Associations between activity patterns and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents: A systematic review.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Total volumes of physical activity and sedentary behaviour have been associated with cardio-metabolic risk profiles; however, little research has examined whether patterns of activity (e.g., prolonged bouts, frequency of breaks in sitting) impact cardio-metabolic risk. The aim of this review was to synthesise the evidence concerning associations between activity patterns and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents aged 5-19 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A systematic search of seven databases was completed in October 2017. Included studies were required to report associations between objectively-measured activity patterns and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children and/or adolescents, and be published between 1980 and 2017. At least two researchers independently screened each study, extracted data, and undertook risk of bias assessments. RESULTS:From the 15,947 articles identified, 29 were included in this review. Twenty-four studies were observational (cross-sectional and/or longitudinal); five were experimental. Ten studies examined physical activity patterns, whilst 19 studies examined sedentary patterns. Only one study examined both physical activity and sedentary time patterns. Considerable variation in definitions of activity patterns made it impossible to identify which activity patterns were most beneficial to children's and adolescents' cardio-metabolic health. However, potential insights and current research gaps were identified. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:A consensus on how to define activity patterns is needed in order to determine which activity patterns are associated with children's and adolescents' cardio-metabolic risk. This will inform future research on the impact of activity patterns on children's and adolescents' short- and longer-term health.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity.<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes) were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression.<h4>Results</h4>Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (? =?-0.06) and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (? = 0.04). Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized ? = 0.08-0.30) while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized ? = 0.12).<h4>Conclusion</h4>There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Light physical activity (LPA) and patterns of sedentary behavior influence cardio-metabolic health independently of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Understanding the trajectory and determinants of these activity levels over time may provide insights relevant to public health practice.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured a cohort of young women recruited in middle school (age 14) using accelerometry for 1 week and remeasured them in high school (age 17) and again at age 23 (n = 385). We assessed changes in LPA and patterns of sedentary behavior by hours in a day. We examined the association of social and contextual factors, including employment status, screen time, and neighborhood context with LPA and sedentary behavior patterns.<h4>Results</h4>The amount of LPA decreased over time, while the length of LPA bouts tended to increase. Sedentary bout durations increased over time and sedentary breaks decreased. Sedentary time and bout length were correlated with internet use, rather than with TV or videogaming. Employment was associated with less sedentary time; being a student was associated with longer sedentary time and bouts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Because LPA and sedentary breaks can be protective for cardio-metabolic health, and the duration of sedentary bouts increase as women age from adolescence to young adulthood, worksites and college campuses should remind employees and students to take frequent activity breaks when they use computers and the internet for long stretches.
Project description:Physical activity and inactivity have distinct cardio-metabolic consequences, suggesting that combinations of activities can impact health above and beyond the effects of a single activity. However, little work has examined patterns of non-labor market time activity in the US population, particularly among full-time employees in sedentary occupations, who are at increased risk of adverse health consequences associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Identification of these patterns, and how they are related to total physical activity levels, is important for developing effective, attainable physical activity recommendations among sedentary employees, who typically have less time available for exercise. This is especially the case for low-income employees who face the highest time and financial barriers to achieving physical activity goals. This study uses cluster analysis to examine patterns of non-labor market time use among full-time (?40 h/week) employed adults in sedentary occupations (<3 MET-h) on working days in the American Time Use Study. We then examine whether these patterns are associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations and higher overall physical activity (MET-h). We find that non-labor market time use patterns include those characterized by screen activities, housework, caregiving, sedentary leisure, and exercise. For both genders, the screen pattern was the most common and increased from 2003 to 2012, while the exercise pattern was infrequent and consistent across time. Screen, sedentary leisure, and community patterns were associated with lower likelihoods of meeting physical activity recommendations, suggesting that interventions targeting screen time may miss opportunities to improve physical activity among similarly sedentary groups. Alternately, non-labor market time use patterns characterized by housework and caregiving represented feasible avenues for increasing overall physical activity levels, especially for those with low financial and time resources. Consideration of non-labor market time use patterns may improve strategies to increase physical activity and decrease inactivity among full-time employed adults in sedentary jobs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior has been reported to be associated with metabolic and vascular health independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In order to select appropriate options to measure sedentary behavior in practice and research settings, it is worthwhile to characterize the extent to which objective and subjective measures of sedentary behavior quantify adverse health risks in the same population. This cross-sectional analysis compared accelerometer-derived and self-reported sedentary time to identify their association with cardio-metabolic risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 661 Japanese workers (145 women) aged 20-64 years. Participants wore a tri-axial accelerometer device for 10 consecutive days and completed the Japan Atherosclerosis Longitudinal Study Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on body mass index, waist circumference, resting blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total:HDL cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained from annual health examinations. RESULTS: Both accelerometer-derived and self-reported sedentary time were deleteriously associated with triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, total:HDL ratio, and HbA1c after adjustment for potential confounders including MVPA. There were no significant differences in regression coefficients between the two measures. Thus, the magnitude of the associations of both measures with cardio-metabolic risk factors was similar, despite poor agreement between them. Occupational sedentary time was correlated with both measures of total sedentary time, and more consistently associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors than sedentary leisure time. CONCLUSIONS: Both accelerometer and self-report measurements are similarly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in a Japanese working adult population. Subjective and objective measures of sedentary behaviors appear to capture different aspects of behaviors. Further efforts to establish data processing methods integrating objective and subjective measures are needed to more effectively assess sedentary time's relationship to health outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Evidence on the association between sitting for extended periods (i.e. prolonged sedentary time (PST)) and cardio-metabolic health is inconsistent in children. We aimed to estimate the differences in cardio-metabolic health associated with substituting PST with non-prolonged sedentary time (non-PST), light (LIPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children.<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional data from 14 studies (7 countries) in the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD, 1998-2009) was included. Accelerometry in 19,502 participants aged 3-18?years, together with covariate and outcome data, was pooled and harmonized. Iso-temporal substitution in linear regression models provided beta coefficients (95%CI) for substitution of 1?h/day PST (sedentary time accumulated in bouts >?15?min) with non-PST, LIPA or MVPA, for each study, which were meta-analysed.<h4>Results</h4>Modelling substitution of 1?h/day of PST with non-PST suggested reductions in standardized BMI, but estimates were?>?7-fold greater for substitution with MVPA (-?0.44 (-?0.62; -?0.26) SD units). Only reallocation by MVPA was beneficial for waist circumference (-?3.07 (-?4.47; -?1.68) cm), systolic blood pressure (-?1.53 (-?2.42; -?0.65) mmHg) and clustered cardio-metabolic risk (-?0.18 (-?0.3; -?0.1) SD units). For HDL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure, substitution with LIPA was beneficial; however, substitution with MVPA showed 5-fold stronger effect estimates (HDL-cholesterol: 0.05 (0.01; 0.10) mmol/l); diastolic blood pressure: -?0.81 (-?1.38; -?0.24) mmHg).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Replacement of PST with MVPA may be the preferred scenario for behaviour change, given beneficial associations with a wide range of cardio-metabolic risk factors (including adiposity, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure and clustered cardio-metabolic risk). Effect estimates are clinically relevant (e.g. an estimated reduction in waist circumference of ?1.5?cm for 30?min/day replacement). Replacement with LIPA could be beneficial for some of these risk factors, however with substantially lower effect estimates.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children.<h4>Design</h4>Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis.<h4>Results</h4>723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P?=?0.005).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The present findings indicate that physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration should all be targeted to improve cardio-metabolic risk markers in childhood; this is possibly mediated by adiposity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet are major factors in the increasing prevalence of obesity among Malaysian adolescents. The purpose of this systematic review is to compile the evidence from observational and intervention studies among Malaysian adolescents to evaluate the associations between diet and physical activity (PA) as determinants of cardio-metabolic risk factors. METHODS:A systematic search of Medline via the PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Review and Web of Science databases was conducted for studies on the associations between diet and PA factors and cardio-metabolic risk factors among Malaysian adolescents aged 13-18 years that were published until 31 August 2017. The search results were independently screened and extracted by two reviewers. RESULTS:From over 2,410 references retrieved, 20 full texts articles were screened as potentially relevant. Seventeen (16 cross-sectional and one intervention) met the inclusion criteria for data extraction and analysis. All 17 studies were rated as poor quality and the majority had made insufficient adjustment for confounders. As regards the effect of diet and PA on cardio-metabolic health, the intakes of energy (n = 4) and macronutrients (n = 3) and meal frequency (n = 5) were the most commonly studied dietary factors, while the PA score and level were the most commonly studied PA factors. In addition, BMI and body weight were the most common cardio-metabolic health outcomes. The studies showed that obese and overweight adolescents consume significantly more energy and macronutrients. They are also more likely to skip their daily meals compared to their normal weight peers. In most studies, the direction of the PA effect on body weight was unclear. Some studies found that higher PA is associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity. However, the associations are often small or inconsistent, with few studies controlling for confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS:This review identified a lack of evidence and well-conducted prospective studies on the effect of diet and PA on cardio-metabolic health of Malaysian adolescents.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Elevated risk factors for a number of chronic diseases have been identified in lorry drivers. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as a lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (sitting) likely contribute to this elevated risk. This study behaviourally phenotyped UK lorry drivers' sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours during workdays and non-workdays and examined markers of drivers cardio-metabolic health. SETTING:A transport company from the East Midlands, UK. PARTICIPANTS:A sample of 159 male heavy goods vehicle drivers (91% white European; (median (range)) age: 50 (24, 67) years) completed the health assessments. 87 (age: 50.0 (25.0, 65.0); body mass index (BMI): 27.7 (19.6, 43.4) kg/m2) provided objective information on sedentary and non-sedentary time. OUTCOMES:Participants self-reported their sociodemographic information. Primary outcomes: sedentary behaviour and PA, assessed over 7 days using an activPAL3 inclinometer. Cardio-metabolic markers included: blood pressure (BP), heart rate, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body composition and fasted capillary blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipopreotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. These cardio-metabolic markers were treated as secondary outcomes. RESULTS:Lorry drivers presented an unhealthy cardio-metabolic health profile (median (IQR) systolic BP: 129 (108.5, 164) mm Hg; diastolic BP: 81 (63, 104) mm Hg; BMI: 29 (20, 47) kg/m2; WC: 102 (77.5, 146.5) cm; LDL-C: 3 (1, 6) mmol/L; TC: 4.9 (3, 7.5) mmol/L). 84% were overweight or obese, 43% had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and 34% had the metabolic syndrome. The subsample of lorry drivers with objective postural data (n=87) accumulated 13?hours/day and 8?hours/day of sedentary behaviour on workdays and non-workdays (p<0.001), respectively. On average, drivers accrued 12?min/day on workdays and 6?min/day on non-workdays of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). CONCLUSION:Lorry drivers demonstrate a high-risk cardio-metabolic profile and are highly sedentary and physically inactive. Interventions to reduce sitting and increase MVPA during breaks and leisure time to improve cardio-metabolic health are urgently needed. Educational programmes to raise awareness about diet and exercise are recommended.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metabolic syndrome is increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. To prevent an early onset, knowledge about its association with modifiable lifestyle factors is needed. OBJECTIVES:To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and examine its cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary time. METHODS:Participants were 6009 children and adolescents from 8 studies of the International Children's Accelerometry Database. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age and monitor wear time were used to examine the associations between physical activity, sedentary time and the metabolic syndrome in each study and effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 2.9%. In crude models, a 10 min increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and vigorous-intensity physical activity were inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome [OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.94, OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.92]. One hour increase in sedentary time was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome [OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.13-1.45]. After adjustment for sedentary time, the association between moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity and the metabolic syndrome remained significant [OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99]. Sedentary time was not associated with the metabolic syndrome after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity [OR 1.14 95% CI 0.96-1.36]. CONCLUSIONS:Physical activity of at least moderate intensity but not sedentary time is independently associated with the metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.