The polymorphisms of the PPARD gene modify post-training body mass and biochemical parameter changes in women.
ABSTRACT: In this study we examined the genotype distribution of the PPARD rs2267668, rs2016520, and rs1053049 alleles in a group of women, before and after the completion of a 12-week training program. There were two significant genotype × training interactions resulting in decreases of total cholesterol (Chol) through training in rs2267668 G allele carriers and significant increases of triglyceride (TGL) levels in rs2267668 AA homozygotes. Carriers of rs2016520 PPARD C allele exhibited a significant decrease in Chol through training with an accompanying decrease in TGL. There was also overrepresentation of PPARD rs1053049 TT homozygotes in the group with higher post-training TGL levels. Moreover (rs2267668/rs2016520/rs1053049) G/C/T haplotype displayed smaller post-training body mass decrease, suggesting that harboring this specific G/C/T haplotype is unfavorable for achieving the desired training-induced body mass changes. On the other hand, the G/C/C haplotype was significantly associated with post-training increase in fat free mass (FFM) and with lower levels of Chol as well as TGL as observed in the blood of the participants in response to applied training. This observation constitutes the second important finding of the study, implying that when specific training-induced biochemical changes are taken into account, some individuals may benefit from carrying the G/C/C haplotype.
Project description:Background:Athletic performances are complex traits with heritability of ~66%. Dynamic balance is one of the most important athletic performances, and there has been little studies for it in sports genomics. The candidate PPARD gene was reported to be able to affect muscle development for balance predisposition and influence the athletic performance including skiing triumph in the Caucasian population. This study aims to investigate whether the PPARD gene is a susceptibility gene for dynamic balance performance in Han Chinese children. Results:A total 2244 children were recruited and their balance beam performances were measured. Five polymorphisms in the PPARD gene were genotyped through the MassARRAY Sequenom platform. Rs2016520 exerted significant association with dynamic balance performance (minor allele C, P = 0.015, Pcorrected < 0.05) and was affirmed in a meta-analysis by combining previously reported Caucasian cohorts (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.91], P < 10 -5) . Another polymorphism, rs2267668, was also significantly associated with dynamic balance performance (minor allele G, P = 0.015, Pcorrected < 0.05). In the dichotomous study, 321 cases (61% boys and 39% girls) and 370 controls (49% boys and 51% girls) in our samples were selected as representatives, and the thresholds were the mean velocity (0.737 m/s) ± standard deviation (0.264 m/s), in which rs2016520-C and rs2267668-G still remained significant (CI =1.41 [1.11~1.79], P = 0.004, Pcorrected < 0.016; CI =1.45 [1.14~1.86], P = 0.002, Pcorrected < 0.016). In different genders, consistent OR direction was observed for each variant. Conclusions:Our results suggested that the PPARD gene is associated with dynamic balance performance of human being, and further studies to reveal its etiology is strongly suggested.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified that variants in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR-? (PPARD), a target gene of vitamin D, were significantly associated with fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity in European populations. This current study sought to determine (1) whether the genetic associations of PPARD variants with type 2 diabetes and its related traits could be replicated in Chinese Han population, and (2) whether the associations would be modified by the effect of vitamin D status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 9 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cover the gene of PPARD (rs2267664, rs6902123, rs3798343, rs2267665, rs2267668, rs2016520, rs2299869, rs1053049, and rs9658056) and tested their associations with type 2 diabetes risk and its related traits, including fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c in 3,210 Chinese Hans. Among the 9 PPARD tag SNPs, rs6902123 was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.75 [95%CI 1.22-2.53]; P = 0.0025) and combined type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (odds ratio 1.47 [95%CI 1.12-1.92]; P = 0.0054). The minor C allele of rs6902123 was associated with increased levels of fasting glucose (P = 0.0316) and HbA1c (P = 0.0180). In addition, we observed that vitamin D modified the effect of rs6902123 on HbA1c (P for interaction = 0.0347). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that common variants in PPARD contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese Hans, and provided suggestive evidence of interaction between 25(OH)D levels and PPARD-rs6902123 on HbA1c.
Project description:Recent studies showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) had effects on the progression of multiple tumors, but the role of PPARD and PPARG in glioma remains poorly understand. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of polymorphisms in PPARD and PPARG with glioma risk and prognosis in the Chinese Han population. Seven polymorphisms (PPARD: rs2016520, rs67056409, rs1053049 and rs2206030; PPARG: rs2920503, rs4073770 and rs1151988) were genotyped using the Agena MassARRAY system in 568 glioma patients and 509 healthy controls. The odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the association of PPARD and PPARG polymorphisms with glioma risk. The Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to analysis interactions of genetic polymorphisms on glioma risk. Then, we conducted log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model to evaluate the relationship of PPARD and PPARG polymorphisms with glioma prognosis. We found PPARD polymorphisms (rs2016520, rs67056409, rs1053049) were significantly associated with glioma risk in multiple models (P?<?0.05). Stratified analysis showed rs2016520, rs67056409, rs1053049 of PPARD significantly decreased risk of glioma in the subgroup of age?>?40 and astrocytoma (P?<?0.05). For male, PPARD rs1053049 had a strong relationship with glioma risk in allele (P?=?0.041), dominant (P?=?0.040) and additive (P?=?0.040) models. The effect of PPARG rs2920503 on glioma risk was related to glioma grade (P?<?0.05). MDR showed that a seven-locus model was the best polymorphisms interaction pattern. Moreover, surgery and chemotherapy had strongly impact on overall survival and progression free survival of glioma patients. Our findings suggested that PPARD and PPARG polymorphisms were associated with glioma risk and prognosis in the Chinese Han population, and further studies are need to confirm our results.
Project description:The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARA, PPARG, PPARD) and their transcriptional coactivators' (PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B) gene polymorphisms have been associated with muscle morphology, oxygen uptake, power output and endurance performance. The purpose of this review is to determine whether the PPARs and/or their coactivators' polymorphisms can predict the training response to specific training stimuli.In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses, a literature review has been run for a combination of PPARs and physical activity key words.All ten of the included studies were performed using aerobic training in general, sedentary or elderly populations from 21 to 75 years of age. The non-responders for aerobic training (VO?peak increase, slow muscle fiber increase and low-density lipoprotein decrease) are the carriers of PPARGC1A rs8192678 Ser/Ser. The negative responders for aerobic training (decrease in VO?peak) are carriers of the PPARD rs2267668 G allele. The negative responders for aerobic training (decreased glucose tolerance and insulin response) are subjects with the PPARG rs1801282 Pro/Pro genotype. The best responders to aerobic training are PPARGC1A rs8192678 Gly/Gly, PPARD rs1053049 TT, PPARD rs2267668 AA and PPARG rs1801282 Ala carriers.The human response for aerobic training is significantly influenced by PPARs' gene polymorphism and their coactivators, where aerobic training can negatively influence glucose metabolism and VO?peak in some genetically-predisposed individuals.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we identified two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs, g.1015 A>G and g.1018 T>C) constituting four haplotypes (GT, GC, AC and AT) in the 5' regulatory region of porcine PPARD gene. Functional analysis of the four haplotypes showed that the transcriptional activity of the PPARD promoter fragment carrying haplotype AC was significantly lower than that of the other haplotypes in 3T3-L1, C2C12 and PK-15 cells, and haplotype AC had the lowest binding capacities to the nuclear extracts. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) enhanced the transcription activities of promoter fragments of PPARD gene carrying haplotypes GT, GC and AT in C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells, and increased the protein expression of PPARD gene in C2C12 myoblasts. TCF7L2 differentially bound to the four haplotypes, and the binding capacity of TCF7L2 to haplotype AC was the lowest. There were significant associations between -655A/G and fat deposition traits in three pig populations including the Large White × Meishan F2 pigs, France and American Large White pigs. Pigs with genotype GG had significantly higher expression of PPARD at both mRNA and protein level than those with genotype AG. These results strongly suggested that the SNPs in 5' regulatory region of PPARD genes had significant impact on pig fat deposition traits.
Project description:APC mutations activate aberrant ?-catenin signaling to drive initiation of colorectal cancer; however, colorectal cancer progression requires additional molecular mechanisms. PPAR-delta (PPARD), a downstream target of ?-catenin, is upregulated in colorectal cancer. However, promotion of intestinal tumorigenesis following deletion of PPARD in Apcmin mice has raised questions about the effects of PPARD on aberrant ?-catenin activation and colorectal cancer. In this study, we used mouse models of PPARD overexpression or deletion combined with APC mutation (Apc?580 ) in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to elucidate the contributions of PPARD in colorectal cancer. Overexpression or deletion of PPARD in IEC augmented or suppressed ?-catenin activation via up- or downregulation of BMP7/TAK1 signaling and strongly promoted or suppressed colorectal cancer, respectively. Depletion of PPARD in human colorectal cancer organoid cells inhibited BMP7/?-catenin signaling and suppressed organoid self-renewal. Treatment with PPARD agonist GW501516 enhanced colorectal cancer tumorigenesis in Apc?580 mice, whereas treatment with PPARD antagonist GSK3787 suppressed tumorigenesis. PPARD expression was significantly higher in human colorectal cancer-invasive fronts versus their paired tumor centers and adenomas. Reverse-phase protein microarray and validation studies identified PPARD-mediated upregulation of other proinvasive pathways: connexin 43, PDGFR?, AKT1, EIF4G1, and CDK1. Our data demonstrate that PPARD strongly potentiates multiple tumorigenic pathways to promote colorectal cancer progression and invasiveness. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings address long-standing, important, and unresolved questions related to the potential role of PPARD in APC mutation-dependent colorectal tumorigenesis by showing PPARD activation enhances APC mutation-dependent tumorigenesis.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARD) is an important determinant of multiple biological processes. Our previous studies identified a missense mutation in the PPARD gene that significantly reduces its transcription activity, and consequently causes enlarged external ears in pigs. However, the mechanisms underlying the causality has remained largely unknown. Here, we show that PPARD retards the development of auricular cartilage by accelerating the apoptosis of cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), the terminal differentiation of cartilage cells and the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix in the auricle. At the transcription level, PPARD upregulates a set of genes that are associated with CSPCs apoptosis and chondrogenic differentiation, chondroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix degradation. ChIP-seq identified direct target genes of PPARD, including a well-documented gene for cartilage development: PPARG. We further show that compared to wild-type PPARD, the G32E mutant up-regulates the expression of PPARG and subsequently leads to the downregulation of critical genes that inhibit cartilage growth. These findings allow us to conclude that PPARD is an inhibitor of auricular cartilage growth in pigs. The causative mutation (G32E) in the PPARD gene attenuates the PPARD-mediated retardation of cartilage growth in the auricle, contributing to enlarged ears in pigs. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying auricular development in mammals, and shed insight into the studies of innate pinna disorders and cartilage regeneration medicine in humans.
Project description:Chinese Erhualian is the most prolific pig breed in the world. The breed exhibits exceptionally large and floppy ears. To identify genes underlying this typical feature, we previously performed a genome scan in a large scale White Duroc × Erhualian cross and mapped a major QTL for ear size to a 2-cM region on chromosome 7. We herein performed an identical-by-descent analysis that defined the QTL within a 750-kb region. Historically, the large-ear feature has been selected for the ancient sacrificial culture in Erhualian pigs. By using a selective sweep analysis, we then refined the critical region to a 630-kb interval containing 9 annotated genes. Four of the 9 genes are expressed in ear tissues of piglets. Of the 4 genes, PPARD stood out as the strongest candidate gene for its established role in skin homeostasis, cartilage development, and fat metabolism. No differential expression of PPARD was found in ear tissues at different growth stages between large-eared Erhualian and small-eared Duroc pigs. We further screened coding sequence variants in the PPARD gene and identified only one missense mutation (G32E) in a conserved functionally important domain. The protein-altering mutation showed perfect concordance (100%) with the QTL genotypes of all 19 founder animals segregating in the White Duroc × Erhualian cross and occurred at high frequencies exclusively in Chinese large-eared breeds. Moreover, the mutation is of functional significance; it mediates down-regulation of ?-catenin and its target gene expression that is crucial for fat deposition in skin. Furthermore, the mutation was significantly associated with ear size across the experimental cross and diverse outbred populations. A worldwide survey of haplotype diversity revealed that the mutation event is of Chinese origin, likely after domestication. Taken together, we provide evidence that PPARD G32E is the variation underlying this major QTL.
Project description:PPARD has been suggested to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) with the underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Here, we first collected and analyzed the PPARD expression profile from three groups: (1) 18 healthy control (HC) subjects, (2) 14 clinical high-risk (CHR) patients, and (3) 19 early onset of SCZ (EOS) patients. After that, we conducted a systematical pathway analysis to explore the potential mechanisms involved in PPARD exerting influence on the pathological development of SCZ. Compared to the HC group, the expression of PPARD was slightly decreased in the EOS group (LFC = -0.34; p = 0.23) and increased in the CHR group (LFC = 0.65; p = 0.20). However, there was a significant difference between the EOS group and the CHR group (LFC = -0.99; p = 0.015), reflecting the amount of variation in PPARD expression before and after the onset of SCZ. Pathway analysis suggested that overexpression of PPARD may regulate ten proteins or molecules to inhibit the pathological development of SCZ, including the deactivation of eight SCZ promoters and stimulation of two SCZ inhibitors. Our results support the association between PPARD and SCZ. The pathways identified may help in the understanding of the potential mechanisms by which PPARD contributes to the etiology of SCZ.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) regulates cell metabolism, proliferation, and inflammation and has been associated with gastric and other cancers. Villin-positive epithelial cells are a small population of quiescent gastric progenitor cells. We expressed PPARD from a villin promoter to investigate the role of these cells and PPARD in development of gastric cancer. METHODS:We analyzed gastric tissues from mice that express the Ppard (PPARD1 and PPARD2 mice) from a villin promoter, and mice that did not carry this transgene (controls), by histology and immunohistochemistry. We performed cell lineage-tracing experiments and analyzed the microbiomes, chemokine and cytokine production, and immune cells and transcriptomes of stomachs of these mice. We also performed immunohistochemical analysis of PPARD levels in 2 sets of human gastric tissue microarrays. RESULTS:Thirty-eight percent of PPARD mice developed spontaneous, invasive gastric adenocarcinomas, with severe chronic inflammation. Levels of PPARD were increased in human gastric cancer tissues, compared with nontumor tissues, and associated with gastric cancer stage and grade. We found an inverse correlation between level of PPARD in tumor tissue and patient survival time. Gastric microbiomes from PPARD and control mice did not differ significantly. Lineage-tracing experiments identified villin-expressing gastric progenitor cells (VGPCs) as the origin of gastric tumors in PPARD mice. In these mice, PPARD up-regulated CCL20 and CXCL1, which increased infiltration of the gastric mucosa by immune cells. Immune cell production of inflammatory cytokines promoted chronic gastric inflammation and expansion and transformation of VGPCs, leading to tumorigenesis. We identified a positive-feedback loop between PPARD and interferon gamma signaling that sustained gastric inflammation to induce VGPC transformation and gastric carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:We found PPARD overexpression in VPGCs to result in inflammation, dysplasia, and tumor formation. PPARD and VGPCs might be therapeutic targets for stomach cancer.