The Minne-Loppet Motivation Study: An Intervention to Increase Motivation for Outdoor Winter Physical Activity in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Elementary Schools.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. DESIGN:Natural experiment. SETTING:Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS:Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. INTERVENTION:The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing. MEASURES:Pretest and posttest surveys measured self-determination theory outcomes: intrinsic exercise motivation, intrinsic ski motivation, autonomy, competence, and relatedness. ANALYSIS:Hierarchical linear regression models tested treatment effects controlled for grade, race, sex, and baseline measures of the outcomes. RESULTS:Minne-Loppet program students showed significantly greater motivation to ski (? = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-1.75) and significantly greater perceived competence (? = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.06-1.50) than students in control classrooms. Treatment effects for general exercise motivation and perceived competence differed by race. African American students in Minne-Loppet classes showed significantly greater general exercise motivation (? = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.03-2.14) and perceived competence (? = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.91-2.99) than African American students in control classes. CONCLUSION:The Minne-Loppet program promoted perceived competence and motivation to ski. Future improvements to the Minne-Loppet and similar interventions should aim to build general motivation and provide support needed to better engage all participants.
Project description:In March 2020 schools in Austria temporarily closed and switched to distance learning to contain the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19). The resulting situation posed great challenges to teachers, guardians and students (Huber and Helm 2020). Research has shown that perceived competence (Deci and Ryan 2000) affects selfregulated learning (SRL), intrinsic motivation and procrastination, however few studies have considered these variables in context of distance learning among adolescents. This study investigated differences in students who perceived themselves as high vs. low in competence with respect to these constructs. In an online questionnaire, 2652 Austrian secondary school students answered closed questions regarding SRL, intrinsic motivation and procrastination as well as open-ended questions about challenges, successes and need for support in distance. Structural equation modeling was applied for the quantitative analysis which was complemented by thematic analysis for the qualitative questions (Braun and Clarke 2006). Results showed that students who experienced themselves as highly competent use SRL strategies (goal setting and planning, time management, metacognitive strategies) more often and are more intrinsically motivated than students with lower perceived competence. They also procrastinate less. Furthermore, qualitative analysis revealed that although all students face similar challenges (e.g., independent learning, time and task management, learning on the computer, lack of contact with teachers and peers), students who perceived themselves as highly competent seemed to cope better, and have less need for support. Implications for distance learning and future research are discussed.<h4>Supplementary information</h4>The online version of this article (10.1007/s11618-021-01002-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:Currently, disruptive and aggressive behaviours of a physical and verbal nature are a reality among adolescent students and a concern in the educational context. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyse the effects of perceived teaching competence, motivation and basic psychological needs on disruptive behaviours in secondary school PE students. The sample was composed of 758 adolescent students from seven public secondary schools. The following instruments adapted to physical education were used: The Disruptive Behaviours Questionnaire, The Evaluation of Teaching Competencies Scale, The Sport Motivation Scale, and The Basic Psychological Needs Scale. Multilevel regression models with the MIXED procedure were performed for data analysis. The results show that misbehaviour is more likely among male students and that disruptive behaviours decrease when a teacher is perceived as competent. Students with greater self-determined motivation are more likely to exhibit fewer behaviours related to low engagement and irresponsibility while amotivation increases the different disruptive behaviours in the classroom. In conclusion, it is proposed that educators work in line with the students' needs by responding to their interests and that this will increase self-determined motivation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The effectiveness of medical school efforts in addressing suboptimal student wellbeing rests, in part, on how students perceive their learning environment. The study aim was to determine whether students' sport background was a contributing factor in students' perceptions of the medical program as supportive of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. We also examined the relationship between sport background and students' leisure-time exercise in medical school. METHODS:Using an online questionnaire, quantitative data were collected from students enrolled in the 4?year medical program at a large Canadian university. Two hundred (n?=?200) students had complete responses on the measures used in the study. Analysis of variance and correlational analysis were used to examine the relationships between students' sport background, their perceptions of the learning environment, and leisure-time exercise in medical school. RESULTS:Compared with students with no sport background, students with a team sport background perceived their need for relatedness to be satisfied to a greater degree in the medical program. Students who pursued sports at higher levels of involvement (competitively) perceived the medical program as more autonomy-supportive than students who pursued sports at lower levels of involvement (recreationally). Irrespective of their sport background, students' involvement in leisure-time exercise decreased over the years in the medical program. However, students with a sport background engaged in leisure-time exercise in medical school to a greater extent than students with no sport background. DISCUSSION:The findings indicate that sport background is associated with students' perceptions of the learning environment as supportive of their needs for autonomy and relatedness, but not for competence, and is linked to their leisure-time exercise in medical school. The observed relationships could help inform medical schools curricular initiatives in preventing student burnout right from the start of medical school.
Project description:This study promotes a novel teaching approach for integration of children's traditional games in elementary school program. It gives description of six traditional games and their educational prospects, implemented in six learning sessions in five elementary schools in Macedonia, involving 102 students. The comparison of learning achievements between these learning sessions and standard classes revealed increased students' learning performance on comparable topics. To understand the reason for improvement, we have surveyed students after each session and tested the gathered data set via the development of a structural equation model that examines the relationships between student's personality traits, motivation and experience with learning outcomes. The findings show that students' achievements were directly influenced by students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors, as well as perceived experience. Additionally, the integration of traditional games in the elementary school classroom was equally accepted among all students, since their personality traits did not directly influence their experience or learning outcomes. Still, the link between the students' personality dimensions and motivation revealed that introvert children might have slightly increased motivation and possibility to open up during game-play in such collaborative environments.
Project description:There is a strong belief that physical education can affect an individual's physical activity, healthy habits, and behaviors through pleasant, positive, and significant exercise experiences, a practical knowledge base, and comprehensive teaching strategies. However, a crucial cognitive aspect for the effective and significant learning of the activities offered in the educational environment is the concentration of students. This study aims to test a hypothetical model based on self-determination theory to assess the degree of support prediction provided by the teacher for student autonomy in the various types of motivation and on student concentration in physical education classes in high schools within the Mexican context and test invariance across gender groups. This study included 859 students between 11 and 16 years from different high schools in the city of San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León (México). The Learning Climate Questionnaire, the Perceived Locus of Causality, and the Concentration scale adapted to physical education and translated into Mexican Spanish were used. Results showed good internal consistency for all instruments. Both the measurement model and the structural equation modeling showed satisfactory adjustment indexes. The results revealed that the autonomy support positively predicted autonomous motivation, controlled motivation to a lesser extent, and amotivation negatively. Furthermore, the students' concentration was highly and positively predicted by autonomous motivation, by controlled motivation to a lesser extent, and by amotivation negatively. The model predicted 39% of variance of autonomous motivation with large effect size (ƒ2 = 0.64), 2% of controlled motivation with small effect size (ƒ2 = 0.02), 8% of amotivation with small effect size (ƒ2 = 0.09), and 49% of concentration with large effect size (ƒ2 = 0.96). Finally, the invariance analysis revealed that the model fit was invariant across gender groups. The results of this study emphasize how important it is for teachers to adopt an interpersonal style of autonomy support to generate a motivational climate that influences the concentration of students. This could contribute to the achievement of the purposes and educational objectives of the physical education class, which, in turn, might be conducive to students adopting healthy lifestyles in adolescence and beyond.
Project description:Competence frustration has been consistently found to undermine one's intrinsic motivation in the same activity. However, the relationship between competence frustration in a preceding activity and one's intrinsic motivation in a subsequent one remains unclear. In order to explore this relationship, self-reported data were collected from 617 undergraduate students of a large comprehensive university in southern China, who took varied courses immediately before taking a less-demanding one. Results suggested a U-shaped relationship between students' competence frustration in a preceding course and intrinsic motivation in a subsequent one. To be specific, for students whose competence frustration reached the inflection point, a restoration process would be activated if the current course would help restore their competence. Importantly, these students' competence frustration in a preceding course was found to positively predict their intrinsic motivation level in a subsequent course. As far as we are concerned, this is the first study to reveal a potential positive effect of need frustration outside of its primary thwarting context, which complements and extends existing literatures on the dynamics between need frustration and intrinsic motivation.
Project description:Recent research indicates that the cultural competence training students receive during medical school might not adequately address the issues that arise when caring for patients of different cultures. Because of their unique communication, linguistic, and cultural issues, incorporating deaf people who use sign language into cultural competence education at medical schools might help to bridge this gap in cross-cultural education. The Deaf Strong Hospital (DSH) program at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, started in 1998, exposes first-year medical students to the issues that are relevant to providing effective patient care and to establishing multicultural sensitivity early in their medical education. Because medical students better acquire cross-cultural competence through hands-on experience rather than through lectures, the DSH program, which includes a role-reversal exercise in which medical students play the role of the patients, provides such a model for other medical schools and health care training centers to use in teaching future health care providers how to address the relevant cultural, linguistic, and communication needs of both their deaf patients and their non-English-speaking patients. This article describes the DSH program curriculum, shares findings from both medical students' short-term and long-term postprogram evaluations, and provides a framework for the implementation of a broader cultural and linguistic sensitivity training program specific to working with and improving the quality of health care among deaf people.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Science in the Learning Gardens (henceforth, SciLG) program was designed to address two well-documented, inter-related educational problems: under-representation in science of students from racial and ethnic minority groups and inadequacies of curriculum and pedagogy to address their cultural and motivational needs. Funded by the National Science Foundation, SciLG is a partnership between Portland Public Schools and Portland State University. The sixth- through eighth-grade SciLG curriculum aligns with Next Generation Science Standards and uses school gardens as the milieu for learning. This provides the context to investigate factors that support success of a diverse student population using the motivational framework of self-determination theory.<h4>Results</h4>This study reports results from 113 students and three science teachers from two low-income urban middle schools participating in SciLG. Longitudinal data collected in spring of sixth grade in 2015 and fall of seventh grade in 2015 for the same set of students included a measure of students' overall motivational experiences in the garden (that combined their reports of relatedness, competence, autonomy, and engagement and teacher-reports of re-engagement in garden-based learning activities) to predict four science outcomes: engagement, learning, science grades, and science identity. Findings suggest that garden-based activities show promise for supporting students' engagement and learning in science classes and in fostering students' interest in pursuing science long-term.<h4>Conclusions</h4>As concern for social justice is growing based on the underachievement of students from minority groups, resurgence of the school garden movement over the last several decades provides an opportunity to tip the scales by engaging students in authentic, real-world learning of science and cultivating their interests in science with holistic garden-based learning. This study highlights the role of students' views of themselves as competent, related, and autonomous in the garden, as well as their engagement and re-engagement in the garden, as potential pathways by which garden-based science activities can shape science motivation, learning, and academic identity in science. Findings also suggest that the motivational model based on self-determination theory can be useful in identifying some of the "active ingredients"-in pedagogy, curriculum, and social relationships-that engage students in these garden-integrated science learning activities.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study.<h4>Methods</h4>In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students' characteristics and motivation during their medical study.<h4>Results</h4>Students indicated 'city' (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and 'selection procedure' (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students' medical study.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students' different approaches is important.
Project description:Temperatures in Africa are expected to increase by the end of the century. Heat-related health impacts and perceived health symptoms are potentially a problem, especially in public schools with limited resources. Students (n = 252) aged ~14-18 years from eight high schools completed an hourly heat-health symptom log over 5 days. Data loggers measured indoor classroom temperatures. A high proportion of students felt tired (97.2%), had low concentration (96.8%) and felt sleepy (94.1%) during at least one hour on any day. There were statistically significant correlations, when controlling for school cluster effect and time of day, between indoor temperatures ?32 °C and students who felt tired and found it hard to breathe. Consistently higher indoor classroom temperatures were observed in classrooms constructed of prefabricated asbestos sheeting with corrugated iron roof and converted shipping container compared to brick classrooms. Longitudinal studies in multiple seasons and different classroom building types are needed.