Admission prevalence of colonization with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and subsequent infection rates in a German university hospital.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Many patients admitted to a hospital are already colonized with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) including third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCREB). The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of rectal 3GCREB colonization at admission to a large German university hospital and to estimate infection incidences. In addition, risk factors for 3GCREB colonization were identified. MATERIALS/METHODS:In 2014 and 2015, patients were screened for rectal colonization with 3GCREB and filled out a questionnaire on potential risk factors at admission to a non-intensive care unit (non-ICU). All patients were retrospectively monitored for bacterial infections. Descriptive, univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for 3GCREB colonization at admission. RESULTS:Of 4,013 patients included, 10.3% (n = 415) were rectally colonized with 3GCREB at admission. Incidence of nosocomial infections was 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.1) per 100 patients rectally colonized with 3GCREB compared to 2.3 (95% CI 1.8-3.0, P = 0.213) per 100 3GCREB negative patients. Independent risk factors for 3GCREB colonization were prior colonization / infection with MDRO (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.59-3.32), prior antimicrobial treatment (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.59-2.45), male sex (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.70), prior travelling outside Europe (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.77-3.22) and places of residence in the Berlin districts Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06-2.18), Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.44-3.74) and Mitte (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.26-2.36). CONCLUSIONS:Admission prevalence of rectal colonization with 3GCREB was high, while infection incidence did not significantly differ between patients rectally colonized or not with 3GCREB at hospital admission. In consequence, hospitals should prioritize improvement of standard precautions including hand hygiene to prevent infections among all patients irrespective of their 3GCREB status at hospital admission.
Project description:OBJECTIVE To characterize the microbial disruption indices of hospitalized patients to predict colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). DESIGN A cross-sectional survey of the fecal microbiome was conducted in a tertiary referral, acute-care hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS The study population consisted of adult patients hospitalized in general medical/surgical wards. METHODS Rectal swabs were obtained from patients within 48 hours of hospital admission and screened for MDRO colonization using conventional culture techniques. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to assess the fecal microbiome. Microbial diversity and composition, as well as the functional potential of the microbial communities present in fecal samples, were compared between patients with and without MDRO colonization. RESULTS A total of 44 patients were included in the study, of whom 11 (25%) were colonized with at least 1 MDRO. Reduced microbial diversity and high abundance of metabolic pathways associated with multidrug-resistance mechanisms characterized the fecal microbiome of patients colonized with MDRO at hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that microbial disruption indices may be key to predicting MDRO colonization and could provide novel infection control approaches. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1312-1318.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The global spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) complicates treatment and isolation measures in hospitals and has shown to increase mortality. Patients with disease- or therapy-related immunodeficiency are especially at risk for fatal infections caused by MDRO. The impact of MDRO colonization on the clinical course of AML patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy-a potentially curative but highly toxic treatment option-has not been systematically studied. MATERIALS & METHODS:312 AML patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy between 2007 and 2015 were examined for MDRO colonization. Patients with evidence for MDRO before or during the hospital stay of induction chemotherapy were defined as colonized, patients who never had a positive swab for MDRO were defined as noncolonized. RESULTS:Of 312 AML patients 90 were colonized and 130 were noncolonized. Colonized patients suffered from significantly more days with fever, spent more days on the intensive care unit and had a higher median C-reactive protein value during the hospital stay. These findings did not result in a prolonged length of hospital stay or an increased mortality rate for colonized patients. However, in a subgroup analysis, patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) had a significantly reduced 60- and 90-day, as well as 1- and 2-year survival rates when compared to noncolonized patients. CONCLUSION:Our analysis highlights the importance of intensive MDRO screening especially in patients with febrile neutropenia since persisting fever can be a sign of MDRO-colonization. CRE-colonized patients require special surveillance, since they seem to be at risk for death.
Project description:China's Ministry of Health (MOH) has established a policy about the antimicrobial stewardship. To date, the effects of this policy on multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) in critically ill patients are unknown.A pre-post study was conducted on intensive care unit (ICU) patients from June 2010 to May 2011 and from June 2012 to May 2013. Bacterial cultures were conducted at ICU admission and discharge. In June 2011, our hospital started to administer the antimicrobial stewardship program of Chinese MOH. We collected the data on antimicrobial consumption during the 3-year period in all hospital and individual department every month, and analyzed the correlation between the proportion of critically patients colonized or infected with MDRO and antimicrobial consumption.A total of 978 patients were involved in the present study. With the intervention, the monthly mean Defined Daily Dose (DDD) per 100 occupied bed-days throughout the hospital decreased from 96?±?7 to 65?±?6 (p?<?0.001), and the proportion of patients colonized or infected with MDRO decreased from 36 to 13% at the time of ICU admission and declined from 48 to 29% at the time of ICU discharge (both p?<?0.001). There was a significant positive relationship between the proportion of all critically ill patients colonized or infected with MDRO at ICU admission and the DDD of the entire hospital (R2?=?0.7858, p?<?0.001).The antimicrobial stewardship program of Chinese MOH reduced the consumption of antibiotics. Moreover, the proportion of patients colonized or infected with MDRO decreased along with reduced consumption of antibiotics.Retrospectively registered: NCT02128399; Date of registration: 22 APR 2014; Detail information web link: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02128399?term=NCT02128399&rank=1.
Project description:The incidence rate of infection by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) can affect the accuracy of etiological diagnosis when using American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. We determined the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization by MDROs over 18 months at a single ICU in eastern China.This prospective observational study examined consecutive patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Nanjing, China. MDROs were defined as bacteria that were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. Screening for MDROs was performed at ICU admission and discharge. Risk factors for infection or colonization with MDROs were recorded, and the accuracy of the ATS guidelines in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs was documented.There were 610 patients, 225 (37%) of whom were colonized or infected with MDROs at ICU admission, and this increased to 311 (51%) at discharge. At admission, the sensitivity (70.0%), specificity (31.6%), positive predictive value (38.2%), and negative predictive value (63.5%), all based on ATS guidelines for infection or colonization with MDROs were low. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 31-40% than in patients from departments with MDRO infection rates of 30% or less and from departments with MDRO infection rates more than 40%.ATS criteria were not reliable in predicting infection or colonization with MDROs in our ICU. The negative predictive value was greater in patients from departments with intermediate rates of MDRO infection than in patients from departments with low or high rates of MDRO infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01667991.
Project description:Background:The spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is a global concern, and much about transmission in healthcare systems remains unknown. To reduce hospital stays, nursing facilities (NFs) have increasingly assumed care of post-acute populations. We estimate the prevalence of MDRO colonization in NF patients on enrollment and discharge to community settings, risk factors for colonization, and rates of acquiring MDROs during the stay. Methods:We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of newly admitted patients in 6 NFs in southeast Michigan using active microbial surveillance of multiple anatomic sites sampled at enrollment, days 14 and 30, and monthly thereafter for up to 6 months. Results:We enrolled 651 patients and collected 7526 samples over 1629 visits, with an average of 29 days of follow-up per participant. Nearly all participants were admitted for post-acute care (95%). More than half (56.8%) were colonized with MDROs at enrollment: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 16.1%; vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), 33.2%; and resistant gram-negative bacilli (R-GNB), 32.0%. Risk factors for colonization at enrollment included prolonged hospitalization (>14 days), functional disability, antibiotic use, or device use. Rates per 1000 patient-days of acquiring a new MDRO were MRSA, 3.4; VRE, 8.2; and R-GNB, 13.6. MDRO colonization at discharge was similar to that at enrollment (56.4%): MRSA, 18.4%; VRE, 30.3%; and R-GNB, 33.6%. Conclusions:Short-stay NF patients exhibit a high prevalence of MDROs near the time of admission, as well as at discharge, and may serve as a reservoir for spread in other healthcare settings. Future interventions to reduce MDROs should specifically target this population.
Project description:Clostridium difficile infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Besides infected patients, carriers have emerged as a key player in C. difficile epidemiology. In this study, we evaluated the impact of identifying and isolating carriers upon hospital admission on the incidence of CDI incidence and hospital-acquired C. difficile colonization, as a single policy and as part of bundle approaches. We simulated C. difficile transmission using a stochastic mathematical approach, considering the contribution of carriers based on published literature. In the baseline scenario, CDI incidence was 6.18/1,000 admissions (95% CI, 5.72-6.65), simulating reported estimates from U.S. hospital discharges. The acquisition rate of C. difficile carriage was 9.72/1,000 admissions (95% CI, 9.15-10.31). Screening and isolation of colonized patients on admission to the hospital decreased CDI incidence to 4.99/1,000 admissions (95% CI, 4.59-5.42; relative reduction (RR) = 19.1%) and led to 36.2% reduction in the rate of hospital-acquired colonization. Simulating an antimicrobial stewardship program reduced CDI rate to 2.35/1,000 admissions (95% CI, 2.07-2.65). In sensitivity analysis, CDI incidence was less than 2.32/1,000 admissions (RR = 62.4%) in 95% of 1,000 simulations. The combined bundle, focusing on reducing C. difficile transmission from colonized patients and the individual risk of these patients to develop CDI, decreased significantly the incidence of both CDI and hospital-acquired colonization. Implementation of this bundle to current practice is expected to have an important impact in containing CDI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare exposure may increase drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization risk. Nascent antimicrobial stewardship efforts in low- and middle-income countries require setting-specific data. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for inpatient drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization in a resource-limited setting in India. METHODS:Patients age???6 months admitted with ?24 h of fever to a tertiary hospital in Pune, India were enrolled in a prospective cohort. Perirectal swabs, collected on admission and hospitalization day 3 or 4, were cultured in vancomycin- and ceftriaxone-impregnated media to assess for ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CTRE) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPRE). Multivariable analyses assessed risk factors for drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization among participants without admission colonization. RESULTS:Admission perirectal swabs were collected on 897 participants; 87 (10%) had CTRE and 14 (1.6%) had CPRE colonization. Admission CTRE colonization was associated with recent healthcare contact (p?<?0.01). Follow-up samples were collected from 620 participants, 67 (11%) had CTRE and 21 (3.4%) had CPRE colonization. Among 561 participants without enrollment CTRE colonization, 49 (9%) participants were colonized with CTRE at follow-up. Detection of CTRE colonization among participants not colonized with CTRE at admission was independently associated with empiric third generation cephalosporin treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.8). Follow-up transition to CPRE colonization detection was associated with ICU admission (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0-8.5). CONCLUSIONS:Patients who receive empiric third generation cephalosporins and are admitted to the ICU rapidly develop detectable CTRE and CPRE colonization. Improved antimicrobial stewardship and infection control measures are urgently needed upon hospital admission.
Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen and leading cause of hospital-associated infections. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are particularly at risk. Klebsiella pneumoniae is part of the healthy human microbiome, providing a potential reservoir for infection. However, the frequency of gut colonization and its contribution to infections are not well characterized.We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study in which 498 ICU patients were screened for rectal and throat carriage of K. pneumoniae shortly after admission. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from screening swabs and clinical diagnostic samples were characterized using whole genome sequencing and combined with epidemiological data to identify likely transmission events.Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage frequencies were estimated at 6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3%-8%) among ICU patients admitted direct from the community, and 19% (95% CI, 14%-51%) among those with recent healthcare contact. Gut colonization on admission was significantly associated with subsequent infection (infection risk 16% vs 3%, odds ratio [OR] = 6.9, P < .001), and genome data indicated matching carriage and infection isolates in 80% of isolate pairs. Five likely transmission chains were identified, responsible for 12% of K. pneumoniae infections in ICU. In sum, 49% of K. pneumoniae infections were caused by the patients' own unique strain, and 48% of screened patients with infections were positive for prior colonization.These data confirm K. pneumoniae colonization is a significant risk factor for infection in ICU, and indicate ~50% of K. pneumoniae infections result from patients' own microbiota. Screening for colonization on admission could limit risk of infection in the colonized patient and others.
Project description:Gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (GN-MDRO) producing ?-lactamases (ESBL, plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases and carbapenemases) are increasingly reported throughout Asia. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the rate of bacterial colonization in patients from two hospitals in the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar. Rectal swabs were obtained from patients referred to the National Traumatology and Orthopaedics Research Centre (NTORC) or the Burn Treatment Centre (BTC) between July and September 2014, on admission and again after 14 days. Bacteria growing on selective chromogenic media (CHROMagar ESBL/KPC) were identified by MALDI-ToF MS. We performed susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and PCR (blaIMP-1, blaVIM, blaGES, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA-48, blaGIM-1, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24/40, blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaOXA-143, blaOXA-235, blaCTX-M, blaSHV blaTEM and plasmid-mediated blaAmpC). Carbapenemase-producing isolates were additionally genotyped by PFGE and MLST. During the study period 985 patients in the NTORC and 65 patients in the BTC were screened on admission. The prevalence of GN-MDRO-carriage was 42.4% and 69.2% respectively (p<0.001). Due to the different medical specialities the two study populations differed significantly in age (p<0.029) and gender (p<0.001) with younger and more female patients in the burn centre (BTC). We did not observe a significant difference in colonization rate in the respective age groups in the total study population. In both centres most carriers were colonized with CTX-M-producing E. coli, followed by CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae and CTX-M-producing E. cloacae. 158 patients from the NTORC were re-screened after 14 days of whom 99 had acquired a new GN-MDRO (p<0.001). Carbapenemases were detected in both centres in four OXA-58-producing A. baumannii isolates (ST642) and six VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa isolates (ST235). This study shows a high overall prevalence of GN-MDRO in the study population and highlights the importance of routine surveillance, appropriate infection control practice and antibiotic prescribing policies to prevent further spread especially of carbapenemases.
Project description:The emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is a global threat. Characterizing the human microbiome among hospitalized patients and identifying unique microbial signatures among those patients who acquire MDROs may identify novel infection prevention strategies.Adult patients admitted to 5 general medical-surgical floors at a 649-bed, tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts, were classified according to in-hospital antimicrobial exposure and MDRO colonization status. Within 48 hours of hospital admission (baseline) and at discharge (follow-up), rectal swab samples were obtained, and compared with samples from an external control group of healthy persons from the community. DNA was extracted from samples, next-generation sequencing performed, and microbial community structure and taxonomic features assessed, comparing those who acquired MDROs and those who had not, and the external controls.Hospitalized patients (n = 44) had reduced microbial diversity and a greater abundance of Escherichia spp. and Enterococcus spp. than healthy controls (n = 26). Among hospitalized patients, 25 had no MDROs at the time of the baseline sample and were also exposed to antimicrobials. Among this group, 7 (28%) acquired ?1 MDRO; demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between MDRO-acquisition and MDRO-nonacquisition groups. Patients in the nonacquisition group had consistently higher Lactobacillus spp. abundance than those in the acquisition group (linear discriminant score, 3.97; P = .04).The fecal microbiota of the hospitalized subjects had abnormal community composition, and Lactobacillus spp. was associated with lack of MDRO acquisition, consistent with a protective role.