Bench-Stable Nickel Precatalysts with Heck-type Activation.
ABSTRACT: Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new class of air- and moisture-stable phosphine-containing nickel(II) precatalysts, which activate through a Heck-type mechanism. The activities of the precatalysts are demonstrated with a carbonyl-ene coupling reaction.
Project description:Herein, we introduce a new class of bench-stable N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) nickel-precatalysts for homogeneous nickel-catalysis. The nickel(II) complexes are readily activated to Ni0 in?situ under mild conditions, via a proposed Heck-type mechanism. The precatalysts are shown to facilitate carbonyl-ene, hydroalkenylation, and amination reactions.
Project description:A series of air-stable nickel complexes of the form L2Ni(aryl) X (L = monodentate phosphine, X = Cl, Br) and LNi(aryl)X (L = bis-phosphine) have been synthesized and are presented as a library of precatalysts suitable for a wide variety of nickel-catalyzed transformations. These complexes are easily synthesized from low-cost NiCl2·6H2O or NiBr2·3H2O and the desired ligand followed by addition of 1 equiv of Grignard reagent. A selection of these complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and an analysis of their structural features is provided. A case study of their use as precatalysts for the nickel-catalyzed carbonyl-ene reaction is presented, showing superior reactivity in comparison to reactions using Ni(cod)2. Furthermore, as the precatalysts are all stable to air, no glovebox or inert-atmosphere techniques are required to make use of these complexes for nickel-catalyzed reactions.
Project description:The conventional oxidative Heck reaction between aryl boronic acids and alkenes typically involved the PdII/Pd0/PdII catalytic cycle incorporating an external oxidant and often suffered C=C bond isomerization for internal alkyl-substituted alkenes via chain-walking. Herein, we demonstrate that the regioselectivity (γ-selectivity vs. δ-selectivity) and pathway selectivity (hydroarylation vs. oxidative Heck coupling) of a directed Ni-catalyzed alkene arylation can be controlled by judicious tuning of the coordination environment around the nickel catalyst via optimization of an appropriate phosphine ligand and directing group. In this way, the Ni(0)-catalyzed oxidative Heck arylation that relies on transfer hydrogenation of an acceptor olefin is developed with excellent E/Z selectivity and regioselectivity. Mechanistic investigations suggest that the addition of the acceptor is crucial for lowering the energy for carbometalation and for enabling catalytic turnover.
Project description:For the first time, nickel-catalyzed silyl-Heck reactions are reported. Using simple phosphine-supported nickel catalysts, direct activation of silyl triflates has been achieved. These results contrast earlier palladium-catalyzed systems, which require iodide additives to activate silyl-triflates. These nickel-based catalysts exhibit good functional group tolerance in the preparation of vinyl silanes, and unlike earlier systems, allows for the incorporation of trialkylsilanes larger than Me3Si.
Project description:Studies of the silyl-Heck reaction aimed at identifying active palladium complexes have revealed a new species that is formed in situ. This complex has been identified as the palladium iodide dimer, [(JessePhos)PdI2]2, which has been found to be a competent single-component precatalyst for the silyl-Heck reaction. This complex is easily prepared and is temperature, moisture, and air stable. Additionally, this precatalyst provides higher activity and greater reproducibility compared to previous systems.
Project description:The development of a general, nickel-catalyzed alkyl-Mizoroki-Heck reaction of unactivated alkyl bromides is described. The mild reaction proceeds efficiently using a wide range of primary and secondary alkyl bromides, and examples of intermolecular cross-couplings are provided. Reaction alkene regioselectivity is significantly enhanced over prior carbocyclizations using palladium catalysis. Mechanistic investigations are consistent with a direct carbocyclization in contrast to the auto-tandem atom-transfer cyclization and halide elimination previously observed with palladium catalysis.
Project description:Achieving high selectivity in the Heck reaction of electronically unbiased alkenes has been a longstanding challenge. Using a nickel-catalyzed cationic Heck reaction, we were able to achieve excellent selectivity for branched products (?19:1 in all cases) over a wide range of aryl electrophiles and aliphatic olefins. A bidentate ligand with a suitable bite angle and steric profile was key to obtaining high branched/linear selectivity, whereas the appropriate base suppressed alkene isomerization of the product. Although aryl triflates are traditionally used to access the cationic Heck pathway, we have shown that, by using triethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, we can effect a counterion exchange of the catalytic nickel complex, such that cheaper and more stable aryl chlorides, mesylates, tosylates, and sulfamates can be used to yield the same branched products with high selectivity.
Project description:The development of enantioselective carbon-carbon bond couplings catalyzed by nonprecious metals is highly desirable in terms of cost efficiency and sustainability. The first nickel-catalyzed enantioselective Mizoroki-Heck coupling is reported. This transformation is accomplished via mild reaction conditions, leveraging on QuinoxP* as a chiral ligand to afford oxindoles containing quaternary stereocenters. Good reactivity and selectivity are observed in the presence of various functional groups. Computational studies suggest that the oxidative addition assembles an atropisomeric intermediate responsible for the facial selectivity of the insertion step.
Project description:Aryl carbonates, a common protecting group in synthetic organic chemistry, are potentially valuable electrophiles in cross-coupling reactions. Here, after performing a thorough evaluation of different precatalysts, we demonstrate that (dcypf)Ni(2-ethylphenyl)(Br) (dcypf = 1,1-bis-(dicyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene) is an efficient precatalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions using a variety of aryl carbonates as substrates. Mechanistic studies indicate that (dcypf)Ni(2-ethylphenyl)(Br), which contains a bidentate phosphine that binds in a trans geometry, is an effective precatalyst for these reactions for two reasons: (i) it rapidly forms the Ni(O) active species and (ii) it minimizes comproportionation reactions between the Ni(O) active species and both the unactivated Ni(II) precatalyst and on-cycle Ni(II) complexes to form catalytically inactive Ni(I) species. In contrast, the state of the art precatalyst (dppf)Ni(o-tolyl)(Cl) (dppf = 1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), which contains a bidentate phosphine that binds in a cis geometry, forms Ni(I) species during activation and is essentially inactive for aryl carbonate couplings. Although the exact reasons on a molecular level why the dcypf system is more active than the dppf system are unclear, our results indicate that in general Ni catalysts supported by the dcypf ligand will give better performance for catalytic reactions involving substrates which undergo relatively slow oxidative addition, such as aryl carbonates.
Project description:A series of phosphine-ligated palladium precatalysts based on N-methyl- and N-phenyl-2-aminobiphenyl have been developed. Substitution at the nitrogen center prevents the presence of traces of aminobiphenyls that contain a free -NH2 group from contaminating cross-coupling products. These precatalysts produce N-substituted carbazoles upon activation, which cannot consume starting materials. These precatalysts were efficiently generated from 2-aminobiphenyl with minimal purification and found to be highly effective in Suzuki-Miyaura and C-N cross-coupling reactions.