates that Arg668 is involved in the phosphoryl transfer step. We examined the role of the Arg-fork in the replication of four DNA damaged templates, O6-methylguanine (O6-mG), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (oxoG), O2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobutyl]thymine (O2-POB-T), and N2-[(7S,8R,9S,10R)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-8,9,10-trihydroxybenzo[a]pyren-7-yl]-guanine (N2-BP-G). In general, the guanine to 3-deazaguanine substitution caused a decrease in kpol that was proportional to kpol over five orders of magnitude. The linear relationship indicates that the Arg668-fork helps catalyze phosphoryl transfer by the same mechanism with all the substrates. Exceptions to the linear relationship were the incorporations of dTTP opposite G, oxoG, and O6mG, which showed large decreases in kpol, similar to that exhibited by the Watson-Crick base pairs. It was proposed that the incorporation of dTTP opposite G, oxoG, and O6mG occurred via Watson-Crick-like structures.
Project description:SAMHD1 is an intracellular enzyme that specifically degrades deoxynucleoside triphosphates into component nucleoside and inorganic triphosphate. In myeloid-derived dendritic cells and macrophages as well as resting T-cells, SAMHD1 blocks HIV-1 infection through this dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity by reducing the cellular dNTP pool to a level that cannot support productive reverse transcription. We now show that, in addition to this direct effect on virus replication, manipulating cellular SAMHD1 activity can significantly enhance or decrease the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of nucleotide analogue reverse transcription inhibitors presumably as a result of modulating dNTP pools that compete for recruitment by viral polymerases. Further, a variety of other nucleotide-based analogues, not normally considered antiretrovirals, such as the anti-herpes drugs Aciclovir and Ganciclovir and the anti-cancer drug Clofarabine are now revealed as potent anti-HIV-1 agents, under conditions of low dNTPs. This in turn suggests novel uses for nucleotide analogues to inhibit HIV-1 in differentiated cells low in dNTPs.
Project description:DNA polymerases exhibit a surprising tolerance for analogs of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), despite the enzymes' highly evolved mechanisms for the specific recognition and discrimination of native dNTPs. Here, individual DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment (KF) molecules were tethered to a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (SWCNT-FET) to investigate accommodation of dNTP analogs with single-molecule resolution. Each base incorporation accompanied a change in current with its duration defined by ?closed. Under Vmax conditions, the average time of ?closed was similar for all analog and native dNTPs (0.2 to 0.4 ms), indicating no kinetic impact on this step due to analog structure. Accordingly, the average rates of dNTP analog incorporation were largely determined by durations with no change in current defined by ?open, which includes molecular recognition of the incoming dNTP. All ?-thio-dNTPs were incorporated more slowly, at 40 to 65% of the rate for the corresponding native dNTPs. During polymerization with 6-Cl-2APTP, 2-thio-dTTP, or 2-thio-dCTP, the nanocircuit uncovered an alternative conformation represented by positive current excursions that does not occur with native dNTPs. A model consistent with these results invokes rotations by the enzyme's O-helix; this motion can test the stability of nascent base pairs using nonhydrophilic interactions and is allosterically coupled to charged residues near the site of SWCNT attachment. This model with two opposing O-helix motions differs from the previous report in which all current excursions were solely attributed to global enzyme closure and covalent-bond formation. The results suggest the enzyme applies a dynamic stability-checking mechanism for each nascent base pair.