Aberrant splicing and defective mRNA production induced by somatic spliceosome mutations in myelodysplasia.
ABSTRACT: Spliceosome mutations are frequently found in myelodysplasia. Splicing alterations induced by these mutations, their precise targets, and the effect at the transcript level have not been fully elucidated. Here we report transcriptomic analyses of 265 bone marrow samples from myelodysplasia patients, followed by a validation using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing and an assessment of nonsense-mediated decay susceptibility. Small but widespread reduction of intron-retaining isoforms is the most frequent splicing alteration in SF3B1-mutated samples. SF3B1 mutation is also associated with 3' splice site alterations, leading to the most pronounced reduction of canonical transcripts. Target genes include tumor suppressors and genes of mitochondrial iron metabolism or heme biosynthesis. Alternative exon usage is predominant in SRSF2- and U2AF1-mutated samples. Usage of an EZH2 cryptic exon harboring a premature termination codon is increased in both SRSF2- and U2AF1-mutated samples. Our study reveals a landscape of splicing alterations and precise targets of various spliceosome mutations.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by recurrent somatic alterations often affecting components of RNA splicing machinery. Mutations of splice factors SF3B1, SRSF2, ZRSR2 and U2AF1 occur in >50% of MDS. To assess the impact of spliceosome mutations on splicing and to identify common pathways/genes affected by distinct mutations, we performed RNA-sequencing of 24 MDS bone marrow samples harboring spliceosome mutations (including hotspot alterations of SF3B1, SRSF2 and U2AF1; small deletions of SRSF2 and truncating mutations of ZRSR2), and devoid of other common co-occurring mutations. We uncover the landscape of splicing alterations in each splice factor mutant MDS and demonstrate that SRSF2 deletions cause highest number of splicing alterations compared with other spliceosome mutations. Although the mis-spliced events observed in different splice factor mutations were largely non-overlapping, a subset of genes, including EZH2, were aberrantly spliced in multiple mutant groups. Pathway analysis revealed that the mis-spliced genes in different mutant groups were enriched in RNA splicing and transport as well as several signaling cascades, suggesting converging biological consequences downstream of distinct spliceosome mutations. Overall design: RNA-sequencing of MDS bone marrow either harboring mutations or wildtype for spliceosome genes (SF3B1, ZRSR2, SRSF2 and U2AF1)
Project description:Spliceosome mutations (SRSF2, SF3B1, U2AF1, ZRSR2), are encountered in ∼50% of secondary acute myeloid leukemia cases (sAML) and define a molecular subgroup with outcomes similar to sAML in de novo AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy. Outcomes in patients with spliceosome mutations treated with hypomethylating agents in combination with venetoclax (HMA+VEN) remains unknown. The primary objective was to compare outcomes in patients with spliceosome mutations vs wild-type patients treated with HMA+VEN. Secondary objectives included analysis of the mutational landscape of the spliceosome cohort and assessing the impact of co-occurring mutations. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients treated with HMA+VEN-based regimens at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. A total of 119 patients (spliceosome mutated n = 39 [SRSF2, n = 24; SF3B1, n = 8; U2AF1, n = 7]; wild-type, n = 80) were included. Similar responses were observed between spliceosome and wild-type cohorts for composite complete response (CRc; 79% vs 75%, P = .65), and measurable residual disease-negative CRc (48% vs 60%, P = .34). Median overall survival for spliceosome vs wild-type patients was 35 vs 14 months (P = .58), and was not reached; 35 months and 8 months for patients with SRSF2, SF3B1, and U2AF1 mutations, respectively. IDH2 mutations were enriched in patients with SRSF2 mutations and associated with favorable outcomes (1- and 2-year overall survival [OS] of 100% and 88%). RAS mutations were enriched in patients with U2AF1 mutations and associated with inferior outcomes (median OS, 8 months). Comparable outcomes were observed between patients with vs without spliceosome mutations treated with HMA+VEN regimens, with specific co-mutation pairs demonstrating favorable outcomes.
Project description:Recurrent somatic SET-binding protein 1 (SETBP1) and splicing pathway gene mutations have recently been found in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. These mutations have been comprehensively analyzed in adult AML, but not in childhood AML. We investigated possible alteration of the SETBP1, splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1), U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1 (U2AF1), and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) genes in childhood AML.Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed to reveal chromosomal and genetic alterations. Sequence alterations in the SETBP1, SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 genes were examined by using direct sequencing in a cohort of 53 childhood AML patients.Childhood AML patients did not harbor any recurrent SETBP1 gene mutations, although our study did identify a synonymous mutation in one patient. None of the previously reported aberrations in the mutational hotspot of SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 were identified in any of the 53 patients.Alterations of the SETBP1 gene or SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 genes are not common genetic events in childhood AML, implying that the mutations are unlikely to exert a driver effect in myeloid leukemogenesis during childhood.
Project description:SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 are the most frequently mutated splicing factor genes in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We have performed a comprehensive and systematic analysis to determine the effect of these commonly mutated splicing factors on pre-mRNA splicing in the bone marrow stem/progenitor cells and in the erythroid and myeloid precursors in splicing factor mutant MDS. Using RNA-seq, we determined the aberrantly spliced genes and dysregulated pathways in CD34+ cells of 84 patients with MDS. Splicing factor mutations result in different alterations in splicing and largely affect different genes, but these converge in common dysregulated pathways and cellular processes, focused on RNA splicing, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting common mechanisms of action in MDS. Many of these dysregulated pathways and cellular processes can be linked to the known disease pathophysiology associated with splicing factor mutations in MDS, whereas several others have not been previously associated with MDS, such as sirtuin signaling. We identified aberrantly spliced events associated with clinical variables, and isoforms that independently predict survival in MDS and implicate dysregulation of focal adhesion and extracellular exosomes as drivers of poor survival. Aberrantly spliced genes and dysregulated pathways were identified in the MDS-affected lineages in splicing factor mutant MDS. Functional studies demonstrated that knockdown of the mitosis regulators SEPT2 and AKAP8, aberrantly spliced target genes of SF3B1 and SRSF2 mutations, respectively, led to impaired erythroid cell growth and differentiation. This study illuminates the effect of the common spliceosome mutations on the MDS phenotype and provides novel insights into disease pathophysiology.
Project description:Somatic mutations of pre-mRNA splicing factors recur among patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and related malignancies. Although these MDS-relevant mutations alter the splicing of a subset of transcripts, the mechanisms by which these single amino acid substitutions change gene expression remain controversial. New structures of spliceosome intermediates and associated protein complexes shed light on the molecular interactions mediated by 'hotspots' of the SF3B1 and U2AF1 pre-mRNA splicing factors. The frequently mutated SF3B1 residues contact the pre-mRNA splice site. Based on structural homology with other spliceosome subunits, and recent findings of altered RNA binding by mutant U2AF1 proteins, we suggest that affected U2AF1 residues also contact pre-mRNA. Altered pre-mRNA recognition emerges as a molecular theme among MDS-relevant mutations of pre-mRNA splicing factors.
Project description:We assessed the frequency and clinicopathologic significance of 19 genes currently identified as significantly mutated in myeloid neoplasms, RUNX1, ASXL1, TET2, CEBPA, IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, FLT3, NPM1, TP53, NRAS, EZH2, CBL, U2AF1, SF3B1, SRSF2, JAK2, CSF3R, and SETBP1, across 93 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using capture target enrichment and next-generation sequencing. Of these cases, 79% showed at least one nonsynonymous mutation, and cases of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities showed a lower frequency of mutations versus AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (P<0.001). Mutational analysis further demonstrated that TP53 mutations are associated with complex karyotype AML, whereas ASXL1 and U2AF1 mutations are associated with AML with myelodysplasia-related changes. Furthermore, U2AF1 mutations were specifically associated with trilineage morphologic dysplasia. Univariate analysis demonstrated that U2AF1 and TP53 mutations are associated with absence of clinical remission, poor overall survival (OS), and poor disease-free survival (DFS; P<0.0001), whereas TET2 and ASXL1 mutations are associated with poor OS (P<0.03). In multivariate analysis, U2AF1 and TP53 mutations retained independent prognostic significance in OS and DFS, respectively. Our results demonstrate unique relationships between mutations in AML, clinicopathologic prognosis, subtype categorization, and morphologic dysplasia.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are haematopoietic malignancies that are characterised by a heterogeneous clinical course. In recent years, sequencing efforts have uncovered recurrent somatic mutations within RNA splicing factors, including SF3B1, SRSF2, U2AF1 and ZRSR2. The most frequently mutated gene is SF3B1, mutated in 17% of MDS patients. While SF3B1 mutations and their effects on splicing have been well characterised, much remains to be explored about their more far-reaching effects on cellular homeostasis. Given that mRNA splicing and nuclear export are coordinated processes, we hypothesised that SF3B1 mutation might also affect export of certain mRNAs and that this may represent a targetable pathway for the treatment of SF3B1-mutant MDS. We used CRISPR/Cas9-genome editing to create isogenic cellular models. Comprehensive transcriptome and proteome profiling of these cells identified alterations in the splicing and export of components of the translational machinery, primarily tRNA synthetases, in response to the SF3B1 K700E mutation. While steady-state protein synthesis was unaffected, SF3B1 mutant cells were more sensitive to the clinically-relevant purine analogue, 8-azaguanine. In this study, we also demonstrated that 8-azaguanine affects splicing. Our results suggest that the simultaneous targeting of RNA metabolism and splicing by 8-azaguanine represents a therapeutic opportunity for SF3B1-mutant myelodysplastic syndromes.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are chronic and often progressive myeloid neoplasms associated with remarkable heterogeneity in the histomorphology and clinical course. Various somatic mutations are involved in the pathogenesis of MDS. Recently, mutations in a gene encoding a spliceosomal protein, SF3B1, were discovered in a distinct form of MDS with ring sideroblasts. Whole exome sequencing of 15 patients with myeloid neoplasms was performed, and somatic mutations in spliceosomal genes were identified. Sanger sequencing of 310 patients was performed to assess phenotype/genotype associations. To determine the functional effect of spliceosomal mutations, we evaluated pre-mRNA splicing profiles by RNA deep sequencing. We identified additional somatic mutations in spliceosomal genes, including SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2. These mutations alter pre-mRNA splicing patterns. SF3B1 mutations are prevalent in low-risk MDS with ring sideroblasts, whereas U2AF1 and SRSF2 mutations are frequent in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and advanced forms of MDS. SF3B1 mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis, whereas U2AF1 and SRSF2 mutations are predictive for shorter survival. Mutations affecting spliceosomal genes that result in defective splicing are a new leukemogenic pathway. Spliceosomal genes are probably tumor suppressors, and their mutations may constitute diagnostic biomarkers that could potentially serve as therapeutic targets.
Project description:SF3B1 is the most frequently mutated splicing factor in cancer. Mutations in SF3B1 likely confer clonal advantages to cancer cells but they may also confer vulnerabilities that can be therapeutically targeted. SF3B1 cancer mutations can be maintained in homozygosis in C. elegans, allowing synthetic lethal screens with a homogeneous population of animals. These mutations cause alternative splicing (AS) defects in C. elegans, as it occurs in SF3B1-mutated human cells. In a screen, we identified RNAi of U2 snRNP components that cause synthetic lethality with sftb-1/SF3B1 mutations. We also detected synthetic interactions between sftb-1 mutants and cancer-related mutations in uaf-2/U2AF1 or rsp-4/SRSF2, demonstrating that this model can identify interactions between mutations that are mutually exclusive in human tumors. Finally, we have edited an SFTB-1 domain to sensitize C. elegans to the splicing modulators pladienolide B and herboxidiene. Thus, we have established a multicellular model for SF3B1 mutations amenable for high-throughput genetic and chemical screens.