Autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome associated with biallelic LZTR1 variants.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To characterize the molecular genetics of autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome. METHODS:Families underwent phenotyping for features of Noonan syndrome in children and their parents. Two multiplex families underwent linkage analysis. Exome, genome, or multigene panel sequencing was used to identify variants. The molecular consequences of observed splice variants were evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Twelve families with a total of 23 affected children with features of Noonan syndrome were evaluated. The phenotypic range included mildly affected patients, but it was lethal in some, with cardiac disease and leukemia. All of the parents were unaffected. Linkage analysis using a recessive model supported a candidate region in chromosome 22q11, which includes LZTR1, previously shown to harbor mutations in patients with Noonan syndrome inherited in a dominant pattern. Sequencing analyses of 21 live-born patients and a stillbirth identified biallelic pathogenic variants in LZTR1, including putative loss-of-function, missense, and canonical and noncanonical splicing variants in the affected children, with heterozygous, clinically unaffected parents and heterozygous or normal genotypes in unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION:These clinical and genetic data confirm the existence of a form of Noonan syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and identify biallelic mutations in LZTR1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Variants in the LZTR1 (leucine-zipper-like transcription regulator 1) gene (OMIM #600574) have been reported in recessive Noonan syndrome patients. In vivo evidence from animal models to support its causative role is lacking. METHODS:By CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we generated lztr1-mutated zebrafish (Danio rerio). Analyses of histopathology and downstream signaling were performed to investigate the pathogenesis of cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities in Noonan syndrome. RESULTS:A frameshift deletion allele was created in the zebrafish lztr1. Crosses of heterozygotes obtained homozygous lztr1 null mutants that modeled LZTR1 loss-of-function. Histological analyses of the model revealed ventricular hypertrophy, the deleterious signature of Noonan syndrome-associated cardiomyopathy. Further, assessment for extracardiac abnormalities documented multiple vascular malformations, resembling human vascular pathology caused by RAS/MAPK activation. Due to spatiotemporal regulation of LZTR1, its downstream function was not fully elucidated from western blots of adult tissue. CONCLUSION:Our novel zebrafish model phenocopied human recessive Noonan syndrome and supported the loss-of-function mechanism of disease-causing LZTR1 variants. The discovery of vascular malformations in mutants calls for the clinical follow-up of patients to monitor for its emergence. The model will serve as a novel platform for investigating the pathophysiology linking RAS/MAPK signaling to cardiac and vascular pathology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many of the genetic childhood disorders leading to death in the pre- or neonatal period or during early childhood follow autosomal recessive modes of inheritance and bear specific challenges for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnostics. Parents are carriers but clinically unaffected, and diseases are rare but have recurrence risks of 25% in the same family. Often, affected children (or fetuses) die before a genetic diagnosis can be established, post-mortem analysis and phenotypic descriptions are insufficient and DNA from affected fetuses or children is not available for later analysis. A genetic diagnosis showing biallelic causative mutations is, however, the requirement for targeted carrier testing in parents and prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis in further pregnancies. METHODS:We undertook targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for carrier screening of autosomal recessive lethal disorders in 8 consanguineous and 5 non-consanguineous couples with one or more affected children. We searched for heterozygous variants (non-synonymous coding or splice variants) in parents' DNA, using a set of 430 genes known to be causative for rare autosomal recessive diseases with poor prognosis, and then filtering for variants present in genes overlapping in both partners. Putative pathogenic variants were tested for cosegregation in affected fetuses or children where material was available. RESULTS:The diagnosis for the premature death in children was established in 5 of the 13 couples. Out of the 8 couples in which no causative diagnosis could be established 4 consented to undergo further analysis, in two of those a potentially causative variant in a novel candidate gene was identified. CONCLUSIONS:For the families in whom causative variants could be identified, these may now be used for prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnostics. Our data show that NGS based gene panel sequencing of selected genes involved in lethal autosomal recessive disorders is an effective tool for carrier screening in parents and for the identification of recessive gene defects and offers the possibility of prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis in further pregnancies in families that have experienced deaths in early childhood and /or multiple abortions.
Project description:In the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, the lipid kinase PIKFYVE and the phosphatase FIG4 are bound to the dimeric scaffold protein VAC14, which is composed of multiple heat-repeat domains. Mutations of FIG4 result in the inherited disorders Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J, Yunis-Varón syndrome, and polymicrogyria with seizures. We here describe inherited variants of VAC14 in two unrelated children with sudden onset of a progressive neurological disorder and regression of developmental milestones. Both children developed impaired movement with dystonia, became nonambulatory and nonverbal, and exhibited striatal abnormalities on MRI. A diagnosis of Leigh syndrome was rejected due to normal lactate profiles. Exome sequencing identified biallelic variants of VAC14 that were inherited from unaffected heterozygous parents in both families. Proband 1 inherited a splice-site variant that results in skipping of exon 13, p.Ile459Profs(?)4 (not reported in public databases), and the missense variant p.Trp424Leu (reported in the ExAC database in a single heterozygote). Proband 2 inherited two missense variants in the dimerization domain of VAC14, p.Ala582Ser and p.Ser583Leu, that have not been previously reported. Cultured skin fibroblasts exhibited the accumulation of vacuoles that is characteristic of PI(3,5)P2 deficiency. Vacuolization of fibroblasts was rescued by transfection of wild-type VAC14 cDNA. The similar age of onset and neurological decline in the two unrelated children define a recessive disorder resulting from compound heterozygosity for deleterious variants of VAC14.
Project description:Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder with variable expressivity and locus heterogeneity. Despite several RAS pathway genes were implicated in NS, 20-30% of patients remain without molecular diagnosis, suggesting the involvement of further genes or multiple mechanisms. Eight patients out of 60, negative for conventional NS mutation analysis, with heterogeneous NS phenotype were investigated by means of target resequencing of 26 RAS/MAPK pathway genes. A trio was further characterized by means of whole-exome sequencing. Protein modeling and in silico prediction of protein stability allowed to identify possible pathogenic RAS pathway variants in four NS patients. A new c.355T>C variant in LZTR1 was found in patient 43. Two patients co-inherited variants in LRP1 and LZTR1 (patient 53), or LRP1 and SOS1 genes (patient 67). The forth patient (56) carried a compound heterozygote of RASAL3 gene variants and also an A2ML1 variant. While these subclinical variants are singularly present in healthy parents, they co-segregate in patients, suggesting their addictive effect and supporting a digenic inheritance, as alternative model to a more common monogenic transmission. The ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK activation state, assessed on immortalized lymphocytes from patients 53 and 67 showed highest phosphorylation levels compared to their asymptomatic parents. These findings together with the lack of their co-occurrence in the 1000Genomes database strengthen the hypothesis of digenic inheritance in a subset of NS patients. This study suggests caution in the exclusion of subclinical variants that might play a pathogenic role providing new insights for alternative hereditary mechanisms.
Project description:Rare disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous. For some conditions, affected fetuses can be diagnosed by ultrasound scan, but this is not usually possible until mid-gestation. There is often limited fetal DNA available for investigation. We investigated a strategy for diagnosing autosomal recessive lethal disorders in non-consanguineous pedigrees with multiple affected fetuses. Exome sequencing was performed to identify genes where each parent is heterozygous for a rare non-synonymous-coding or splicing variant. Putative pathogenic variants were tested for cosegregation in affected fetuses and unaffected siblings. In eight couples of European ancestry, we found on average 1.75 genes (range 0-4) where both parents were heterozygous for rare potentially deleterious variants. A proof-of-principle study detected heterozygous DYNC2H1 variants in a couple whose five fetuses had short-rib polydactyly. Prospective analysis of two couples with multiple pregnancy terminations for fetal akinesia syndrome was performed and a diagnosis was obtained in both the families. The first couple were each heterozygous for a previously reported GLE1 variant, p.Arg569His or p.Val617Met; both were inherited by their two affected fetuses. The second couple were each heterozygous for a novel RYR1 variant, c.14130-2A>G or p.Ser3074Phe; both were inherited by their three affected fetuses but not by their unaffected child. Biallelic GLE1 and RYR1 disease-causing variants have been described in other cases with fetal akinesia syndrome. We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples can be an effective tool for diagnosing lethal recessive disorders in outbred couples. This permits early prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The causes for thousands of individually rare recessive diseases have been discovered since the adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS). Following the molecular diagnosis in older children in a family, parents could use this information to opt for fetal genotyping in subsequent pregnancies, which could inform decisions about elective termination of pregnancy. The use of NGS diagnostic sequencing in families has not been demonstrated to yield benefit in subsequent pregnancies to reduce recurrence. Here we evaluated whether genetic diagnosis in older children in families supports reduction in recurrence of recessive neurogenetic disease. METHODS:Retrospective study involving families with a child with a recessive pediatric brain disease (rPBD) that underwent NGS-based molecular diagnosis. Prenatal molecular testing was offered to couples in which a molecular diagnosis was made, to help couples seeking to prevent recurrence. With this information, families made decisions about elective termination. Pregnancies that were carried to term were assessed for the health of child and mother, and compared with historic recurrence risk of recessive disease. RESULTS:Between 2010 and 2016, 1172 families presented with a child a likely rPBD, 526 families received a molecular diagnosis, 91 families returned to the clinic with 101 subsequent pregnancies, and 84 opted for fetal genotyping. Sixty tested negative for recurrence for the biallelic mutation in the fetus, and all, except for one spontaneous abortion, carried to term, and were unaffected at follow-up. Of 24 that genotyped positive for the biallelic mutation, 16 were electively terminated, and 8 were carried to term and showed features of disease similar to that of the older affected sibling(s). Among the 101 pregnancies, disease recurrence in living offspring deviated from the expected 25% to the observed 12% ([95% CI 0·04 to 0·20], p?=?0·011). CONCLUSIONS:Molecular diagnosis in an older child, coupled with prenatal fetal genotyping in subsequent pregnancies and genetic counselling, allows families to make informed decisions to reduce recessive neurogenetic disease recurrence.
Project description:RIT1 oncoproteins have emerged as an etiologic factor in Noonan syndrome and cancer. Despite the resemblance of RIT1 to other members of the Ras small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), mutations affecting RIT1 are not found in the classic hotspots but rather in a region near the switch II domain of the protein. We used an isogenic germline knock-in mouse model to study the effects of RIT1 mutation at the organismal level, which resulted in a phenotype resembling Noonan syndrome. By mass spectrometry, we detected a RIT1 interactor, leucine zipper-like transcription regulator 1 (LZTR1), that acts as an adaptor for protein degradation. Pathogenic mutations affecting either RIT1 or LZTR1 resulted in incomplete degradation of RIT1. This led to RIT1 accumulation and dysregulated growth factor signaling responses. Our results highlight a mechanism of pathogenesis that relies on impaired protein degradation of the Ras GTPase RIT1.
Project description:Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SCTS) is characterized by intervertebral fusions and fusion of the carpal and tarsal bones. Biallelic mutations in FLNB cause this condition in some families, whereas monoallelic variants in MYH3, encoding embryonic heavy chain myosin 3, have been implicated in dominantly inherited forms of the disorder. Here, five individuals without FLNB mutations from three families were hypothesized to be affected by recessive SCTS on account of sibling recurrence of the phenotype. Initial whole-exome sequencing (WES) showed that all five were heterozygous for one of two independent splice-site variants in MYH3. Despite evidence indicating that three of the five individuals shared two allelic haplotypes encompassing MYH3, no second variant could be located in the WES datasets. Subsequent genome sequencing of these three individuals demonstrated a variant altering a 5' UTR splice donor site (rs557849165 in MYH3) not represented by exome-capture platforms. When the cohort was expanded to 16 SCTS-affected individuals without FLNB mutations, nine had truncating mutations transmitted by unaffected parents, and six inherited the rs557849165 variant in trans, an observation at odds with the population allele frequency for this variant. The rs557849165 variant disrupts splicing in the 5' UTR but is still permissive of MYH3 translational initiation, albeit with reduced efficiency. Although some MYH3 variants cause dominant SCTS, these data indicate that others (notably truncating variants) do not, except in the context of compound heterozygosity for a second hypomorphic allele. These observations make genetic diagnosis challenging in the context of simplex presentations of the disorder.
Project description:Schwannomatosis is characterized by the development of multiple non-vestibular, non-intradermal schwannomas. Constitutional inactivating variants in two genes, SMARCB1 and, very recently, LZTR1, have been reported. We performed exome sequencing of 13 schwannomatosis patients from 11 families without SMARCB1 deleterious variants. We identified four individuals with heterozygous loss-of-function variants in LZTR1. Sequencing of the germline of 60 additional patients identified 18 additional heterozygous variants in LZTR1. We identified LZTR1 variants in 43% and 30% of familial (three of the seven families) and sporadic patients, respectively. In addition, we tested LZTR1 protein immunostaining in 22 tumors from nine unrelated patients with and without LZTR1 deleterious variants. Tumors from individuals with LZTR1 variants lost the protein expression in at least a subset of tumor cells, consistent with a tumor suppressor mechanism. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that molecular analysis of LZTR1 may contribute to the molecular characterization of schwannomatosis patients, in addition to NF2 mutational analysis and the detection of chromosome 22 losses in tumor tissue. It will be especially useful in differentiating schwannomatosis from mosaic Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). However, the role of LZTR1 in the pathogenesis of schwannomatosis needs further elucidation.
Project description:Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, congenital heart disease and facial dysmorphia with an incidence of 1/1000 to 2500 live births. Up to now, several genes have been proven to be involved in the disturbance of the transduction signal through the RAS-MAP Kinase pathway and the manifestation of Noonan syndrome. The first gene described was PTPN11, followed by SOS1, RAF1, KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, MAP2K1, and RIT1, and recently SOS2, LZTR1, and A2ML1, among others. Progressively, the physiopathology and molecular etiology of most signs of Noonan syndrome have been demonstrated, and inheritance patterns as well as genetic counseling have been established. In this review, we summarize the data concerning clinical features frequently observed in Noonan syndrome, and then, we describe the molecular etiology as well as the physiopathology of most Noonan syndrome-causing genes. In the second part of this review, we assess the mutational rate of Noonan syndrome-causing genes reported up to now in most screening studies. This review should give clinicians as well as geneticists a full view of the molecular aspects of Noonan syndrome and the authentic prevalence of the mutational events of its causing-genes. It will also facilitate laying the groundwork for future molecular diagnosis research, and the development of novel treatment strategies.