Silsesquioxane polymer as a potential scaffold for laryngeal reconstruction.
ABSTRACT: Cancer, disease and trauma to the larynx and their treatment can lead to permanent loss of structures critical to voice, breathing and swallowing. Engineered partial or total laryngeal replacements would need to match the ambitious specifications of replicating functionality, outer biocompatibility, and permissiveness for an inner mucosal lining. Here we present porous polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate urea) urethane (POSS-PCUU) as a potential scaffold for engineering laryngeal tissue. Specifically, we employ a precipitation and porogen leaching technique for manufacturing the polymer. The polymer is chemically consistent across all sample types and produces a foam-like scaffold with two distinct topographies and an internal structure composed of nano- and micro-pores. While the highly porous internal structure of the scaffold contributes to the complex tensile behaviour of the polymer, the surface of the scaffold remains largely non-porous. The low number of pores minimise access for cells, although primary fibroblasts and epithelial cells do attach and proliferate on the polymer surface. Our data show that with a change in manufacturing protocol to produce porous polymer surfaces, POSS-PCUU may be a potential candidate for overcoming some of the limitations associated with laryngeal reconstruction and regeneration.
Project description:In fields of materials science and chemistry, ionic-type porous materials attract increasing attention due to significant ion-exchanging capacity for accessing diversified applications. Facing the fact that porous cationic materials with robust and stable frameworks are very rare, novel tactics that can create new type members are highly desired. Here we report the first family of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) based porous cationic frameworks (PCIF-n) with enriched poly(ionic liquid)-like cationic structures, tunable mesoporosities, high surface areas (up to 1,025 m(2) g(-1)) and large pore volumes (up to 0.90 cm(3) g(-1)). Our strategy is designing the new rigid POSS unit of octakis(chloromethyl)silsesquioxane and reacting it with the rigid N-heterocyclic cross-linkers (typically 4,4'-bipyridine) for preparing the desired porous cationic frameworks. The PCIF-n materials possess large surface area, hydrophobic and special anion-exchanging property, and thus are used as the supports for loading guest species PMo10V2O40(5-); the resultant hybrid behaves as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for aerobic oxidation of benzene and H2O2-mediated oxidation of cyclohexane.
Project description:Abstract: This work considers the development of an easy and scalable approach to change the features of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) films, which is based on the application of a surface treatment with an amino-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). Indeed, the developed approach is based on the potential reactivity of POSS amino group towards the polymer functionalities to produce an aminolysis reaction, which should promote the direct grafting of the silsesquioxane molecules on the polymer surface. Neat and treated films were studied by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which proved the effectiveness of POSS grafting. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the homogeneous distribution of Si on the film surface treated with the silsesquioxane. The influence of the film treatment on the surface wettability was evidenced by contact angle measurements. These findings demonstrated a relevant enhancement of the surface hydrophobicity, which increase turned out to depend on the conditions applied, as it increased by increasing the reaction temperature and the contact time. Finally, in order to evaluate the stability of neat and of the treated PLLA films the surface morphology of the samples treated with pH 7.4 buffer at 50 °C was studied.
Project description:We demonstrated here a facile and efficient synthesis of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based amphiphilic polymer by thiol-ene click chemistry. The properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)⁻PEG amphiphilic polymers were studied in detail by a combination of ¹H NMR, 13C NMR, 29Si NMR FT-IR, GPC, and TG analysis. The newly-designed thiol-ene protocol obtains only anti-Markovnikov addition POSS-based amphiphilic polymers when compared with platinum-catalysed hydrosilylation method. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the resulting polymers are in the range of 0.011 to 0.050 mg/mL, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results revealed that the obtained amphiphilic polymers can self-assemble into nanoparticles in aqueous solutions with a bimodal (two peaks) distribution. Furthermore, the specific polymer showed obvious thermo-sensitive behaviour at 45.5 °C.
Project description:To provide adequate conditions for the regeneration of damaged bone, it is necessary to develop piezoelectric porous membranes with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, composite nanofibers comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane⁻epigallocatechin gallate (POSS⁻EGCG) conjugate were fabricated by electrospinning methods. The resulting composite nanofibers showed three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures. Their average diameters, ranging from 936 ± 223 nm to 1094 ± 394 nm, were hardly affected by the addition of the POSS⁻EGCG conjugate. On the other hand, the piezoelectric β-phase increased significantly from 77.4% to 88.1% after adding the POSS⁻EGCG conjugate. The mechanical strength of the composite nanofibers was ameliorated by the addition of the POSS⁻EGCG conjugate. The results of in vitro bioactivity tests exhibited that the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) on the nanofibers increased with the content of POSS⁻EGCG conjugate because of the improved piezoelectricity and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the nanofibers. All results could suggest that the PVDF composite nanofibers were effective for guided bone regeneration.
Project description:Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) is a promising scaffold to be used as delivery system. POSS can modify the properties of photosensitizers to enhance their efficacy toward photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this work, we designed, synthesized and characterized five different POSS porphyrin (POSSPs 1-5) derivatives containing hydrophobic (1-3) and hydrophilic (4 and 5) functional groups. In general, all the POSSPs showed a better singlet oxygen quantum yield than the parent porphyrins due to the steric hindrance from the POSS unique structure. POSSPs 1 and 3 containing isobutyl groups showed better PDT performance in cancer cells at lower concentrations than POSSPs 4 and 5. However; at higher concentrations, the POSSP4 containing hydrophilic groups has an enhanced PDT efficiency as compared with the parent porphyrin. We envision that the chemical tunability of POSSs can be used as a promising option to improve the delivery and performance of photosensitizers.
Project description:Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) is a versatile nanocomposite biomaterial with growing applications as a bioscaffold for tissue engineering. Integration of synthetic implants with host tissue can be problematic but could be improved by topographical modifications. We describe optimization of POSS-PCU by dispersion of porogens (sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose) onto the material surface, with the principle aim of increasing surface porosity, thus providing additional opportunities for improved cellular and vascular ingrowth. We assess the effect of the porogens on the material's mechanical strength, surface chemistry, wettability and cytocompatibilty. Surface porosity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was no alteration in surface chemistry and wettability and only modest changes in mechanical properties were detected. The size of porogens correlated well with the porosity of the construct produced and larger porogens improved interconnectivity of spaces within constructs. Using primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) we demonstrate moderate in vitro cytocompatibility for all surface modifications; however, larger pores resulted in cellular aggregation. These cells were able to differentiate on POSS-PCU scaffolds. Implantation of the scaffold in vivo demonstrated that larger pore sizes favor cellular integration and vascular ingrowth. These experiments demonstrate that surface modification with large porogens can improve POSS-PCU nanocomposite scaffold integration and suggest the need to strike a balance between the non-porous surfaces required for epithelial coverage and the porous structure required for integration and vascularization of synthetic scaffolds in future construct design.
Project description:Suitable polymers for the homogeneous formulation of drug/polymer mixtures should be selected to correct the structural and physicochemical nature with a rapid dissolution rate. This study aimed to evaluate a copolymer prepared by the radical polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) methacrylate bearing an ethyl (C₂H₅) group (MPC-ran-C₂H₅-POSS) as a carrier for the solid formulation of paclitaxel (PTX). A single-phase homogeneous formulation of PTX with the mixture of the MPC-ran-C₂H₅-POSS and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared by a solvent method. The formulation of MPC-ran-C₂H₅-POSS/PVP/PTX enhanced the dissolution rate and the dissolved amount (approximately 90% within 40 min) without precipitation. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis confirmed the presence of PTX as an amorphous state. The amphiphilic nature of the MPC-ran-C₂H₅-POSS contributed to enhancing the aqueous solubility of PTX. The new formulation is applicable for solid dispersion technique via the supersaturation of PTX in an aqueous media.
Project description:Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS), bearing eight 3-chloroammoniumpropyl substituents, was studied as a potential nanocarrier in co-delivery systems with doxorubicin (DOX). The toxicity of doxorubicin and POSS:DOX complexes at four different molar ratios (1:1; 1:2, 1:4, 1:8) towards microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and human cervical cancer endothelial cells (HeLa) was determined. The rate of penetration of the components into the cells, their cellular localization and the hydrodynamic diameter of the complexes was also determined. A cytotoxicity profile of POSS:DOX complexes indicated that the POSS:DOX system at the molar ratio of 1:8 was more effective than free DOX. Confocal images showed that DOX co-delivery with POSS allowed for more effective penetration of doxorubicin through the cell membrane. Taking all the results into account, it can be claimed that the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (T₈-POSS) is a promising, complex nanocarrier for doxorubicin delivery.
Project description:In this study, we synthesized an unusual 2-aminobutyl maleimide isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MIPOSS-NHBu) monomer lacking conventional fluorescent groups. We then prepared poly(styrene-alt-2-aminobutyl maleimide isobutyl POSS) [poly(S-alt-MIPOSS-NHBu)] and poly(4-acetoxystyrene-alt-2-aminobutyl maleimide isobutyl POSS) [poly(AS-alt-MIPOSS-NHBu)] copolymers through facile free radical copolymerizations using azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator and tetrahydrofuran as the solvent. A poly(4-hydroxystyrene-alt-2-aminobutyl maleimide isobutyl POSS) [poly(HS-alt-MIPOSS-NHBu)] copolymer was prepared through acetoxyl hydrazinolysis of poly(AS-alt-MIPOSS-NHBu). We employed ¹H, 13C, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; differential scanning calorimetry; and photoluminescence spectroscopy to investigate the structures and the thermal and optical properties of the monomers and novel POSS-containing alternating copolymers. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the amino and dihydrofuran-2,5-dione group and clustering of the locked C=O groups from the POSS nanoparticles in the MIPOSS-NHBu units restricted the intramolecular motion of the polymer chain, causing it to exhibit strong light emission. As a result, the MIPOSS-NHBu monomer and the poly(AS-alt-MIPOSS-NHBu) copolymer both have potential applicability in the detection of metal ions with good selectivity.
Project description:Our continuing quest to improve the performance of polymer composites under moist and saltwater environments has gained momentum in recent years with the reinforcement of inorganic nanoparticles into the polymer. The key to mitigate degradation of composites under such environments is to maintain the integrity of the fiber/matrix (F/M) interface. In this study, the F/M interface of carbon/vinyl ester composites has been modified by coating the carbon fiber with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). POSS is a nanostructured inorganic-organic hybrid particle with a cubic structure having silicon atoms at the core and linked to oxygen atoms. The advantage of using POSS is that the silicon atoms can be linked to a substituent that can be almost any chemical group known in organic chemistry. Cubic silica cores are 'hard particles' and are about 0.53 nm in diameter. The peripheral organic unit is a sphere of about 1-3 nm in diameter. Further, cubic structure of POSS remains intact during the polymerization process and therefore with appropriate functional groups, if installed on the fiber surface, would provide a stable and strong F/M interface. Two POSS systems with two different functional groups; namely, octaisobutyl and trisilanolphenyl have been investigated. A set of chemical and mechanical procedures has been developed to coat carbon fibers with POSS, and to fabricate layered composites with vinyl ester resin. Interlaminar shear and low velocity impact tests have indicated around 17-38% improvement in mechanical properties with respect to control samples made without the POSS coating. Saltwater and hygrothermal tests at various environmental conditions have revealed that coating with POSS reduces water absorption by 20-30% and retains the composite properties.