Repeat Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing by Transmission Risk Group and Rurality of Residence in North Carolina.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Understanding of repeat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing (RHT) is limited and the impact of rural residence as a potential barrier to RHT is unknown. Rural populations are of particular interest in the Southeastern United States because of their disproportionate HIV burden. METHODS:We used HIV surveillance data from publicly funded HIV testing sites in North Carolina to assess repeat testing by transmission risk group and residential rurality in a retrospective cohort study. Linear binomial regression models were used to estimate adjusted, 1-year cumulative incidences and cumulative incidence differences comparing RHT within transmission risk populations by level of rurality. RESULTS:In our total study population of 600,613 persons, 19,275 (3.2%) and 9567 (1.6%) self-identified as men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons who inject drugs (PWID), respectively. A small minority, 13,723 (2.3%) resided in rural ZIP codes. Men who have sex with men were most likely to repeat test (unadjusted, 1-year cumulative incidence after an initial negative test, 16.4%) compared with PWID (13.2%) and persons who did not identify as either MSM or PWID (13.6%). The greatest effect of rurality was within PWID; the adjusted, 1-year cumulative incidence of RHT was 6.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-11.4) percentage points higher among metropolitan versus rural PWID. CONCLUSIONS:One-year cumulative incidence of RHT was low among all clients of publicly funded HIV testing sites in North Carolina, including MSM and PWID for whom annual testing is recommended. Our findings suggest a need for public health efforts to increase access to and support for RHT, particularly among rural PWID.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in India is concentrated among 3.1 million men who have sex with men (MSM) and 1.1 million people who inject drugs (PWID), with a mean incidence of 0.9-1.4 per 100 person-years. We examined the cost-effectiveness of both preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV testing strategies for MSM and PWID in India.<h4>Methods</h4>We populated an HIV microsimulation model with India-specific data and projected clinical and economic outcomes of 7 strategies for MSM/PWID, including status quo; a 1-time HIV test; routine HIV testing every 3, 6, or 12 months; and PrEP with HIV testing every 3 or 6 months. We used a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$1950, the 2017 Indian per capita gross domestic product, to define cost-effectiveness.<h4>Results</h4>HIV testing alone increased life expectancy by 0.07-0.30 years in MSM; PrEP added approximately 0.90 life-years to status quo. Results were similar in PWID. PrEP with 6-month testing was cost-effective for both MSM (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER], $1000/year of life saved [YLS]) and PWID (ICER, $500/YLS). Results were most sensitive to HIV incidence. PrEP with 6-month testing would increase HIV-related expenditures by US$708 million (MSM) and US$218 million (PWID) over 5 years compared to status quo.<h4>Conclusions</h4>While the World Health Organization recommends PrEP with quarterly HIV testing, our analysis identifies PrEP with semiannual testing as the cost-effective HIV prevention strategy for Indian MSM and PWID. Since nationwide scale-up would require a substantial fiscal investment, areas of highest HIV incidence may be the appropriate initial targets for PrEP scale-up.
Project description:Data from Ukraine on risk factors for HIV acquisition are limited. We describe the characteristics of individuals testing for HIV in the main testing centres of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, including HIV risk factors, testing rates, and positivity rates.As part of a larger study to estimate HIV incidence within Kiev City, we included questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history to existing systems in 4 infectious disease clinics. Data were provided by the person requesting an HIV test using a handheld electronic tablet. All persons (≥16 yrs) presenting for an HIV test April 2013-March 2014 were included. Rates per 100,000 were calculated using region-specific denominators for Kiev.During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV, equivalent to a testing rate of 293.2 per 100,000. Of these, 467 (7.8%) were HIV-positive, with the highest proportion positive among 31-35 year olds (11.2%), males (9.4%), people who inject drugs (PWID) (17.9%) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (24.1%). Using published population size estimates of MSM, diagnosis rates for MSM ranged from 490.6 to 1548.3/100,000. A higher proportion of heterosexual women compared to heterosexual men reported contact with PWID, (16% vs. 4.7%) suggesting a bridging in risk between PWID and their sexual partners.Collection of HIV risk factor information in Kiev, essential for the purposes of developing effective HIV prevention and response tools, is feasible. The high percentage of MSM among those testing positive for HIV, may indicate a significant level of undisclosed sex between men in national figures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To achieve reductions in HIV incidence, we need strategies to engage key population at risk for HIV in low-income and middle-income countries. We evaluated the effectiveness of integrated care centres in India that provided single-venue HIV testing, prevention, and treatment services for people who inject drugs (PWID) and men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS:We did baseline respondent-driven sampling surveys in 27 sites across India, and selected 22 of these (12 PWID and ten MSM) for a cluster randomised trial on the basis of high HIV prevalence and logistical considerations. We used stratified (by PWID and MSM), restricted randomisation to allocate sites to either the integrated care intervention or usual care (11 sites per group). We implemented integrated care centres in 11 cities (six PWID integrated care centres embedded within opioid agonist treatment centres and five MSM centres within government-sponsored health services), with a single integrated care centre per city in all but one city. After a 2-year intervention phase, we did respondent-driven sampling evaluation surveys of target population members who were aged 18 years or older at all sites. The primary outcome was self-reported HIV testing in the previous 12 months (recent testing), determined via the evaluation survey. We used a biometric identification system to estimate integrated care centre exposure (visited an integrated care centre at least once) among evaluation survey participants at intervention sites. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01686750. FINDINGS:Between Oct 1, 2012, and Dec 19, 2013, we recruited 11?993 PWID and 9997 MSM in the baseline survey and, between Aug, 1 2016, and May 27, 2017, surveyed 11?721 PWID and 10?005 MSM in the evaluation survey using respondent-driven sampling, across the 22 trial sites. During the intervention phase, integrated care centres provided HIV testing for 14?698 unique clients (7630 PWID and 7068 MSM. In the primary population-level analysis, recent HIV testing was 31% higher at integrated care centres than at usual care sites (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 1·31, 95% CI 0·95-1·81, p=0·09). Among survey participants at intervention sites, integrated care centre exposure was lower than expected (median exposure 40% at PWID sites and 24% at MSM sites). In intervention sites, survey participants who visited an integrated care centre were more likely to report recent HIV testing than were participants who had not (adjusted PR 3·46, 2·94-4·06). INTERPRETATION:Although integrated care centres increased HIV testing among visitors, our low exposure findings suggest that the scale-up of a single integrated care centre in most cities was insufficient to serve the large PWID and MSM populations. Future work should address the use of population size estimates to guide the dose of combination HIV interventions targeting key populations. FUNDING:US National Institutes of Health and the Elton John AIDS Foundation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The assessment of geographical heterogeneity of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID) can usefully inform targeted HIV prevention and care strategies.<h4>Objective</h4>We aimed to measure HIV seroprevalence and identify hotspots of HIV infection among MSM and PWID in Nigeria.<h4>Methods</h4>We included all MSM and PWID accessing HIV testing services across 7 prioritized states (Lagos, Nasarawa, Akwa Ibom, Cross Rivers, Rivers, Benue, and the Federal Capital Territory) in 3 geographic regions (North Central, South South, and South West) between October 1, 2016, and September 30, 2017. We extracted data from national testing registers, georeferenced all HIV test results aggregated at the local government area level, and calculated HIV seroprevalence. We calculated and compared HIV seroprevalence from our study to the 2014 integrated biological and behavioural surveillance survey and used global spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis to highlight patterns of HIV infection and identify areas of significant clustering of HIV cases.<h4>Results</h4>MSM and PWID had HIV seroprevalence rates of 12.14% (3209/26,423) and 11.88% (1126/9474), respectively. Global spatial autocorrelation Moran I statistics revealed a clustered distribution of HIV infection among MSM and PWID with a <5% and <1% likelihood that this clustered pattern could be due to chance, respectively. Significant clusters of HIV infection (Getis-Ord-Gi* statistics) confined to the North Central and South South regions were identified among MSM and PWID. Compared to the 2014 integrated biological and behavioural surveillance survey, our results suggest an increased HIV seroprevalence among PWID and a substantial decrease among MSM.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study identified geographical areas to prioritize for control of HIV infection among MSM and PWID, thus demonstrating that geographical information system technology is a useful tool to inform public health planning for interventions targeting epidemic control of HIV infection.
Project description:The World Health Organization targets for hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination include a 90% reduction in new infections by 2030. Our objective is to review the modelling evidence and cost data surrounding feasibility of HCV elimination among people living with HIV (PLWH), and identify likely components for elimination. We also discuss the real-world experience of HCV direct acting antiviral (DAA) scale-up and elimination efforts in the Netherlands.We review modelling evidence of what intervention scale-up is required to achieve WHO HCV elimination targets among HIV-infected (HIV+) people who inject drugs (PWID) and men who have sex with men (MSM), review cost-effectiveness of HCV therapy among PLWH and discuss economic implications of elimination. We additionally use the real-world experience of DAA scale-up in the Netherlands to illustrate the promise and potential challenges of HCV elimination strategies in MSM. Finally, we summarize key components of the HCV elimination response among PWLH.Modelling indicates HCV elimination among HIV+ MSM and PWID is potentially achievable but requires combination treatment and either harm reduction or behavioural risk reductions. Preliminary modelling indicates elimination among HIV+ PWID will require elimination efforts among PWID more broadly. Treatment for PLWH and high-risk populations (PWID and MSM) is cost-effective in high-income countries, but costs of DAAs remain a barrier to scale-up worldwide despite the potential low production price ($50 per 12 week course). In the Netherlands, universal DAA availability led to rapid uptake among HIV+ MSM in 2015/16, and a 50% reduction in acute HCV incidence among HIV+ MSM from 2014 to 2016 was observed. In addition to HCV treatment, elimination among PLWH globally also likely requires regular HCV testing, development of low-cost accurate HCV diagnostics, reduced costs of DAA therapy, broad treatment access without restrictions, close monitoring for HCV reinfection and retreatment, and harm reduction and/or behavioural interventions.Achieving WHO HCV Elimination targets is potentially achievable among HIV-infected populations. Among HIV+ PWID, it likely requires HCV treatment scale-up combined with harm reduction for both HIV+ and HIV- populations. Among HIV+ MSM, elimination likely requires both HCV treatment and behaviour risk reduction among the HIV+ MSM population, the latter of which to date has not been observed. Lower HCV diagnostic and treatment costs will be key to ensuring scale-up of HCV testing and treatment without restriction, enabling elimination.
Project description:To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection.We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ?25%, ?30%, and ?35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices.HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (p<0.001), respectively. MSM had the highest prevalence of drug resistance and the only cases of transmitted multi-class resistance. Among the ARV-experienced, MSM had disproportionately more recent-infection results than did heterosexuals and PWID.The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates.
Project description:We characterize the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care continuum for men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons who inject drugs (PWID) across India.We recruited 12 022 MSM and 14 481 PWID across 26 Indian cities, using respondent-driven sampling (September 2012 to December 2013). Participants were aged ?18 years and either self-identified as male and reported sex with a man in the prior year (MSM) or reported injection drug use in the prior 2 years (PWID). Correlates of awareness of HIV-positive status were characterized using multilevel logistic regression.A total of 1146 MSM were HIV infected, of whom a median of 30% were aware of their HIV-positive status, 23% were linked to care, 22% were retained before antiretroviral therapy (ART), 16% had started ART, 16% were currently receiving ART, and 10% had suppressed viral loads. There was site variability (awareness range, 0%-90%; suppressed viral load range, 0%-58%). A total of 2906 PWID were HIV infected, of whom a median of 41% were aware, 36% were linked to care, 31% were retained before ART, 20% had started ART, 18% were currently receiving ART, and 15% had suppressed viral loads. Similar site variability was observed (awareness range: 2%-93%; suppressed viral load range: 0%-47%). Factors significantly associated with awareness were region, older age, being married (MSM) or female (PWID), use of other services (PWID), more lifetime sexual partners (MSM), and needle sharing (PWID). Ongoing injection drug use (PWID) and alcohol use (MSM) were associated with lower awareness.In this large sample, the major barrier to HIV care engagement was awareness of HIV-positive status. Efforts should focus on linking HIV testing to other essential services.NCT01686750.
Project description:We measured HIV incidence rate, trend and risk factors in 564 HIV-negative young people (< 30 years) who inject drugs (PWID) in San Francisco between 2000 and 2014. HIV incidence was 0.93/100 person-years (PY; 95% CI 0.50, 1.73). Incidence varied between 0.62/100 PY in 2000-2002 and 1.06/100 PY in 2012-2014 (P for trend = 1.0). HIV incidence varied significantly (P < 0.01) by race/ethnicity: among Hispanics it was 8.19/100 PY (95% CI 3.41, 19.68), African-Americans 4.59/100 PY (95% CI 1.15, 18.37), and Whites 0.26/100 PY (95% CI 0.06, 1.03). Male participants who reported sex with men (MSM) had higher HIV incidence (2.63/100 PY; 95% CI 1.31, 5.25) compared to males who did not report MSM (0.50/100 PY; 95% CI 0.12, 1.99) (P = 0.01). Despite an overall stable HIV incidence trend, incidence was elevated among African-American and Hispanic PWID, and men who have sex with men. Addressing prevention needs in these key populations is critical for the goal of eliminating HIV transmission.
Project description:Background. ?In the United States, public health recommendations for men who have sex with men (MSM) include testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at least annually. We model the impact of different possible HIV testing policies on HIV incidence in a simulated population parameterized to represent US MSM. Methods. ?We used exponential random graph models to explore, among MSM, the short-term impact on baseline (under current HIV testing practices and care linkage) HIV incidence of the following: (1) increasing frequency of testing; (2) increasing the proportion who ever test; (3) increasing test sensitivity; (4) increasing the proportion of the diagnosed population achieving viral suppression; and combinations of 1-4. We simulated each scenario 20 times and calculated the median and interquartile range of 3-year cumulative incidence of HIV infection. Results. ?The only intervention that reduced HIV incidence on its own was increasing the proportion of the diagnosed population achieving viral suppression; increasing frequency of testing, the proportion that ever test or test sensitivity did not appreciably reduce estimated incidence. However, in an optimal scenario in which viral suppression improved to 100%, HIV incidence could be reduced by an additional 17% compared with baseline by increasing testing frequency to every 90 days and test sensitivity to 22 days postinfection. Conclusions. ?Increased frequency, coverage, or sensitivity of HIV testing among MSM is unlikely to result in reduced HIV incidence unless men diagnosed through enhanced testing programs are also engaged in effective HIV care resulting in viral suppression at higher rates than currently observed.
Project description:The HIV epidemic in Russia, one of the world's fastest growing, has been concentrated mostly among people who inject drugs (PWID). We sought to explore the epidemiology of the epidemic in St. Petersburg by sampling from the highest risk groups of PWID and men who have sex with men (MSM) and use viral sequencing data to better understand the nature of the city's epidemic. Serological testing confirmed an HIV prevalence among PWID in excess of 40%. All but 1 of 110 PWID whose blood samples were tested for genetic diversity were infected by subtype A virus, specifically by the AFSU strain. The remaining person was infected with a CRF-06cpx recombinant. Analysis of pairwise genetic distance among all PWID studied revealed an average of 3.1% sequence divergence, suggesting clonal introduction of the AFSU strain and/or constraints on sequence divergence. The HIV prevalence was less than 10% among MSM. All 17 sequences from HIV-infected MSM were found to be a clade B virus with a much higher average sequence diversity of 15.7%. These findings suggest two independent epidemics with little overlap between the two highest at-risk populations, which will require different HIV prevention approaches.