Surgical necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely premature neonates is associated with genetic variations in an intergenic region of chromosome 8.
ABSTRACT: BackgroundTwin studies suggest that genetic factors may account for up to 50% increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but genome-wide association studies for NEC are lacking.MethodsGenotyping was done on Illumina BeadChip, followed by analysis using PLINK with logistic regression under an additive model.ResultsAmong 751 extremely-low-birth-weight (<1,000?g, >401?g) neonates, 30 had surgical NEC. Two hundred and sixty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed association with NEC at P<0.05, of which 35 were significant at P<10-7. Minor allele(s) in a cluster of SNPs spanning a 43-kb region of chromosome 8 (8q23.3) conferred an odds ratio of 4.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.51-8.88) for elevated risk of NEC. Two smaller clusters on chromosome 14 and chromosome 11 exhibited P values of 10-7-10-8. The chromosome 8 cluster is in an intergenic region between CUB and Sushi multiple domains 3 (-1.43?Mb) and trichorhinophalangeal syndrome I (+542?kb). RNA sequencing in this region identified a potential novel open-reading frame corresponding to a long interspersed element-1 retrotransposable element.ConclusionGenetic variation in an intergenic region of chromosome 8 is associated with increased risk for NEC with a mechanism that is yet to be identified.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterised by distinctive craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. TRPS is generally associated with mutations in the TRPS1 gene at 8q23.3 or microdeletions of the 8q23.3-q24.11 region. However, three deletions affecting the same chromosome region and a familial translocation t(8;13) co-segregating with TRPS, which do not encompass or disrupt the TRPS1 gene, have been reported. A deregulated expression of TRPS1 has been hypothesised as cause of the TRPS phenotype of these patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the clinical and molecular characterisation of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman carrying the t(2;8)(p16.1;q23.3) de novo balanced translocation. The proband presented with peculiar clinical features (severe craniofacial dysmorphism, alopecia universalis, severe scoliosis, mitral valve prolapse, mild mental impairment and normal growth parameters) that partially overlap with TRPS I. Mutational and array CGH analyses ruled out any genetic defect affecting TRPS1 or genomic alteration at the translocation breakpoint or elsewhere in the genome. Breakpoint mapping excluded disruption of TRPS1, and revealed that the chromosome 8q23.3 breakpoint was located within the IVS10 of the long intergenic non-coding RNA LINC00536, at approximately 300 kb from the TRPS1 5' end. Conversely, the 2p16.1 breakpoint mapped within a LINE sequence, in a region that lacks transcriptional regulatory elements. As a result of the translocation, nucleotide base pair additions and deletions were detected at both breakpoint junction fragments, and an evolutionarily conserved VISTA enhancer element from 2p16.1 was relocated at approximately 325 kb from the TRPS1 promoter. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the disruption of the genomic architecture of cis regulatory elements downstream the TRPS1 5' region, combined with the translocation of a novel enhancer element nearby TRPS1, might be the pathogenetic mechanism underpinning the proband's phenotype. The clinical and genetic characterisation of the present subject allowed us to make a genetic diagnosis in the context of a known syndrome, contributing to a better comprehension of the complex transcriptional regulation of TRPS1 and TRPS ethiopathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II (TRPS II, OMIM # 150230) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. Loss of functional copies of the TRPS1 gene at 8q23.3 and the EXT1 gene at 8q24.11 are considered to be responsible for the syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION:Herewith, we report an 8-year-old girl with sparse scalp hair, bulbous nose, thin upper lip, broad eyebrows, phalangeal abnormalities of both hands/toes, multiple exostoses, mild intellectual impairment and severe malnutrition. In addition, the patient also had annular pancreas, a rare co-existing feature in patients with TRPS II. CONCLUSIONS:A contiguous 5.47 Mb deletion involving 8q23.3-q24.12 was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), leading to haploinsufficiency of 10 protein coding genes, 1 long non-coding RNA and 1 microRNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) examination confirmed half-reduced DNA copy of the patient and normal expression of both parents, indicating a de novo origin of the deletion and complete penetrance of the mutation.
Project description:Common genetic variation at human 8q23.3 is significantly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. To elucidate the basis of this association we compared the frequency of common variants at 8q23.3 in 1,964 CRC cases and 2,081 healthy controls. Reporter gene studies showed that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16888589 acts as an allele-specific transcriptional repressor. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) analysis demonstrated that the genomic region harboring rs16888589 interacts with the promoter of gene for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit H (EIF3H). We show that increased expression of EIF3H gene increases CRC growth and invasiveness thereby providing a biological mechanism for the 8q23.3 association. These data provide evidence for a functional basis for the non-coding risk variant rs16888589 at 8q23.3 and provides novel insight into the etiological basis of CRC.
Project description:Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Genome-wide association studies in European populations have reported significant associations between sarcoidosis and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the intergenic region between the C10ORF67 and OTUD1 genes on chromosome 10p12, and the ANXA11 gene (chromosome 10q22). We carried out fine-mapping at 10p12 and 10q22 to assess associations of genetic variants in these regions with sarcoidosis risk in African-American women, based on 486 sarcoidosis cases and 943 age- and geography-matched controls in a nested case-control study within the Black Women's Health Study. There were no significant associations with variants of the ANXA11 gene (P=0.17). Haplotypic analyses of the C10ORF67-OTUD1 intergenic region revealed a strong inverse association of the variants rs1398024 and rs11013452 with sarcoidosis (odds ratio=0.52; P=0.01). Both SNPs are located inside an ?300?kb low recombination region of chromosome 10p12, suggesting that both SNPs are tagging the same causal variant. Our top SNP (rs11013452) is located inside a smaller linkage disequilibrium block in HapMap YRI, further narrowing the position of the causal SNP to a region of ~8?kb on chromosome 10p12. The present findings confirm the potential importance of the 10p12 locus in the etiology of sarcoidosis.
Project description:GABRA2 and GABRG1, which encode the alpha-2 and gamma-1 subunits, respectively, of the GABA(A) receptor, are located in a cluster on chromosome 4p. The GABRA2 locus has been found to be associated with alcohol dependence in several studies, but no functional variant that can account for this association has been identified. To understand the reported associations, we sought to understand the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and haplotype structures of these genes. With close intergenic distance, approximately 90 kb, it was anticipated that some markers might show intergenic LD. Variation in 13-SNP haplotype block structure was observed in five different populations: European American, African American, Chinese (Han and Thai), Thai, and Hmong. In the Hmong, a 280-kb region of considerably higher LD spans the intergenic region, whereas in other populations, there were two or more LD blocks that cross this region. These findings may aid in understanding the genetic association of this locus with alcohol dependence in several populations.
Project description:A 4.7 kb sequence-specific insertion in the 26S ribosomal RNA gene of Ascaris lumbricoides, named R4, is shown to be a non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposable element. The R4 element inserts at a site in the large subunit rRNA gene which is midway between two other sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposable elements, R1 and R2, found in most insect species. Based on the structure of its open reading frame and the sequence of its reverse transcriptase domain, R4 elements do not appear to be a family of R1 or R2 elements that have changed their insertion site. R4 is most similar in structure and in sequence to the element Dong, which is not specialized for insertion into rRNA units. Thus R4 represents a separate non-LTR retrotransposable element that has become specialized for insertion in the rRNA genes of its host. Using oligonucleotide primers directed to a conserved region of the reverse transcriptase encoding domain, insertions in the R4 site were also amplified from Parascaris equorum and Haemonchus contortus. Why several non-LTR retrotransposable elements have become specialized for insertion into a short (87 bp) region of the large subunit rRNA gene is discussed.
Project description:The Salmonella enterica smpB-nrdE intergenic region contains about 45 kb of DNA that is not present in Escherichia coli. This DNA region was not introduced by a single horizontal transfer event, but was generated by multiple insertions and/or deletions that gave rise to a mosaic structure in this area of the chromosome.
Project description:Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a retrotransposable element that has shaped the evolution of mammalian genomes. There is increasing evidence that transcriptionally active L1 could have been co-opted through evolution to play various roles including X-inactivation, homologous recombination and gene regulation. Here, we compare putatively active L1 distributions in the mouse with human. L1 density is higher in the mouse except for the Y-chromosome. L1 density is the highest in X-chromosome, implying an X-inactivation role. L1 is more common outside genes (intergenic) except for the Y-chromosome in both species. The structure of mouse L1 is distinguished from human L1 by the presence of a 200 bp repeat in the 5' UTR of the former. We found that mouse intragenic L1 has significantly higher repeat copy numbers than intergenic L1, suggesting that this is important for control of L1 expression. Furthermore, a significant association between the presence of intragenic L1s and down-regulated genes in early embryogenesis was found in both species. In conclusion, the distribution of L1 in the mouse genome points to biological roles of L1 in mouse similar to human.
Project description:Physical interactions between genetic elements located throughout the genome play important roles in gene regulation and can be identified with the Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) methodology. 3C converts physical chromatin interactions into specific ligation products, which are quantified individually by PCR. Here we present a high-throughput 3C approach, 3C-Carbon Copy (5C), that employs microarrays or quantitative DNA sequencing using 454-technology as detection methods. We applied 5C to analyze a 400-kb region containing the human beta-globin locus and a 100-kb conserved gene desert region. We validated 5C by detection of several previously identified looping interactions in the beta-globin locus. We also identified a new looping interaction in K562 cells between the beta-globin Locus Control Region and the gamma-beta-globin intergenic region. Interestingly, this region has been implicated in the control of developmental globin gene switching. 5C should be widely applicable for large-scale mapping of cis- and trans- interaction networks of genomic elements and for the study of higher-order chromosome structure.
Project description:Genotyping of a 615 kb region within 8q24 with 49 haplotype-tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2109 samples (797 cases and 1312 controls) of two ethnic/racial groups found SNPs that are significantly associated with the risk for prostate cancer (PCa). The highest significance in Caucasian men was found for rs6983267; the AA genotype reduced the risk for PCa [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.35-0.65, P = 2.74 x 10(-6)]. This SNP also had a significant independent effect from other SNPs in the region in this group. In Hispanic men, rs7837328 and rs921146 showed independent effects (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.51-4.31, P = 4.33 x 10(-4), OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.40-3.12, P = 3.13 x 10(-4), respectively). Significant synergist effects for increasing numbers of high-risk alleles were found in both ethnicities. Haplotype analysis revealed major haplotypes, containing the non-risk alleles, conferred protection against PCa. We found high linkage disequilibrium between significant SNPs within the region and SNPs within the CUB and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 gene (CSMD1), on the short arm of chromosome 8 in both ethnicities. These data suggest that multiple interacting SNPs within 8q24, as well as different regions on chromosome 8 far beyond this 8q24 candidate region, may confer increased risk of PCa. This is the first report to investigate the involvement of 8q24 variants in the susceptibility for PCa in Hispanic men.