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Redescription of Tintinnopsis everta Kofoid and Campbell 1929 (Alveolata, Ciliophora, Tintinnina) Based on Taxonomic and Genetic Analyses-Discovery of a New Complex Ciliary Pattern.


ABSTRACT: The about 1,000 species of tintinnid ciliates are identified and classified almost exclusively based on their lorica features, although the shortcomings of this structure are well-known, e.g. causing uncertain species limitations and nonmonophyletic taxa. Hence, the present redescription of Tintinnopsis everta Kofoid and Campbell, 1929 considers not only the lorica characteristics, but focuses on cell and genetic features. The species is redescribed from the North Atlantic and adjacent sea areas, namely the east coast of the USA, using live observation, protargol-stained material, scanning electron microscopy, and genetic analyses. The main stages of cell division are described, and the species' phylogenetic relationships are inferred from morphological data and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The estimates of its biogeographical distribution and autecology are based on a literature survey. The species is characterised by a complex somatic ciliary pattern with a unique position of the posterior kinety and a conspicuously large distance between the somatic ciliary fields and the collar membranelles. The phylogenetic relationships of Tintinnopsis everta vary in the molecular trees depending on the algorithms used and are, therefore, regarded as unresolved. Nevertheless, the new kind of complex somatic ciliary pattern distinctly contributes to a better understanding of the tintinnid biodiversity and evolution and provides features for a future split of the nonmonophyletic genus Tintinnopsis.

SUBMITTER: Gruber MS 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6055699 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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