Selection of reference genes for reverse transcription-qPCR analysis in the biomonitor macrophyte Bidens laevis L.
ABSTRACT: The RT-qPCR has been the method used to analyze gene expression in plants but its benefits have not been completely exploited in the field of plants ecotoxicology when used as molecular biomarkers. The correct use of RT-qPCR demands to establish a certain number of reference genes (RG) which are expected to be invariable in their expression although it does not always happen. The main goals of this work were to: (1) analyze the stability of six potential RG, (2) establish the optimum number of RG, (3) select the most suitable RG to be applied in Bidens laevis under different test conditions and tissues and (4) confirm its convenience by normalizing the expression of one gene of interest under three different challenges. When all data were pooled together, the geNorm algorithm pointed out beta-actin and beta-tubulin (TUB) as the optimal RG pair while NormFinder algorithm selected nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADHD) and histone 3 (H3) as possessing the most invariable levels of expression. On the other hand, when data were grouped by tissues, ANOVA test selected H3 and TUB, while data grouped by conditions indicated that H3 and NADHD were the most stable RG under this analysis. Therefore, for a general-purpose set of RG, the overall analysis showed that a set of three RG would be optimum, and H3, TUB and NADHD were the selected ones. On the other hand, as RG can vary depending on the tissues or conditions, results achieved with ANOVA would be more reliable. Thus, appropriate normalization process would clearly need more than one RG.
Project description:Selecting appropriate reference genes is vital to normalize gene expression analysis in birch (Betula platyphylla) under different abiotic stress conditions using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, 11 candidate birch reference genes (ACT, TUA, TUB, TEF, 18S rRNA, EF1?, GAPDH, UBC, YLS8, SAND, and CDPK) were selected to evaluate the stability of their expression in different tissues and under different abiotic stress conditions. Three statistical algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used to analyze the stability of the 11 candidate reference genes to identify the most appropriate one. The results indicated that EF-1? was the most stable reference gene in different birch tissues, ACT was the most stable reference gene for normal conditions, ACT and TEF were the most stable reference genes for salt stress treatment, TUB was the most stable reference gene for osmotic stress treatment, and ACT was the most appropriate choice in all samples of birch. In conclusion, the most appropriate reference genes varied among different experimental conditions. However, in this study, ACT was the optimum reference gene in all experimental groups, except in the different tissues group. GAPDH was the least stable candidate reference gene in all experimental conditions. In addition, three stress-induced genes (BpGRAS1, BpGRAS16, and BpGRAS19) were chosen to verify the stability of the selected reference genes in different tissues and under salt stress. This study laid the foundation for the selection of appropriate reference gene(s) for future gene expression pattern studies in birch.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes must be selected to accurately compare mRNA transcripts across different samples and tissues. Thus far, only actin-2 has been used as a reference gene for qRT-PCR in chicory, and a full comparison of several candidate reference genes in chicory has not yet been reported. RESULTS: Seven candidate reference genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADHD), actin (ACT), beta-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GADPH), histone H3 (H3), elongation factor 1-alpha (EF) and 18S rRNA (rRNA) were selected to study the expression stability for normalisation of gene expression in chicory. Primer specificity and amplification efficiency were verified for each gene. The expression stability of these genes was analysed across chicory root and leaf tissues using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. ACT, EF, and rRNA were the most stable genes as identified by the three different analysis methods. In addition, the use of ACT, EF and GAPDH as reference genes was illustrated by analysing 1-FEHII (FEHII) expression in chicory root and leaf tissues. These analyses revealed the biological variation in FEHII transcript expression among the tissues studied, and between individual plants. CONCLUSIONS: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper analyses indicated that ACT, EF and rRNA had the highest expression stability across leaf and root tissues, while GAPDH and NADHD showed relatively low expression stability. The results of this study emphasise the importance of validating reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in chicory. The use of the most stable reference genes such as ACT and EF allows accurate normalisation of gene expression in chicory leaf and root tissues.
Project description:The raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is a globally distributed harmful alga that has been associated with fish kills in coastal waters. To understand the mechanisms of H. akashiwo bloom formation, gene expression analysis is often required. To accurately characterize the expression levels of a gene of interest, proper reference genes are essential. In this study, we assessed ten of the previously reported algal candidate genes (rpL17-2, rpL23, cox2, cal, tua, tub, ef1, 18S, gapdh, and mdh) for their suitability as reference genes in this species. We used qRT-PCR to quantify the expression levels of these genes in H. akashiwo grown under different temperatures, light intensities, nutrient concentrations, and time points over a diel cycle. The expression stability of these genes was evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Although none of these genes exhibited invariable expression levels, cal, tub, rpL17-2 and rpL23 expression levels were the most stable across the different conditions tested. For further validation, these selected genes were used to normalize the expression levels of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (HrbcL) over a diel cycle. Results showed that the expression of HrbcL normalized against each of these reference genes was the highest at midday and lowest at midnight, similar to the diel patterns typically documented for this gene in algae. While the validated reference genes will be useful for future gene expression studies on H. akashiwo, we expect that the procedure used in this study may be helpful to future efforts to screen reference genes for other algae.
Project description:Selection of a stably expressed reference gene (RG) is an important step for generating reliable and reproducible quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) gene expression data. We, in this study, have sought to validate RGs for Buglossoides arvensis, a high nutraceutical value plant whose refined seed oil is entering the market under the commercial trade name Ahiflower™. This weed plant has received attention for its natural ability to significantly accumulate the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) stearidonic acid (SDA, C18:4n-3) in its seeds, which is uncommon for most plant species. Ten candidate RGs (?-Act, 18S rRNA, EF-1a, ?-Tub, UBQ, ?-actin, CAC, PP2a, RUBISCO, GAPDH) were isolated from B. arvensis and TaqMan™ compliant primers/probes were designed for RT-qPCR analysis. Abundance of these gene transcripts was analyzed across different tissues and growth regimes. Two of the most widely used algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, showed variation in expression levels of these RGs. However, combinatorial analysis of the results clearly identified CAC and ?-actin as the most stable and unstable RG candidates, respectively. This study has for the first time identified and validated RGs in the non-model system B. arvensis, a weed plant projected to become an important yet sustainable source of dietary omega-3 PUFA.
Project description:The cell-wall pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is cross-linked via borate diester bridges, which influence the expansion, thickness and porosity of the wall. Previously, little was known about the mechanism or subcellular site of this cross-linking. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate monomeric from dimeric (boron-bridged) RG-II, we confirmed that Pb(2+) promotes H3 BO3 -dependent dimerisation in vitro. H3 BO3 concentrations as high as 50 mm did not prevent cross-linking. For in-vivo experiments, we successfully cultured 'Paul's Scarlet' rose (Rosa sp.) cells in boron-free medium: their wall-bound pectin contained monomeric RG-II domains but no detectable dimers. Thus pectins containing RG-II domains can be held in the wall other than via boron bridges. Re-addition of H3 BO3 to 3.3 ?m triggered a gradual appearance of RG-II dimer over 24 h but without detectable loss of existing monomers, suggesting that only newly synthesised RG-II was amenable to boron bridging. In agreement with this, Rosa cultures whose polysaccharide biosynthetic machinery had been compromised (by carbon starvation, respiratory inhibitors, anaerobiosis, freezing or boiling) lost the ability to generate RG-II dimers. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes boron-bridged during synthesis or secretion but not post-secretion. Supporting this conclusion, exogenous [(3) H]RG-II was neither dimerised in the medium nor cross-linked to existing wall-associated RG-II domains when added to Rosa cultures. In conclusion, in cultured Rosa cells RG-II domains have a brief window of opportunity for boron-bridging intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but secretion into the apoplast is a point of no return beyond which additional boron-bridging does not readily occur.
Project description:Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is an economic and ecological fiber crop but suffers severe losses in fiber yield and quality under the stressful conditions of excess salinity and drought. To explore the mechanisms by which kenaf responds to excess salinity and drought, gene expression was performed at the transcriptomic level using RNA-seq. Thus, it is crucial to have a suitable set of reference genes to normalize target gene expression in kenaf under different conditions using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we selected 10 candidate reference genes from the kenaf transcriptome and assessed their expression stabilities by qRT-PCR in 14 NaCl- and PEG-treated samples using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results indicated that TUB? and 18S rRNA were the optimum reference genes under conditions of excess salinity and drought in kenaf. Moreover, TUB? and 18S rRNA were used singly or in combination as reference genes to validate the expression levels of WRKY28 and WRKY32 in NaCl- and PEG-treated samples by qRT-PCR. The results further proved the reliability of the two selected reference genes. This work will benefit future studies on gene expression and lead to a better understanding of responses to excess salinity and drought in kenaf.
Project description:Normalisation of data, by choosing the appropriate reference genes, is fundamental for obtaining reliable results in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study evaluated the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes with different varieties, developmental periods, tissues, and abiotic stresses by using four statistical algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results indicated that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme S (UBC) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC E2) could be used as reference genes for different E. ulmoides varieties and tissues, UBC and histone H4 (HIS4) for different developmental periods, beta-tubulin (TUB) and UBC for cold treatment, ubiquitin extension protein (UBA80) and HIS4 for drought treatment, and ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40 (UBA52) and UBC E2 for salinity treatment. UBC and UBC E2 for the group "Natural growth" and "Total", UBA80 and UBC for the group "Abiotic stresses". To validate the suitability of the selected reference genes in this study, mevalonate kinase (MK), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) gene expression patterns were analysed. When the most unstable reference genes were used for normalisation, the expression patterns had significant biases compared with the optimum reference gene combinations. These results will be beneficial for more accurate quantification of gene expression levels in E. ulmoides.
Project description:BACKGROUND: quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, ?-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + ?-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + ?-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, ?-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; ?-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. CONCLUSIONS: in this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the same tissues taking the sexual differences into consideration. This work not only formed a solid basis for future gene expression study in B. dorsalis, but also will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other insects.
Project description:Real-time quantitative PCR studies largely depend on reference genes for the normalization of gene expression. Stable reference genes should be accurately selected in order to obtain reliable results. We here present a study screening commonly used reference genes (TEF1F, ?-centractin, Ctsyn1, GAPDH, R6046, APRT and TUB) in the chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), which cause the lethal amphibian skin disease chytridiomycosis. We evaluated the stability of the reference gene candidates during different growth stages of the fungi, using different statistical software packages: ?CT, BestKeeper, GeNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. In order to reflect the in vivo situation, the stability of the candidates was assessed when taking all growth stages into account. Using an ex-vivo approach, we tested whether the expression of GAPDH, TUB, R6046 and APRT (Bd) and GAPDH, TUB, R6046 and ?-centractin (Bsal) remained stable when these fungi came in contact with host tissue. Finally, their role as in vivo reference genes was examined in skin tissue of experimentally infected midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) (Bd) and fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) (Bsal). Summarized, the present study provides guidance for selecting appropriate reference genes when analyzing expression patterns of these fungal organisms during different growth stages and in Bd- or Bsal-infected tissues.
Project description:The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to determine gene functions in Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (small brown planthopper). Selection of suitable reference gene(s) for normalizations of RT-qPCR data is critical for reliable results. To date, reports on identification of suitable L. striatellus reference genes are still very limited. L. striatellus is a destructive rice pest and it can transmit multiple viruses, including Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), Rice stripe virus (RSV), and Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV), to many important cereal crops worldwide. In this study, we examined the stablity of seven selected candidate reference genes in L. striatellus at different developmental stages, in different tissues, in RBSDV- or RSV-infected L. striatellus or in RBSDV-infected and Lssynaptojanin 1 (LsSYNJ1)-silenced L. striatellus. The RT-qPCR data representing individual candidate genes were analyzed using five different methods: the delta Ct method, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the RefFinder algorithm, respectively. The most stable reference gene for the specific condition was selected according to a comprehensive analysis using the RefFinder method. Ribosomal protein L5 (LsRPL5) and LsRPL8 are the most stably expressed genes in L. striatellus at different developmental stages. Alpha-1-tubulin (Ls?-TUB) is the most stably expressed reference gene in different tissues of RBSDV viruliferous (RBSDV-V) or non-viruliferous (RBSDV-NV) L. striatellus. LsRPL8 is the most stably expressed reference gene in RBSDV-V or RSV viruliferous (RSV-V) L. striatellus, while beta-tubulin (Ls?-TUB) is the most stably expressed reference gene in RBSDV-V and LsSYNJ1-silenced L. striatellus. The selected reference genes were further investigated during analyses of RBSDV P5-1 and P10 gene expression in different tissues from RBSDV-V or RBSDV-NV L. striatellus. The stably expressed reference genes identified in this study will benefit future gene function studies using L. striatellus.