Fucosylated oligosaccharides in mother's milk alleviate the effects of caesarean birth on infant gut microbiota.
ABSTRACT: One of the most abundant components in human milk is formed by oligosaccharides, which are poorly digested by the infant. The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk varies between mothers, and is dependent on maternal secretor (FUT2) genotype. Secretor mothers produce milk containing ?1-2 fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides, which are absent in the milk of non-secretor mothers. Several strains of bacteria in the infant gut have the capacity to utilise human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Here we investigate the differences in infant gut microbiota composition between secretor (N?=?76) and non-secretor (N?=?15) mothers, taking into account birth mode. In the vaginally born infants, maternal secretor status was not associated with microbiota composition. In the caesarean-born, however, many of the caesarean-associated microbiota patterns were more pronounced among the infants of non-secretor mothers compared to those of secretor mothers. Particularly bifidobacteria were strongly depleted and enterococci increased among the caesarean-born infants of non-secretor mothers. Furthermore, Akkermansia was increased in the section-born infants of secretor mothers, supporting the suggestion that this organism may degrade HMOs. The results indicate that maternal secretor status may be particularly influential in infants with compromised microbiota development, and that these infants could benefit from corrective supplementation.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape the intestinal microbiota in term infants. In premature infants, alterations in the intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) are associated with risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis, and the influence of HMOs on the microbiota is unclear.Milk, urine, and stool specimens from 14 mother-premature infant dyads were investigated by mass spectrometry for HMO composition. The stools were analyzed by next-generation sequencing to complement a previous analysis.Percentages of fucosylated and sialylated HMOs were highly variable between individuals but similar in urine, feces, and milk within dyads. Differences in urine and fecal HMO composition suggest variability in absorption. Secretor status of the mother correlated with the urine and fecal content of specific HMO structures. Trends toward higher levels of Proteobacteria and lower levels of Firmicutes were noted in premature infants of nonsecretor mothers. Specific HMO structures in the milk, urine, and feces were associated with alterations in fecal Proteobacteria and Firmicutes.HMOs may influence the intestinal microbiota in premature infants. Specific HMOs, for example those associated with secretor mothers, may have a protective effect by decreasing pathogens associated with sepsis and NEC, while other HMOs may increase dysbiosis in this population.
Project description:There is little data on human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) composition in Sub-Saharan Africa. Iron fortificants adversely affect the infant gut microbiota, while co-provision of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) mitigates most of the adverse effects. Whether variations in maternal HMO profile can influence the infant response to iron and/or GOS fortificants is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine HMO profiles and the secretor/non-secretor phenotype of lactating Kenyan mothers and investigate their effects on the maternal and infant gut microbiota, and on the infant response to a fortification intervention with 5 mg iron (2.5 mg as sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate and 2.5 mg as ferrous fumarate) and 7.5 g GOS. We studied mother-infant pairs (n = 80) participating in a 4-month intervention trial in which the infants (aged 6.5-9.5 months) received daily a micronutrient powder without iron, with iron or with iron and GOS. We assessed: (1) maternal secretor status and HMO composition; (2) effects of secretor status on the maternal and infant gut microbiota in a cross-sectional analysis at baseline of the intervention trial; and (3) interactions between secretor status and intervention groups during the intervention trial on the infant gut microbiota, gut inflammation, iron status, growth and infectious morbidity. Secretor prevalence was 72% and HMOs differed between secretors and non-secretors and over time of lactation. Secretor status did not predict the baseline composition of the maternal and infant gut microbiota. There was a secretor-status-by-intervention-group interaction on Bifidobacterium (p = 0.021), Z-scores for length-for-age (p = 0.022) and weight-for-age (p = 0.018), and soluble transferrin receptor (p = 0.041). In the no iron group, longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was higher among infants of non-secretors (23.8%) than of secretors (10.4%) (p = 0.001). In conclusion, HMO profile may modulate the infant gut microbiota response to fortificant iron; compared to infants of secretor mothers, infants of non-secretor mothers may be more vulnerable to the adverse effect of iron but also benefit more from the co-provision of GOS.
Project description:The milk glycobiome has a significant impact on the gut microbiota of infants, which plays a pivotal role in health and development. Fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and N-glycans on milk proteins are beneficial for the development of healthy gut microbiota, and the fucosylation levels of these glycans can be affected by the maternal fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2). Here, we present results of longitudinal research on paired milk and stool samples from 56 Chinese mothers (CMs) and their breast-fed children. Changes of HMOs and fucosylated N-glycans in milk of CMs at different lactation stages were detected, which allowed characterization of the major differences in milk glycans and consequential effects on the gut microbiome of infants according to maternal FUT2 status. Significant differences in the abundance of total and fucosylated HMOs between secretor and nonsecretor CMs were noted, especially during early lactation. Despite a tendency toward decreasing milk protein concentrations, the fucosylation levels of milk N-glycans increased during late lactation. The changes in the levels of fucosylated HMOs and milk N-glycans were highly correlated with the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the gut of infants during early and later lactation, respectively. Enriched expression of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and permeases in infants fed by secretor CMs contributed to the promotion of these bacteria in infants. Our data highlight the important role of fucosylated milk glycans in shaping the gut microbiome of infants and provide a solid foundation for development of "personalized" nutrition for Chinese infants. IMPORTANCE Human milk glycans provide a broad range of carbon sources for gut microbes in infants. Levels of protein glycosylation in human milk vary during lactation and may also be affected by the stages of gestation and lactation and by the secretor status of the mother. This was the first study to evaluate systematically dynamic changes in human milk oligosaccharides and fucosylated N-glycans in the milk of Chinese mothers with different secretor statuses during 6 months of lactation. Given the unique single nucleotide polymorphism site (rs1047781, A385T) on the fucosyltransferase 2 gene among Chinese populations, our report provides a specific insight into the milk glycobiome of Chinese mothers, which may exert effects on the gut microbiota of infants that differ from findings from other study cohorts.
Project description:Individuals with inactive alleles of the fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2; termed the 'secretor' gene) are common in many populations. Some members of the genus Bifidobacterium, common infant gut commensals, are known to consume 2'-fucosylated glycans found in the breast milk of secretor mothers. We investigated the effects of maternal secretor status on the developing infant microbiota with a special emphasis on bifidobacterial species abundance.On average, bifidobacteria were established earlier and more often in infants fed by secretor mothers than in infants fed by non-secretor mothers. In secretor-fed infants, the relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium longum group was most strongly correlated with high percentages of the order Bifidobacteriales. Conversely, in non-secretor-fed infants, Bifidobacterium breve was positively correlated with Bifidobacteriales, while the B. longum group was negatively correlated. A higher percentage of bifidobacteria isolated from secretor-fed infants consumed 2'-fucosyllactose. Infant feces with high levels of bifidobacteria had lower milk oligosaccharide levels in the feces and higher amounts of lactate. Furthermore, feces containing different bifidobacterial species possessed differing amounts of oligosaccharides, suggesting differential consumption in situ.Infants fed by non-secretor mothers are delayed in the establishment of a bifidobacteria-laden microbiota. This delay may be due to difficulties in the infant acquiring a species of bifidobacteria able to consume the specific milk oligosaccharides delivered by the mother. This work provides mechanistic insight into how milk glycans enrich specific beneficial bacterial populations in infants and reveals clues for enhancing enrichment of bifidobacterial populations in at risk populations - such as premature infants.
Project description:Background: Human milk contains many bioactive components that are typically studied in isolation, including bacteria. We performed an integrated analysis of human milk oligosaccharides and fatty acids to explore their associations with milk microbiota. Methods: We studied a sub-sample of 393 mothers in the CHILD birth cohort. Milk was collected at 3-4 months postpartum. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene V4 sequencing. Oligosaccharides and fatty acids were analyzed by rapid high-throughput high performance and gas liquid chromatography, respectively. Dimension reduction was performed with principal component analysis for oligosaccharides and fatty acids. Center log-ratio transformation was applied to all three components. Associations between components were assessed using Spearman rank correlation, network visualization, multivariable linear regression, redundancy analysis, and structural equation modeling. P-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Key covariates were considered, including fucosyltransferase-2 (FUT2) secretor status of mother and infant, method of feeding (direct breastfeeding or pumped breast milk), and maternal fish oil supplement use. Results: Overall, correlations were strongest between milk components of the same type. For example, FUT2-dependent HMOs were positively correlated with each other, and Staphylococcus was negatively correlated with other core taxa. Some associations were also observed between components of different types. Using redundancy analysis and structural equation modeling, the overall milk fatty acid profile was significantly associated with milk microbiota composition. In addition, some individual fatty acids [22:6n3 (docosahexaenoic acid), 22:5n3, 20:5n3, 17:0, 18:0] and oligosaccharides (fucosyl-lacto-N-hexaose, lacto-N-hexaose, lacto-N-fucopentaose I) were associated with microbiota ? diversity, while others (C18:0, 3'-sialyllactose, disialyl-lacto-N-tetraose) were associated with overall microbiota composition. Only a few significant associations between individual HMOs and microbiota were observed; notably, among mothers using breast pumps, Bifidobacterium prevalence was associated with lower abundances of disialyl-lacto-N-hexaose. Additionally, among non-secretor mothers, Staphylococcus was positively correlated with sialylated HMOs. Conclusion: Using multiple approaches to integrate and analyse milk microbiota, oligosaccharides, and fatty acids, we observed several associations between different milk components and microbiota, some of which were modified by secretor status and/or breastfeeding practices. Additional research is needed to further validate and mechanistically characterize these associations and determine their relevance to infant gut and respiratory microbiota development and health.
Project description:Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60-89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs. GBS colonisation and serotypes were determined using culture and PCR. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterise the mother's Lewis status and HMO profile in breast milk. Mothers who were Lewis-positive were significantly less likely to be colonised by GBS (X (2)=12.50, P<0.001). Infants of Lewis-positive mothers were less likely GBS colonised at birth (X (2)=4.88 P=0.03) and more likely to clear colonisation between birth and days 60-89 than infants born to Lewis-negative women (P=0.05). There was no association between Secretor status and GBS colonisation. In vitro work revealed that lacto-N-difucohexaose I (LNDFHI) correlated with a reduction in the growth of GBS. Our results suggest that HMO such as LNDFHI may be a useful adjunct in reducing maternal and infant colonisation and hence invasive GBS disease. Secretor status offers utility as a stratification variable in GBS clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2'Fucosyllactose (2'FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2'FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life. DESIGN:From an open observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study with quantitative human milk collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers, who gave birth to 25 female and 25 male singleton infants, we collected a representative sample of human milk. We quantified the following 5 representative HMOs: 2'FL, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3'Sialyllactose (3'SL) and 6'Sialyllactose (6'SL). We grouped the milk samples and corresponding infants according to the measured milk 2'FL concentrations at 30 days of lactation, which clustered around low concentrations (95% CI of mean 12-42 mg/L) and high concentrations (95% CI of mean 1880-2460 mg/L) with the former likely representing Secretor negative mothers. Infant anthropometric measures were recorded at birth, 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Relations among the quantified HMOs and the relation of the high and low 2'FL HMOs groups with infant growth parameters were investigated via linear mixed models. RESULTS:The milk samples with low 2'FL concentration had higher LNT and lower LNnT concentrations compared to the samples with high 2'FL. The milk 3'- and 6'SL concentrations were independent of 2'FL. Over lactation time we observed a drop in the concentration of 2'FL, LNT, LNnT and 6'SL, especially from 1 to 2 months, while 3'SL remained at relatively constant concentration from 1 month onwards. Up to 4 months of age, we did not observe significant differences in body weight, body length, body mass index and head circumference of the infants who consumed breast milk with low or high FUT2 associated HMO concentrations and composition. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings on HMO concentrations over time of lactation and clusters based on 2'FL concentrations confirm previous observations and suggest that LNnT and LNT are 'co-regulated' with the FUT2 dependent 2'FL concentration, with LNnT showing a positive and LNT a negative relation. Further, our findings also suggest that the relatively substantial variation in HMOs between the high and low 2'FL clusters do not impact infant growth of either sex up to 4 months of age. The study was registered in www.ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01805011).
Project description:Apart from optimal nutritional value, human milk is the feeding strategy to support the immature immunological system of developing newborns and infants. The most beneficial dietary carbohydrate components of breast milk are human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and glycoproteins (HMGs), involved in both specific and nonspecific immunity. Fucosylated oligosaccharides represent the largest fraction of human milk oligosaccharides, with the simplest and the most abundant being 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL). Fucosylated oligosaccharides, as well as glycans of glycoproteins, as beneficial dietary sugars, elicit anti-adhesive properties against fucose-dependent pathogens, and on the other hand are crucial for growth and metabolism of beneficial bacteria, and in this aspect participate in shaping a healthy microbiome. Well-documented secretor status related differences in the fucosylation profile of HMOs and HMGs may play a key but underestimated role in assessment of susceptibility to fucose-dependent pathogen infections, with a potential impact on applied clinical procedures. Nevertheless, due to genetic factors, about 20% of mothers do not provide their infants with beneficial dietary carbohydrates such as 2'-FL and other ?1,2-fucosylated oligosaccharides and glycans of glycoproteins, despite breastfeeding them. The lack of such structures may have important implications for a wide range of aspects of infant well-being and healthcare. In light of the above, some artificial mixtures used in infant nutrition are supplemented with 2'-FL to more closely approximate the unique composition of maternal milk, including dietary-derived fucosylated oligosaccharides and glycoproteins.
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.
Project description:Difference in human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) composition in breast milk may be one explanation why some preterm infants develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) despite being fed exclusively with breast milk. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of 15 dominant HMOs in breast milk during the neonatal period and investigate how their levels correlated to NEC, sepsis, and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants who were exclusively fed with breast milk. Milk was collected from 91 mothers to 106 infants at 14 and 28 days and at postmenstrual week 36. The HMOs were analysed with high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The HMOs diversity and the levels of Lacto-N-difucohexaose I were lower in samples from mothers to NEC cases, as compared to non-NEC cases at all sampling time points. Lacto-N-difucohexaose I is only produced by secretor and Lewis positive mothers. There were also significant but inconsistent associations between 3'-sialyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose and culture-proven sepsis and significant, but weak correlations between several HMOs and growth rate. Our results suggest that the variation in HMO composition in breast milk may be an important factor explaining why exclusively breast milk fed ELBW infants develop NEC.