Outcome of 449 adult patients with rhabdomyosarcoma: an observational ambispective nationwide study.
ABSTRACT: Five-year overall survival (OS) of localized RMS exceeds 70% in children (<18) but is very poor in adult patients. We analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors (PF) of a national series of adult patients with RMS in a large study. The study population consisted of two different cohorts: a retrospective cohort (157 adult patients treated in 13 reference centers between 05/1981 and 02/2010) and the prospective cohort (292 patients with RMS diagnosed and treated between 01/2010 and 12/2014 in France) included in the NetSarc database. A descriptive analysis of patients' characteristics and prognostic factors was conducted on both series which were compared. In the retrospective series, histological subtypes were embryonal (E-RMS) for 21% of patients, alveolar (A-RMS) for 35% of patients, and "adult-type" P-RMS (pleomorphic, spindle cell RMS, not otherwise specified) (P) for 44% patients. This distribution significantly differed in the prospective cohort: A-RMS: 18%; E-RMS: 17%; and P-RMS 65%. With a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 5-year OS for localized RMS and advanced RMS (with nodes and/or metastases) was 43% and 5%, respectively, (P < 0.0001), and median OS was 51, 33, and 16 months for E-RMS, A-RMS, and P-RMS, respectively, in the retrospective cohort. The median OS was less than 40 months for the prospective nationwide cohort for the entire population. In a multivariate analysis of the retrospective study, independent prognostic factors for OS were A-RMS, R0 resection, and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). For localized RMS, age and use of pediatric chemotherapy (CT) regimen are independent prognostic factors. Adult patients with RMS have a poorer overall survival than pediatric patients, and survival varies considerably across histological subtypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies of the prognostic importance of FOXO1 fusion status in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have had conflicting results. We re-examined risk stratification by adding FOXO1 status to traditional clinical prognostic factors in children with localized or metastatic RMS. METHODS:Data from six COG clinical trials (D9602, D9802, D9803, ARST0331, ARTS0431, ARST0531; two studies each for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients) accruing previously untreated patients with RMS from 1997 to 2013 yielded 1727 evaluable patients. Survival tree regression for event-free survival (EFS) was conducted to recursively select prognostic factors for branching and split. Factors included were age, FOXO1, clinical group, histology, nodal status, number of metastatic sites, primary site, sex, tumor size, and presence of metastases in bone/bone marrow, soft tissue, effusions, lung, distant lymph nodes, and other sites. Definition and outcome of the proposed risk groups were compared to existing systems and cross-validated results. RESULTS:The 5-year EFS and overall survival (OS) for evaluable patients were 69% and 79%, respectively. Extent of disease (localized versus metastatic) was the first split (EFS 73% vs 30%; OS 84% vs. 42%). FOXO1 status (positive vs negative) was significant in the second split both for localized (EFS 52% vs 78%; OS 65% vs 88%) and metastatic disease (EFS 6% vs 46%; OS 19% vs 58%). CONCLUSIONS:After metastatic status, FOXO1 status is the most important prognostic factor in patients with RMS and improves risk stratification of patients with localized RMS. Our findings support incorporation of FOXO1 status in risk stratified clinical trials.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The outcome of sarcoma has been suggested in retrospective and non-exhaustive studies to be better through management by a multidisciplinary team of experts and adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The aim of this prospective and exhaustive population based study was to confirm the impact of adherence to CPGs on survival in patients with localized sarcoma.<h4>Experimental design</h4>Between 2005 and 2007, all evaluable adult patients with a newly diagnosis of localized sarcoma located in Rhone Alpes region (n = 634), including 472 cases of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), were enrolled. The prognostic impact of adherence to CPGs on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed by multivariate Cox model in this cohort.<h4>Results</h4>The median age was 61 years (range 16-92). The most common subtypes were liposarcoma (n = 133, 28%), unclassified sarcoma (n = 98, 20.7%) and leiomyosarcoma (n = 69, 14.6%). In the initial management phase, from diagnosis to adjuvant treatment, the adherence to CPGs for patients with localized STS was 36% overall, corresponding to 56%, 85%, 96% and 84% for initial surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and follow-up, respectively. Adherence to CPGs for surgery was the strongest independent prognostic factor of PFS, along with age, gender, grade, and tumor size. For OS, multivariate analysis adherence to CPGs for surgery was a strong independent prognostic factor, with an important interaction with a management in the regional expert centers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrates impact of CPGs and treatment within an expert center on survival for STS patients in a whole population-based cohort.
Project description:Parameningeal (PM) site is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in children with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To identify risk factors associated with outcome at this site, we pooled data from 1105 patients treated in 10 studies conducted by European and North American cooperative groups between 1984 and 2004.Clinical factors including age, histology, size, invasiveness, nodal involvement, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group, site, risk factors for meningeal involvement (MI), study group, and application of radiotherapy (RT) were studied for their impact on event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS).Ten-year EFS and OS were 62.6 and 66.1% for the whole group. Patients without initial RT showed worse survival (10-year OS 40.8% versus 68.5% for RT treated patients). Multivariate analysis focusing on 862 patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment revealed four unfavorable prognostic factors: age <3 or >10 years, signs of MI, unfavorable site, and tumor size. Utilizing these prognostic factors, patients could be classified into different risk groups with 10-year OS ranging between 51.1 and 80.9%.While, in general, PM localization is regarded as an adverse prognostic factor, the current analysis differentiates those with good prognosis (36% patients with 0-1 risk factor: 10-year OS 80.9%) from high-risk PM patients (28% with 3-4 factors: 10-year OS 51.1%). Furthermore, this analysis reinforces the necessity for RT in PM RMS.
Project description:This prospective phase II study was designed to assess disease control and to describe acute and late adverse effects of treatment with proton radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).Fifty-seven patients with localized RMS (age 21 years or younger) or metastatic embryonal RMS (age 2 to 10 years) were enrolled between February 2005 and August 2012. All patients were treated with chemotherapy based on either vincristine, actinomycin, and cyclophosphamide or vincristine, actinomycin, and ifosfamide-based chemotherapy and proton radiation. Surgical resection was based on tumor site and accessibility. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0, was used to assess and grade adverse effects of treatment. Concurrent enrollment onto Children's Oncology Group or European Pediatric Sarcoma Study Group protocols was allowed. All pathology and imaging were reviewed at the treating institution.Median follow-up was 47 months (range, 14 to 102 months) for survivors. Five-year event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and local control (LC) were 69%, 78%, and 81%, respectively, for the entire cohort. The 5-year LC by risk group was 93% for low-risk and 77% for intermediate-risk disease. There were 13 patients with grade 3 acute toxicity and three patients with grade 3 late toxicity. There were no acute or late toxicities higher than grade 3.Five-year LC, EFS, and OS rates were similar to those observed in comparable trials that used photon radiation. Acute and late toxicity rates were favorable. Proton radiation appears to represent a safe and effective radiation modality for pediatric RMS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) are heterogeneous. No previous study has investigated the impact of specialized surgery, evaluated locoregional relapse (LRR), abdominal sarcomatosis and distant metastatic relapse as separate events, or considered histological subtypes separately. This study addresses these specific points in a homogeneous cohort of patients with completely resected primary RPS. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients diagnosed with a RPS between 1 January 1988 and 31 December 2008 and eventually referred to one of 12 centers of the French Sarcoma Group. All cases were centrally reviewed by an expert pathologist. RESULTS:Five hundred eighty-six patients were included. Median follow-up was 6.5 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9-7.1]. Five hundred thirty-seven patients had localized disease and 389 patients (76%) had macroscopically complete resection of the tumor. In this latter group, the 5-year LRR-free survival rate was 46% [41-52] and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 66% [61-71]. In multivariate analysis, gender, adjacent organ involvement, specialization of the surgeon, piecemeal resection and perioperative radiotherapy were independently associated with LRR. Specialization of the surgeon and piecemeal resection were independently associated with abdominal sarcomatosis whereas histology and adjacent organ involvement were independently associated with distant metastasis. Age, gender, grade, adjacent organ involvement and piecemeal resection were significantly associated with OS. Prognostic factors for LRR and OS were analyzed in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas and leiomyosarcomas. Grade 3 was an independent prognostic factor for OS of dedifferentiated liposarcomas. CONCLUSION:This study underlines the crucial role of pretherapeutic assessment and meticulous histological examination of RPS as well as the need to consider histological subtypes separately. Surgery in a specialized center and avoidance of piecemeal resection stand out as the two most important prognostic factors for RPS and highlight the importance of treating these patients in specialized centers.
Project description:Patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) show heterogeneous treatment outcomes. We used gene expression profiling to develop a gene signature that predicts overall survival (OS) in CN-AML. Based on data from 163 patients treated in the German AMLCG 1999 trial and analyzed on oligonucleotide microarrays, we used supervised principal component analysis to identify 86 probe sets (representing 66 different genes) which correlated with OS, and defined a prognostic score based on this signature. When applied to an independent cohort of 79 CN-AML patients, this continuous score remained a significant predictor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; P=0.002), EFS (HR, 1.73; P=0.001), and RFS (HR, 1.76; P=0.025). It kept its prognostic value in multivariate analyses adjusting for age, FLT3 ITD and NPM1 status. In a validation cohort of 64 CN-AML patients treated on CALGB study 9621, the score also predicted OS (HR, 4.11; P<0.001), EFS (HR, 2.90; P<0.001), and RFS (HR, 3.14, P<0.001) and retained its significance in a multivariate model for OS. In summary, we present a novel gene expression signature that offers additional prognostic information for patients with CN-AML. Keywords: clinical outcome Overall design: Training set: Samples GSM311598-GSM311923. Analysis of 163 samples of bone marrow or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from adult patients with untreated acute myeloid leukemia. Test set: Samples GSM316652-GSM316730. Analysis of 79 samples of bone marrow or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from adult patients with untreated acute myeloid leukemia.
Project description:Patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) show heterogeneous treatment outcomes. We used gene expression profiling to develop a gene signature that predicts overall survival (OS) in CN-AML. Based on data from 163 patients treated in the German AMLCG 1999 trial and analyzed on oligonucleotide microarrays, we used supervised principal component analysis to identify 86 probe sets (representing 66 different genes) which correlated with OS, and defined a prognostic score based on this signature. When applied to an independent cohort of 79 CN-AML patients, this continuous score remained a significant predictor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.85; P=0.002), EFS (HR, 1.73; P=0.001), and RFS (HR, 1.76; P=0.025). It kept its prognostic value in multivariate analyses adjusting for age, FLT3 ITD and NPM1 status. In a validation cohort of 64 CN-AML patients treated on CALGB study 9621, the score also predicted OS (HR, 4.11; P<0.001), EFS (HR, 2.90; P<0.001), and RFS (HR, 3.14, P<0.001) and retained its significance in a multivariate model for OS. In summary, we present a novel gene expression signature that offers additional prognostic information for patients with CN-AML. Experiment Overall Design: Analysis of 163 samples of bone morrow or peripheral blood mononuclear cells from adult patients with untreated acute myeloid leukemia
Project description:Purpose: Our study aimed to disclose the specific gene expression profile representing peritoneal relapses inherent in primary gastric cancers and to identify patients at high risk of peritoneal relapse in a prospective study on the basis of the molecular prediction. Experimental Design: RNA samples from 141 primary gastric cancer tissues after curative surgery were profiled using oligonucleotide microarrays covering 30,000 human probes. Firstly we constructed molecular prediction system and validated the robustness and prognostic validity of the analysis by 500 times multiple random sampling in 56 retrospective set consisting of 38 relapse free and 18 peritoneal relapse patients. Secondly we applied this prediction to 85 prospective set to assess the predictive accuracy and prognostic validity. Results: In retrospective phase, 500 times multiple random sampling analysis yielded 68% predictive accuracy in average and 22 gene expression profile associated with peritoneal relapse was identified. This prediction could identify significantly poor prognostic patients. In prospective phase, the molecular prediction yielded 76.9% overall accuracy. Kaplan–Meier analysis with peritoneal relapse free survival showed a significant difference between ‘good signature group’ and ‘poor signature group’ (Log-rank p=0.0017). Multivariate analysis by Cox regression hazards model revealed that the molecular prediction was the only independent peritoneal relapse prognostic factor. Conclusions: Gene expression profile inherent in primary gastric cancer tissues can be useful to predict peritoneal relapse prospectively after curative surgery and individualize postoperative management to improve the prognosis of advanced gastric cancers. Overall design: Of 141 samples, 56 represented the retrospective phase and 85 represented the prospective phase.
Project description:Inflammation plays an important role in the development and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, no meta-analysis has comprehensively and quantitatively investigated the prognostic value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in EOC patients. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception through December 31, 2016, and examined observational studies evaluating the association of preoperative NLR with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of EOC patients. A random-effects model was used to summarize hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve retrospective cohort studies including 3,154 EOC patients were identified. Elevated NLR in EOC patients was associated with worse PFS (summarized HR=1.80; 95% CI = 1.22-2.65; I2 = 79.1%) and OS (summarized HR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.18-2.51; I2 = 73.5%) compared with low NLR. No evidence of publication bias was detected by funnel plot analysis and formal statistical tests. Although the results were robust in all subgroup analyses, not all results were statistically significant. We determined that adjustments for CA-125 level and performance status might be sources of heterogeneity. These combined results indicate that preoperative NLR is an important predictor of prognosis in EOC patients. Since the high heterogeneity and retrospective study design of included studies, these results require further validation with prospective cohort and trials enrolling larger patient populations and conducting longer follow-up examinations.
Project description:PURPOSE:Patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) continue to have a poor prognosis. It is known that FDG PET/CT improves staging, treatment selection and target volume delineation (TVD), and although its use has grown rapidly, it is still not widely available in LMIC. CRT is often used as sequential treatment, but is known to be more effective when given concurrently. The aim of the PERTAIN study was to assess the impact of introducing FDG PET/CT-guided concurrent CRT, supported by training and quality control (QC), on the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with stage III NSCLC. METHODS:The study included patients with stage III NSCLC from nine medical centres in seven countries. A retrospective cohort was managed according to local practices between January 2010 and July 2014, which involved only optional diagnostic FDG PET/CT for staging (not for TVD), followed by sequential or concurrent CRT. A prospective cohort between August 2015 and October 2018 was treated according to the study protocol including FDG PET/CT in treatment position for staging and multimodal TVD followed by concurrent CRT by specialists trained in protocol-specific TVD and with TVD QC. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess OS and PFS in the retrospective and prospective cohorts. RESULTS:Guidelines for FDG PET/CT image acquisition and TVD were developed and published. All specialists involved in the PERTAIN study received training between June 2014 and May 2016. The PET/CT scanners used received EARL accreditation. In November 2018 a planned interim analysis was performed including 230 patients in the retrospective cohort with a median follow-up of 14 months and 128 patients in the prospective cohort, of whom 69 had a follow-up of at least 1 year. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, OS was significantly longer in the prospective cohort than in the retrospective cohort (23 vs. 14 months, p = 0.012). In addition, median PFS was significantly longer in the prospective cohort than in the retrospective cohort (17 vs. 11 months, p = 0.012). CONCLUSION:In the PERTAIN study, the preliminary results indicate that introducing FDG PET/CT-guided concurrent CRT for patients with stage III NSCLC in LMIC resulted in a significant improvement in OS and PFS. The final study results based on complete data are expected in 2020.