Satellite cells delivered in their niche efficiently generate functional myotubes in three-dimensional cell culture.
ABSTRACT: Biophysical/biochemical cues from the environment contribute to regulation of the regenerative capacity of resident skeletal muscle stem cells called satellites cells. This can be observed in vitro, where muscle cell behaviour is influenced by the particular culture substrates and whether culture is performed in a 2D or 3D environment, with changes including morphology, nuclear shape and cytoskeletal organization. To create a 3D skeletal muscle model we compared collagen I, Fibrin or PEG-Fibrinogen with different sources of murine and human myogenic cells. To generate tension in the 3D scaffold, biomaterials were polymerised between two flexible silicone posts to mimic tendons. This 3D culture system has multiple advantages including being simple, fast to set up and inexpensive, so providing an accessible tool to investigate myogenesis in a 3D environment. Immortalised human and murine myoblast lines, and primary murine satellite cells showed varying degrees of myogenic differentiation when cultured in these biomaterials, with C2 myoblasts in particular forming large multinucleated myotubes in collagen I or Fibrin. However, murine satellite cells retained in their niche on a muscle fibre and embedded in 3D collagen I or Fibrin gels generated aligned, multinucleated and contractile myotubes.
Project description:The generation of functional skeletal muscle tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has not been reported. Here, we derive induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs) via transient overexpression of Pax7 in paraxial mesoderm cells differentiated from hPSCs. In 2D culture, iMPCs readily differentiate into spontaneously contracting multinucleated myotubes and a pool of satellite-like cells endogenously expressing Pax7. Under optimized 3D culture conditions, iMPCs derived from multiple hPSC lines reproducibly form functional skeletal muscle tissues (iSKM bundles) containing aligned multi-nucleated myotubes that exhibit positive force-frequency relationship and robust calcium transients in response to electrical or acetylcholine stimulation. During 1-month culture, the iSKM bundles undergo increased structural and molecular maturation, hypertrophy, and force generation. When implanted into dorsal window chamber or hindlimb muscle in immunocompromised mice, the iSKM bundles survive, progressively vascularize, and maintain functionality. iSKM bundles hold promise as a microphysiological platform for human muscle disease modeling and drug development.
Project description:We established a novel monoclonal antibody, Yaksa that is specific to a subpopulation of myogenic cells. The Yaksa antigen is not expressed on the surface of growing myoblasts but only on a subpopulation of myogenin-positive myocytes. When Yaksa antigen-positive mononucleated cells were freshly prepared from a murine myogenic cell by a cell sorter, they fused with each other and formed multinucleated myotubes shortly after replating while Yaksa antigen-negative cells scarcely generated myotubes. These results suggest that Yaksa could segregate fusion-competent, mononucleated cells from fusion-incompetent cells during muscle differentiation. The Yaksa antigen was also expressed in developing muscle and regenerating muscle in vivo and it was localized at sites of cell-cell contact between mono-nucleated muscle cells and between mono-nucleated muscle cells and myotubes. Thus, Yaksa that marks prefusion myocytes before myotube formation can be a useful tool to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of myogenic cell fusion.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis involves sequential activation, proliferation, self-renewal/differentiation and fusion of myogenic stem cells (satellite cells). Notch signaling is known to be essential for the maintenance of satellite cells, but its function in late-stage myogenesis, i.e. post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes, is unknown. Using stage-specific Cre alleles, we uncovered distinct roles of Notch1 in mononucleated myocytes and multinucleated myotubes. Specifically, constitutive Notch1 activation dedifferentiates myocytes into Pax7 quiescent satellite cells, leading to severe defects in muscle growth and regeneration, and postnatal lethality. By contrast, myotube-specific Notch1 activation improves the regeneration and exercise performance of aged and dystrophic muscles. Mechanistically, Notch1 activation in myotubes upregulates the expression of Notch ligands, which modulate Notch signaling in the adjacent satellite cells to enhance their regenerative capacity. These results highlight context-dependent effects of Notch activation during myogenesis, and demonstrate that Notch1 activity improves myotube's function as a stem cell niche.
Project description:Numerous studies have been conducted to improve the supply of myogenic stem cells for patients with muscle disease, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Collecting muscle samples from patients in order to obtain myoblasts or satellite cells is very invasive. Thus, a new method for obtaining myogenic stem cells is required. Here, we established stably expandable induced myogenic stem cells (iMSCs) with defined factors. The iMSCs showed high expression levels of Pax7, Myf5, and MyoD. Also, the iMSCs differentiate into myotubes which are multinucleated fiber. Additionally, the iMSCs differentiated into myotubes, which are multinucleated fibers. We confirmed its myogenic differentiation capacity in mdx mice by detecting dystrophin-positive cells in iMSCs-injected TA muscles. The iMSCs showed higher proliferation capacity than MDSCs in both in vitro and vivo. This study suggests the possibility to apply directly converted expandable myogenic stem cells to muscle disease patients. Overall design: Gene expression of iMSC and sort-iMSC was anaylyzed. MEF and MDSC were used as control. Each group has two samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Korean Hanwoo cattle are known for their high meat quality, especially their high intramuscular fat compared to most other cattle breeds. Different muscles have very different meat quality traits and a study of the myogenic process in satellite cells can help us better understand the genes and pathways that regulate this process and how muscles differentiate. RESULTS:Cell cultures of Longissimus dorsi muscle differentiated from myoblast into multinucleated myotubes faster than semimembranosus. Time-series RNA-seq identified a total of 13 differentially expressed genes between the two muscles during their development. These genes seem to be involved in determining muscle lineage development and appear to modulate the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (mainly MYOD and MYF5) during differentiation of satellite cells into multinucleate myotubes. Gene ontology enriched terms were consistent with the morphological changes observed in the histology. Most of the over-represented terms and genes expressed during myoblast differentiation were similar regardless of muscle type which indicates a highly conserved myogenic process albeit the rates of differentiation being different. There were more differences in the enriched GO terms during the end of proliferation compared to myoblast differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:The use of satellite cells from newborn Hanwoo calves appears to be a good model to study embryonic myogenesis in muscle. Our findings provide evidence that the differential expression of HOXB2, HOXB4, HOXB9, HOXC8, FOXD1, IGFN1, ZIC2, ZIC4, HOXA11, HOXC11, PITX1, SIM2 and TBX4 genes could be involved in the differentiation of Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles. These genes seem to modulate the muscle fate of the satellite cells during myogenesis through a differential expression profile that also controls the expression of some myogenic regulatory factors (MYOD and MYF5). The number of differentially expressed genes across time was unsurprisingly large. In relation to the baseline day 0, there were 631, 155, 175, 519 and 586 DE genes in LD, while in SM we found 204, 0, 615, 761 and 1154 DE genes at days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 respectively.
Project description:Inflammatory conditions caused by cancer, chronic diseases or aging can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy. We identified myogenic compounds from Psoralea corylifolia (PC), a medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and skin diseases. C2C12 mouse skeletal myoblasts were differentiated in the presence of eight compounds isolated from PC to evaluate their myogenic potential. Among them, corylifol A showed the strongest transactivation of MyoD and increased expression of myogenic markers, such as MyoD, myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MHC). Corylifol A increased the number of multinucleated and MHC-expressing myotubes. We also found that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is essential for the myogenic action of corylifol A. Atrophic condition was induced by treatment with dexamethasone. Corylifol A protected against dexamethasone-induced myotube loss by increasing the proportion of multinucleated MHC-expressing myotubes compared with dexamethasone-damaged myotubes. Corylifol A reduced the expression of muscle-specific ubiquitin-E3 ligases (MAFbx and MuRF1) and myostatin, while activating Akt. These dual effects of corylifol A, inhibition of catabolic and activation of anabolic pathways, protect myotubes against dexamethasone damage. In summary, corylifol A isolated from P. corylifolia alleviates muscle atrophic condition through activating myoblast differentiation and suppressing muscle degradation in atrophic conditions.
Project description:Skeletal muscle in livestock develops into meat, an important source of protein and other nutrients for human consumption. The muscle is largely composed of a fixed number of multinucleated myofibers determined during late gestation and remains constant postnatally. A population of postnatal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, gives rise to myoblast cells that can fuse with the existing myofibers, thus increasing their size. This requires a delicate balance of transcription and growth factors and specific microRNA (miRNA) expressed by satellite cells and their supporting cells from the muscle stem cell niche. The role of transcription and growth factors in bovine myogenesis is well-characterized; however, very little is known about the miRNA activity during this process. We have hypothesized that the expression of miRNA can vary between primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells isolated from the semitendinosus muscles of different cattle breeds and subjected to myogenic differentiation.After a 6-day myogenic differentiation of cells isolated from the muscles of the examined cattle breeds, we found statistically significant differences in the number of myotubes between Hereford (HER)/Limousine (LIM) beef breeds and the Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy breed (p???0.001). The microarray analysis revealed differences in the expression of 23 miRNA among the aforementioned primary cultures. On the basis of a functional analysis, we assigned 9 miRNA as molecules responsible for differentiation progression (miR-1, -128a, -133a, -133b, -139, -206, -222, -486, and -503). The target gene prediction and functional analysis revealed 59 miRNA-related genes belonging to the muscle organ development process.The number of myotubes and the miRNA expression in the primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells derived from the semitendinosus muscles of the HER/LIM beef cattle breeds and the HF dairy breed vary when cells are subjected to myogenic differentiation. The net effect of the identified miRNA and their target gene action should be considered the result of the breed-dependent activity of satellite cells and muscle stem cell niche cells and their mutual interactions, which putatively can be engaged in the formation of a larger number of myotubes in beef cattle-related cells (HER/LIM) during in vitro myogenesis.
Project description:Skeletal muscle contains long multinucleated and contractile structures known as muscle fibers, which arise from the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes during myogenesis. The myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) MYF5 is the earliest to be expressed during myogenesis and functions as a transcription factor in muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells) and myocytes. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, MYF5 is implicated in the initial steps of myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Here, using ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis, we discovered a novel function for MYF5 as an RNA-binding protein which associated with a subset of myoblast mRNAs. One prominent MYF5 target was Ccnd1 mRNA, which encodes the key cell cycle regulator CCND1 (Cyclin D1). Biotin-RNA pulldown, UV-crosslinking and gel shift experiments indicated that MYF5 was capable of binding the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the coding region (CR) of Ccnd1 mRNA. Silencing MYF5 expression in proliferating myoblasts revealed that MYF5 promoted CCND1 translation and modestly increased transcription of Ccnd1 mRNA. Accordingly, overexpressing MYF5 in C2C12 cells upregulated CCND1 expression while silencing MYF5 reduced myoblast proliferation as well as differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. Moreover, MYF5 silencing reduced myogenesis, while ectopically restoring CCND1 abundance partially rescued the decrease in myogenesis seen after MYF5 silencing. We propose that MYF5 enhances early myogenesis in part by coordinately elevating Ccnd1 transcription and Ccnd1 mRNA translation.
Project description:Skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs) are considered one of the most valuable cells for cell-based therapy targeting skeletal muscle. However, an efficient protocol for isolating and maintaining human myogenic progenitors in vitro has not been fully established. In this study, we demonstrate that human myogenic progenitors can be expanded and proliferated from human fetal muscles. Human SMPCs were prepared from fetal hind limb muscles and induced to proliferate as free-floating spheres termed myospheres in the medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both myogenic progenitors and myoblast populations from human fetal muscles were effectively propagated in myospheres and passaged by a mechanical chopping. After expanding these spheres in culture, we tested whether myogenic progenitor cells can differentiate into multinucleated myotubes. The myospheres were dissociated, plated down on coverslips and cultured in the medium for terminal differentiation. We could confirm that the plated cells formed well-developed, multinucleated myotubes. This culture method using myospheres is an effective protocol to isolate and maintain SMPCs from human fetal skeletal muscles in culture.
Project description:Myogenic regeneration occurs through a chain of events beginning with the output of satellite cells from quiescent state, formation of competent myoblasts and later fusion and differentiation into myofibres. Traditionally, growth factors are used to stimulate muscle regeneration but this involves serious off-target effects, including alterations in cell homeostasis and cancer. In this work, we have studied the use of zinc to trigger myogenic differentiation. We show that zinc promotes myoblast proliferation, differentiation and maturation of myofibres. We demonstrate that this process occurs through the PI3K/Akt pathway, via zinc stimulation of transporter Zip7. Depletion of zinc transporter Zip7 by RNA interference shows reduction of both PI3K/Akt signalling and a significant reduction of multinucleated myofibres and myotubes development. Moreover, we show that mature myofibres, obtained through stimulation with high concentrations of zinc, accumulate zinc and so we hypothesise their function as zinc reservoirs into the cell.