Redescription of Tintinnopsis everta Kofoid and Campbell 1929 (Alveolata, Ciliophora, Tintinnina) Based on Taxonomic and Genetic Analyses-Discovery of a New Complex Ciliary Pattern.
ABSTRACT: The about 1,000 species of tintinnid ciliates are identified and classified almost exclusively based on their lorica features, although the shortcomings of this structure are well-known, e.g. causing uncertain species limitations and nonmonophyletic taxa. Hence, the present redescription of Tintinnopsis everta Kofoid and Campbell, 1929 considers not only the lorica characteristics, but focuses on cell and genetic features. The species is redescribed from the North Atlantic and adjacent sea areas, namely the east coast of the USA, using live observation, protargol-stained material, scanning electron microscopy, and genetic analyses. The main stages of cell division are described, and the species' phylogenetic relationships are inferred from morphological data and the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The estimates of its biogeographical distribution and autecology are based on a literature survey. The species is characterised by a complex somatic ciliary pattern with a unique position of the posterior kinety and a conspicuously large distance between the somatic ciliary fields and the collar membranelles. The phylogenetic relationships of Tintinnopsis everta vary in the molecular trees depending on the algorithms used and are, therefore, regarded as unresolved. Nevertheless, the new kind of complex somatic ciliary pattern distinctly contributes to a better understanding of the tintinnid biodiversity and evolution and provides features for a future split of the nonmonophyletic genus Tintinnopsis.
Project description:Tintinnid ciliates have traditionally been described and classified exclusively based on their lorica features. Although information on the cell characters is urgently needed for a natural classification, more molecular than cytological data has been accumulated over recent years. Apparently, the tintinnids developed in the marine environment and entered freshwater several times independently. Typical freshwater tintinnids belong to the genera Tintinnidium and Membranicola. The species are comparatively well-known regarding their morphology and characterised by two unusual de novo originating ciliary rows, the ventral organelles. In contrast, the cell features in the marine/brackish Tintinnidium species, specifically their somatic ciliary patterns, are insufficiently known or not known at all. Therefore, the morphology of a common marine/brackish representative, Tintinnidium mucicola, is redescribed based on live observation and protargol-stained material. Furthermore, biogeographical and autecological data of the species are compiled from literature and own records. The phylogenetic relationships of T. mucicola are inferred and the diversity of the family Tintinnidiidae is assessed from 18S rDNA sequences. The study shows that T. mucicola is not only molecularly distinct, but also characterised by many plesiomorphic features, for instance, it does not possess a verifiable homologue to the ventral organelles. Hence, a new genus, Antetintinnidium nov. gen., is established for T. mucicola. The new insights into the diversity of Tintinnidiidae shed light on the early evolution of tintinnids and might provide clues on their adaptions to freshwater.
Project description:This article contains supportive data related to a research article entitled "Annual variation of species richness and lorica oral diameter characteristics of tintinnids in a semi-enclosed bay of western Pacific" (Feng et al., 2018) . This article describes long term data of tintinnid assemblages in Jiaozhou Bay, Yellow sea, a semi-enclosed basin ecosystem of western Pacific, from May 2003 to December 2012. We sum up the whole dataset for each year showing tintinnid species occurrence and abundance at each site by date, as well as the photographic documentation of each tintinnid species. Further interpretation and discussion can be found in recently published by Feng et al. in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science at Science.
Project description:The latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known biogeographic pattern. However, rarely considered is how a cline in species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another) or fewer trace species, those occurring in very low concentrations. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics, whereas those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. In lower latitudes there are more trace species, more size-classes and the dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates. Furthermore, the relatively small species pools of the northern high latitude assemblages suggest a low capacity to adapt to changing conditions.
Project description:The conjugation of Halteria grandinella was studied in protargol preparations. The isogamontic conjugants fuse partially with their ventral sides to a homopolar pair. The first maturation division generates dramatic transformations: (i) the partners obtain an interlocking arrangement; (ii) the number of bristle kineties decreases from seven to four in each partner; and (iii) the right conjugant loses its buccal membranelles, the left the whole adoral zone. The remaining collar membranelles arrange around the pair's anterior end and are shared by both partners; finally, the couple resembles a vegetative specimen in size and outline. The vegetative macronucleus fragments before pycnosis. The micronucleus performs three maturation divisions, but only one derivative each performs the second and third division. The synkaryon divides twice, producing a micronucleus, a macronucleus anlage, and two disintegrating derivatives. Scattered somatic kinetids occur during conjugation, but disappear without reorganization. An incomplete oral primordium originates in both partners. The conjugation of Halteria grandinella resembles in several respects that of hypotrich spirotrichs; however, the majority of morphological, ontogenetical, and ultrastructural features still indicates an affiliation with the oligotrich and choreotrich spirotrichs. Accordingly, the cladistic analysis still contradicts the genealogy based on the sequences of the small subunit rRNA gene.
Project description:Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.
Project description:Tintinnids are planktonic ciliates that play an important role in marine ecosystem. According to their distribution in the world oceans, tintinnid genera were divided into several biogeographical types such as boreal, warm water, austral and neritic. Therefore, the oceanic tintinnid assemblage could be correspondingly divided into boreal assemblage, warm water assemblage and austral assemblage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of boreal tintinnid assemblage in the Northwest Pacific and the Arctic, and to identify the connection between boreal tintinnid assemblage and neighboring assemblages. Surface water samples were collected along a transect from the East China Sea to the Chukchi Sea in summer 2014. According to the presence of boreal genera and warm water genera, three tintinnid assemblages (the East China Sea neritic assemblage, the Japan Sea warm water assemblage, and the boreal assemblage) were identified along the transect. The boreal assemblage extended from the Chukchi Sea to the waters north of the S?ya Strait. Densities peaks occurred at stations in the two branches of the Alaska Current and decreased both northward and southward. The densities were <10 ind./dm3 at most stations in Arctic region. The dominant genera (Acanthostomella, Codonellopsis, Parafavella, and Ptychocylis) accounted for 79.07±29.67% (n = 49) of the abundance in the boreal assemblage. The densities of the dominant genera covaried with strongly significant positive correlations. Tintinnids with lorica oral diameter of 22-26 ?m and 38-42 ?m were dominant and contributed 67.35% and 15.13%, respectively, to the total abundance in the boreal assemblage. The distribution and densities of tintinnids in the study area suggest that the S?ya Strait might be a geographical barrier for tintinnids expansion.
Project description:Tintinnids (Ciliophora: Spirotricha: Tintinnina) are occasionally the dominant ciliates in the marine plankton. The tintinnid loricae are minute artworks fascinating scientists for more than 230 years, but their chemical composition remained unclear, viz., chitinous or proteinaceous substances were discussed. Since sedimenting loricae contribute to the flux of elements and organic compounds in the oceans, knowledge about their nature is necessary in assessing their ecological role. Previous techniques and new methods, e.g. enzymatic digestion and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, are applied in the present study. A chitinous nature of the loricae is rejected by the Van-Wisselingh test and failure of chitinase digestion. Only proteins might show a resistance against strong hot bases (KOH at 160°C for ~ 40 min. in tintinnid loricae) similar to that of chitin. Actually, the presence of nitrogen in the EDX analyses and the digestion of at least some loricae by proteinase K strongly indicate a proteinaceous nature. Furthermore, the crystal lattice revealed by high-resolution TEM in Eutintinnus loricae is similar to the proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) of archaea, and the striation recognizable in transverse sections of Eutintinnus loricae has a periodicity resembling that of the crystalline proteins in the extruded trichocysts of Paramecium and Frontonia. The proteolytic resistance of some loricae does not reject the idea of a proteinaceous nature, as proteins in S-layers of some archaea and in most naturally occurring prions show comparable reactions. The data from the present study and the literature indicate proteins in the loricae of thirteen genera. Differences in the proteolytic resistance and staining properties between genera and congeners are probably due to deviations in the protein composition and the additional substances, e.g. lipids, carbohydrates. At the present state of knowledge, correlations between lorica structure, wall texture, ultrastructure of the lorica forming granules, and the histochemical and enzymatic findings are not evident. Therefore, further studies are required to estimate the taxonomic significance of these features and the ecological role of sedimenting loricae.
Project description:The phylogeny within the order Choreotrichida is reconstructed using (i) morphologic, ontogenetic, and ultrastructural evidence for the cladistic approach and (ii) the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) gene sequences, including the new sequence of Rimostrombidium lacustris. The morphologic cladograms and the gene trees converge rather well for the Choreotrichida, demonstrating that hyaline and agglutinated loricae do not characterize distinct lineages, i.e., both lorica types can be associated with the most highly developed ciliary pattern. The position of Rimostrombidium lacustris within the family Strobilidiidae is corroborated by the genealogical analyses. The diagnosis of the genus Tintinnidium is improved, adding cytological features, and the genus is divided into two subgenera based on the structure of the somatic kineties. The diagnosis of the family Lohmanniellidae and the genus Lohmanniella are improved, and Rimostrombidium glacicolum Petz, Song and Wilbert, 1995 is affiliated.
Project description:Using morphological, morphometrical, and molecular methods, we describe Leptopharynx bromelicola n. sp. from tank bromeliads of Jamaica. We add significant data to Leptopharynx costatus and briefly characterize and review the genus Leptopharynx Mermod, 1914, including four new combinations. Nine species can be distinguished when applying the following main features and assuming that most or all have the ability to produce macrostomes (MAs): distinct ridges along the right side ciliary rows; special features like spines or wings on the body and of the oral basket; dikinetids present vs. absent from somatic kinety 3; number of kinetids in kinety 6 as two for the costatus pattern and ? five for the bromelicola pattern; beginning and structure of kinety 9 as either underneath or far underneath the adoral membranelles and with or without dikinetids; postoral complex present vs. absent; and preoral kinety 4 continuous vs. discontinuous. The 18S rDNA sequences of L. bromelicola and L. costatus differ by 1.7% and show that Leptopharynx forms a distinct clade within the Nassophorea Small & Lynn, 1981. Leptopharynx bromelicola is possibly closely related to Leptopharynx euglenivora Kahl, 1926, which, however, lacks the basket nose so typical of the former. Leptopharynx forms thin-walled, non-kinetosome-resorbing resting cysts maintaining most of the trophic organelles.
Project description:An integrated approach considering both morphologic and molecular data is now required to improve biodiversity estimations and provide more robust systematics interpretations in hypotrichs, a highly differentiated group of ciliates. In present study, we document a new hypotrich species, Lamtostyla gui n. sp., collected from Chongming wetland, Shanghai, China, based on investigations using living observation, protargol staining, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and gene sequencing. The new species is mainly recognized by having a short amphisiellid median cirral row composed of four cirri, three frontoventral cirri, three dorsal kinetids, four to eight macronuclear nodules, and small colorless cortical granules distributed as rosettes around dorsal bristles. Transmission electron microscope observation finds the associated microtubules of cirri and pharyngeal discs of L. gui are distinct from those in other hypotrichs. Morphogenesis of this species indicates that parental adoral membranelles retained intact or partial renewed is a potential feature to separate Lamtostyla granulifera-group and Lamtostyla lamottei-group. Phylogenetic analysis based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shows that this molecular marker is not useful to resolve phylogenetic relationships of the genus Lamtostyla, as well as many other hypotrichous taxa. We additionally characterize the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region and the almost complete large subunit rRNA, which will be essential for future studies aimed at solving phylogenetic problems of Lamtostyla, or even the family Amphisiellidae. As a final remark, the critical screening of GenBank using ITS genes of our organism allows us to recognize a large amount of hypotrichous sequences have been misclassified as fungi. This observation suggests that hypotrichs could be frequently found in fungi-rich environment and overlooked by fungal specialists.