LXR/RXR signaling and neutrophil phenotype following myocardial infarction classify sex differences in remodeling.
ABSTRACT: Sex differences in heart failure development following myocardial infarction (MI) are not fully understood. We hypothesized that differential MI signaling could explain variations in outcomes. Analysis of the mouse heart attack research tool 1.0 (422 mice; young?=?5.4?±?0.1; old?=?23.3?±?0.1 months of age) was used to dissect MI signaling pathways, which was validated in a new cohort of mice (4.8?±?0.2 months of age); and substantiated in humans. Plasma collected at visit 2 from the MI subset of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS; a community-based study consisting of middle aged and older adults of African ancestry) underwent glycoproteomics grouped by outcome: (1) heart failure hospitalization after visit 2 (n?=?3 men/12 women) and (2) without hospitalization through 2012 (n?=?24 men/21 women). Compared to young male mice, the infarct region of young females had fewer, but more efficient tissue clearing neutrophils with reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression. Apolipoprotein (Apo) F, which acts upstream of the liver X receptors/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) pathway, was elevated in the day 7 infarcts of old mice compared to young controls and was increased in both men and women with heart failure. In vitro, Apo F stimulated CD36 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation in male neutrophils to turn off NF-?B activation and stimulate LXR/RXR signaling to initiate resolution. Female neutrophils were desensitized to Apo F and instead relied on thrombospondin-1 stimulation of CD36 to upregulate AMP-activated protein kinase, resulting in an overall better wound healing strategy. With age, female mice were desensitized to LXR/RXR signaling, resulting in enhanced interleukin-6 activation, a finding replicated in the JHS community cohort. This is the first report to uncover sex differences in post-MI neutrophil signaling that yielded better outcomes in young females and worse outcomes with age.
Project description:The liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and are important regulators of lipid metabolism in the liver. We have recently shown that RXR agonist-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in mice are dependent on LXRs and correlate with an LXR-dependent hepatic induction of lipogenic genes. To further investigate the roles of RXR and LXR in the regulation of hepatic gene expression, we have mapped the ligand-regulated genome-wide binding of these factors in mouse liver. We find that the RXR agonist bexarotene primarily increases the genomic binding of RXR, whereas the LXR agonist T0901317 greatly increases both LXR and RXR binding. Functional annotation of putative direct LXR target genes revealed a significant association with classical LXR-regulated pathways as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways, and subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) mapping of PPAR? binding demonstrated binding of PPAR? to 71 to 88% of the identified LXR-RXR binding sites. The combination of sequence analysis of shared binding regions and sequential ChIP on selected sites indicate that LXR-RXR and PPAR?-RXR bind to degenerate response elements in a mutually exclusive manner. Together, our findings suggest extensive and unexpected cross talk between hepatic LXR and PPAR? at the level of binding to shared genomic sites.
Project description:The liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and are important regulators of lipid metabolism in the liver. We have recently shown that RXR agonist-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in mice is dependent on LXR and correlates with an LXR-dependent hepatic induction of lipogenic genes. To further investigate the role of RXR and LXR in the regulation of hepatic gene expression, we have mapped the ligand-regulated genome-wide binding of these factors in mouse liver. We find that the RXR agonist bexarotene primarily increases the genomic binding of RXR, whereas the LXR agonist T0901317 greatly increases both LXR and RXR binding. Functional annotation of putative direct LXR target genes revealed a significant association with classical LXR-regulated pathways as well as PPAR signaling pathways, and subsequent ChIP-seq mapping of PPARM-NM-1 binding demonstrated binding of PPARM-NM-1 to 71-88% of the identified LXR:RXR binding sites. Sequence analysis of shared binding regions combined with sequential ChIP on selected sites indicate that LXR:RXR and PPARM-NM-1:RXR bind to degenerate response elements in a mutually exclusive manner. Together our findings suggest extensive and unexpected cross-talk between hepatic LXR and PPARM-NM-1 at the level of binding to shared genomic sites LXR, RXR, PPARalpha and RNA Polymerase II ChIP-seq on livers from female C57BL/6 wild-type and/or LXRM-NM-1/M-NM-2-deficient mice (13 weeks of age, n=1) treated by oral gavage once daily for 14 days with the RXR agonist bexarotene (100 mg/kg body weight [mpk], in 1% carboxymethylcellulose), the LXR agonist T0901317 (T09, 30 mpk) or vehicle alone.
Project description:Liver-X-receptors, LXR? (NR1H3) and LXR? (NR1H2), encode 2 different but highly homologous isoforms of transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Whether LXR? and LXR? subtypes have discrete roles in the regulation of cardiac physiology/pathology is unknown. We determine the role of each LXR subtype in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury.Mice (wild type; those genetically depleted of LXR?, LXR?, or both; and those overexpressing LXR? or LXR? by in vivo intramyocardial adenoviral vector) were subjected to MI/R injury. Both LXR? and LXR? were detected in wild-type mouse heart. LXR?, but not LXR?, was significantly upregulated after MI/R. Dual activation of LXR? and LXR? by natural and synthetic agonists reduced myocardial infarction and improved contractile function after MI/R. Mechanistically, LXR activation inhibited MI/R-induced oxidative stress and nitrative stress, attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in ischemic/reperfused myocardium. The aforementioned cardioprotective effects of LXR agonists were impaired in the setting of cardiac-specific gene silencing of LXR?, but not LXR? subtype. Moreover, LXR?/? double-knockout and LXR?-knockout mice, but not LXR?-knockout mice, increased MI/R injury, exacerbated MI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, and aggravated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, cardiac LXR?, not LXR?, overexpression via adenoviral transfection suppressed MI/R injury.Our study provides the first direct evidence that the LXR?, but not LXR?, subtype is a novel endogenous cardiac protective receptor against MI/R injury. Drug development strategies specifically targeting LXR? may be beneficial in treating ischemic heart disease.
Project description:Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are heterodimerization partners for many nuclear receptors and also act as homodimers. Heterodimers formed by RXR and a nonpermissive partner, e.g. retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR), can be activated only by the agonist of the partner receptor. In contrast, heterodimers that contain permissive partners, e.g. liver X receptor (LXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), can be activated by agonists for either the partner receptor or RXR, raising the possibility of pleiotropic RXR signaling. However, it is not known to what extent the receptor's activation results in triggering mechanisms dependent or independent of permissive heterodimers. In this study, we systematically and quantitatively characterized all probable RXR-signaling pathways in differentiating human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs). Using pharmacological, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR techniques, we identified and characterized gene sets regulated by RXR agonists (LG100268 and 9-cis retinoic acid) and agonists for LXRs, PPARs, RAR?, and VDR. Our results demonstrated that permissiveness was partially impaired in Mo-DCs, because a large number of genes regulated by PPAR or LXR agonists was not affected by RXR-specific agonists or was regulated to a lesser extent. As expected, we found that RXR agonists regulated only small portions of RAR? or VDR targets. Importantly, we could identify and characterize PPAR- and LXR-independent pathways in Mo-DCs most likely mediated by RXR homodimers. These data suggested that RXR signaling in Mo-DCs was mediated via multiple permissive heterodimers and also by mechanism(s) independent of permissive heterodimers, and it was controlled in a cell-type and gene-specific manner.
Project description:Abstract Milk fat synthesis of ruminants can be inhibited by intermediates of ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation including trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). These biohydrogenation intermediates signal a coordinated downregulation of genes involved in mammary FA synthesis, transport, and esterification. We have previously reported decreased mammary expression of sterol response element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), SREBP1-activating proteins, and thyroid hormone-responsive spot 14 (S14) in the cow during diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD), and treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Liver x receptors (LXR) and retinoid x receptors (RXR) regulate lipogenesis and are known to bind polyunsaturated FA and LXR agonist increases lipid synthesis in mammary epithelial cell culture. The current studies investigated if biohydrogenation products of rumen origin inhibit mammary lipogenesis through LXR and/or RXR. Expression of LXRs was not different in lactating compared to nonlactating bovine mammary tissue, and expression of LXRs, RXR?, and selected LXR and RXR target genes was not changed in mammary tissue during diet-induced or CLA-induced MFD in the cow. In bovine mammary epithelial cell culture, LXR agonist stimulated lipogenesis and expression of LXRß, ATP-binding cassette 1 (ABCA1), SREBP1c, and S14, but LXR activation did not overcome CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and downregulation of LXRß, SREBP1c, and S14 expression. Lastly, expression of the LXR-regulated carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was higher in lactating than nonlactating tissue and was decreased during CLA-induced MFD. We conclude that changes in mammary LXR expression in dairy cows are not involved in MFD and that trans-10, cis-12 CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and diet-induced MFD appears independent of direct LXR signaling.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychiatric disorder with a convoluted etiology that includes cognitive symptoms, which arise from among others a dysfunctional dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In our search for the molecular underpinnings of the cognitive deficits in SZ, we here performed RNA sequencing of gray matter from the dlPFC of SZ patients and controls. We found that the differentially expressed RNAs were enriched for mRNAs involved in the Liver X Receptor/Retinoid X Receptor (LXR/RXR) lipid metabolism pathway. Components of the LXR/RXR pathway were upregulated in gray matter but not in white matter of SZ dlPFC. Intriguingly, an analysis for shared genetic etiology, using two SZ genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and GWAS data for 514 metabolites, revealed genetic overlap between SZ and acylcarnitines, VLDL lipids, and fatty acid metabolites, which are all linked to the LXR/RXR signaling pathway. Furthermore, analysis of structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in combination with cognitive behavioral data showed that the lipid content of dlPFC gray matter is lower in SZ patients than in controls and correlates with a tendency towards reduced accuracy in the dlPFC-dependent task-switching test. We conclude that aberrations in LXR/RXR-regulated lipid metabolism lead to a decreased lipid content in SZ dlPFC that correlates with reduced cognitive performance.
Project description:Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and liver X-receptor (LXR) are the master regulators of lipid metabolism. Remarkably, a mouse with a targeted deletion of both LXR alpha and LXR beta is resistant to western diet-induced obesity, and exhibits ectopic liver expression of the thyroid hormone activating type 2 deiodinase (D2). We hypothesized that LXR/retinoid X-receptor (RXR) signaling inhibits hepatic D2 expression, and studied this using a luciferase reporter containing the human DIO2 (hDIO2) promoter in HepG2 cells. Given that, in contrast to mammals, the chicken liver normally expresses D2, the chicken DIO2 (cDIO2) promoter was also studied. 22(R)-OH-cholesterol negatively regulated hDIO2 in a dose-dependent manner (100 microM, approximately twofold), while it failed to affect the cDIO2 promoter. Truncations in the hDIO2 promoter identified the region -901 to -584 bp as critical for negative regulation. We also investigated if 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA), the ligand for the heterodimeric partner of TR and LXR, RXR, could regulate the hDIO2 promoter. Notably, 9-cis RA repressed the hDIO2 luciferase reporter (1 microM, approximately fourfold) in a dose-dependent manner, while coexpression of an inactive mutant RXR abolished this effect. However, it is unlikely that RXR homodimers mediate the repression of hDIO2 since mutagenesis of a DR-1 at -506 bp did not interfere with 9-cis RA-mediated repression. Our data indicate that hDIO2 transcription is negatively regulated by both 22(R)-OH-cholesterol and 9-cis RA, which is consistent with LXR/RXR involvement. In vivo, the inhibition of D2-mediated tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) production by cholesterol/9-cis RA could function as a feedback loop, given that T(3) decreases hepatic cholesterol levels.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the effects of eccentric cleavage products of ?-carotene, i.e. ?-apocarotenoids (BACs), on retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR?) signaling. Transactivation assays were performed to test whether BACs activate or antagonize RXR?. Reporter gene constructs (RXRE-Luc, pRL-tk) and RXR? were transfected into Cos-1 cells and used to perform these assays. None of the BACs tested activated RXR?. Among the compounds tested, ?-apo-13-carotenone was found to antagonize the activation of RXR? by 9-cis-retinoic acid and was effective at concentrations as low as 1 nM. Molecular modeling studies revealed that ?-apo-13-carotenone makes molecular interactions like an antagonist of RXR?. The results suggest a possible function of BACs on RXR? signaling.
Project description:Bexarotene (Targretin) is a clinically used antitumoral agent which exerts its action through binding to and activation of the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR). The most frequent side-effect of bexarotene administration is an increase in plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanism behind this hypertriglyceridemia remains poorly understood.Using wild-type and LXR alpha/beta-deficient mice, we show here that bexarotene induces hypertriglyceridemia and activates hepatic LXR-target genes of lipogenesis in an LXR-dependent manner, hence exerting a permissive effect on RXR/LXR heterodimers. Interestingly, RNA analysis and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assays performed in the liver reveal that the in vivo permissive effect of bexarotene on the RXR/LXR heterodimer is restricted to lipogenic genes without modulation of genes controlling cholesterol homeostasis.These findings demonstrate that the hypertriglyceridemic action of bexarotene occurs via the RXR/LXR heterodimer and show that RXR heterodimers can act with a selective permissivity on target genes of specific metabolic pathways in the liver.
Project description:Macrophage foam cells store excess cholesterol as cholesteryl esters, which need to be hydrolyzed for cholesterol efflux. We recently reported that silencing expression of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in human THP-1 macrophages [CES1KD (THP-1 cells with CES1 expression knocked down) macrophages] reduced cholesterol uptake and decreased expression of CD36 and scavenger receptor-A in cells loaded with acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL). Here, we report that CES1KD macrophages exhibit reduced transcription of cytochrome P45027A1 (CYP27A1) in nonloaded and acLDL-loaded cells. Moreover, levels of CYP27A1 protein and its enzymatic product, 27-hydroxycholesterol, were markedly reduced in CES1KD macrophages. Transcription of LXR? (liver X receptor ?) and ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) was also decreased in acLDL-loaded CES1KD macrophages, suggesting reduced signaling through PPAR?-CYP27A1-LXR?. Consistent with this, treatment of CES1KD macrophages with agonists for PPAR?, RAR, and/or RAR/RXR partially restored transcription of CYP27A1 and LXR?, and repaired cholesterol influx. Conversely, treatment of control macrophages with antagonists for PPAR? and/or RXR decreased transcription of CYP27A1 and LXR? Pharmacologic inhibition of CES1 in both wild-type THP-1 cells and primary human macrophages also decreased CYP27A1 transcription. CES1 silencing did not affect transcript levels of PPAR? and RXR in acLDL-loaded macrophages, whereas it did reduce the catabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Finally, the gene expression profile of CES1KD macrophages was similar to that of PPAR? knockdown cells following acLDL exposures, further suggesting a mechanistic link between CES1 and PPAR?. These results are consistent with a model in which abrogation of CES1 function attenuates the CYP27A1-LXR?-ABCA1 signaling axis by depleting endogenous ligands for the nuclear receptors PPAR?, RAR, and/or RXR that regulate cholesterol homeostasis.