Lactose Binding Induces Opposing Dynamics Changes in Human Galectins Revealed by NMR-Based Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange.
ABSTRACT: Galectins are ?-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8NTD and hGal8CTD, respectively). Furthermore, the dissociation rates of lactose binding were extracted from NMR lineshape analyses. Structural mapping of chemical shift perturbations revealed long-range perturbations upon lactose binding for hGal1 and hGal8NTD. We further demonstrated using the NMR-based hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) that lactose binding increases the exchange rates of residues located on the opposite side of the ligand-binding pocket for hGal1 and hGal8NTD, indicative of allostery. Additionally, lactose binding induces significant stabilisation of hGal8CTD across the entire domain. Our results suggested that lactose binding reduced the internal dynamics of hGal8CTD on a very slow timescale (minutes and slower) at the expense of reduced binding affinity due to the unfavourable loss of conformational entropy.
Project description:Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is applied on homologous human lectins (i.e., adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins) to detect influence of ligand binding and presence of the linker peptide in tandem-repeat-type proteins on hydrodynamic properties. Among five tested proteins, lactose binding increased the diffusion constant only in the cases of homodimeric galectin-1 and the linkerless variant of tandem-repeat-type galectin-4. To our knowledge, the close structural similarity among galectins does not translate into identical response to ligand binding. Kinetic measurements show association and dissociation rate constants in the order of 1 to 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) and 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Presence of the linker peptide in tandem-repeat-type protein leads to anomalous scaling with molecular mass. These results provide what we believe to be new insights into lectin responses to glycan binding, detectable so far only by small angle neutron scattering, and the structural relevance of the linker peptide. Methodologically, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is shown to be a rather simple technical tool to characterize hydrodynamic properties of these proteins at a high level of sensitivity.
Project description:Multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions that are mediated by sugar-binding proteins, i.e., lectins, have been implicated in a myriad of intercellular recognition processes associated with tumor progression such as galectin-mediated cancer cellular migration/metastatic processes. Here, using a modified ELISA, we show that glycodendrimers bearing mixtures of galactosides, lactosides, and N-acetylgalactosaminosides, galectin-3 ligands, multivalently affect galectin-3 functions. We further demonstrate that lactose functionalized glycodendrimers multivalently bind a different member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-1. In a modified ELISA, galectin-3 recruitment by glycodendrimers was shown to directly depend on the ratio of low to high affinity ligands on the dendrimers, with lactose-functionalized dendrimers having the highest activity and also binding well to galectin-1. The results depicted here indicate that synthetic multivalent systems and upfront assay formats will improve the understanding of the multivalent function of galectins during multivalent protein carbohydrate recognition/interaction.
Project description:Glycan-lectin recognition is assumed to elicit its broad range of (patho)physiological functions via a combination of specific contact formation with generation of complexes of distinct signal-triggering topology on biomembranes. Faced with the challenge to understand why evolution has led to three particular modes of modular architecture for adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins in vertebrates, here we introduce protein engineering to enable design switches. The impact of changes is measured in assays on cell growth and on bridging fully synthetic nanovesicles (glycodendrimersomes) with a chemically programmable surface. Using the example of homodimeric galectin-1 and monomeric galectin-3, the mutual design conversion caused qualitative differences, i.e., from bridging effector to antagonist/from antagonist to growth inhibitor and vice versa. In addition to attaining proof-of-principle evidence for the hypothesis that chimera-type galectin-3 design makes functional antagonism possible, we underscore the value of versatile surface programming with a derivative of the pan-galectin ligand lactose. Aggregation assays with N,N'-diacetyllactosamine establishing a parasite-like surface signature revealed marked selectivity among the family of galectins and bridging potency of homodimers. These findings provide fundamental insights into design-functionality relationships of galectins. Moreover, our strategy generates the tools to identify biofunctional lattice formation on biomembranes and galectin-reagents with therapeutic potential.
Project description:Chemokines and galectins are simultaneously upregulated and mediate leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. Until now, these effector molecules have been considered to function independently. Here, we tested the hypothesis that they form molecular hybrids. By systematically screening chemokines for their ability to bind galectin-1 and galectin-3, we identified several interacting pairs, such as CXCL12 and galectin-3. Based on NMR and MD studies of the CXCL12/galectin-3 heterodimer, we identified contact sites between CXCL12 ?-strand 1 and Gal-3 F-face residues. Mutagenesis of galectin-3 residues involved in heterodimer formation resulted in reduced binding to CXCL12, enabling testing of functional activity comparatively. Galectin-3, but not its mutants, inhibited CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of leukocytes and their recruitment into the mouse peritoneum. Moreover, galectin-3 attenuated CXCL12-stimulated signaling via its receptor CXCR4 in a ternary complex with the chemokine and receptor, consistent with our structural model. This first report of heterodimerization between chemokines and galectins reveals a new type of interaction between inflammatory mediators that can underlie a novel immunoregulatory mechanism in inflammation. Thus, further exploration of the chemokine/galectin interactome is warranted.
Project description:Galectins are a group of proteins that bind ?-galactosides through evolutionarily conserved sequence elements of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Proteins similar to galectins can be found in very primitive animals such as sponges. Each galectin has an individual carbohydrate binding preference and can be found in cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. They also can be secreted through non-classical pathways and function extracellularly. Experimental and clinical data demonstrate a correlation between galectin expression and tumor progression and metastasis, and therefore, galectins have the potential to serve as reliable tumor markers. In this review, we describe the expression and role of galectins in different cancers and their clinical applications for diagnostic use.
Project description:Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that contain one or two carbohydrate domains and mediate multiple biological functions. By analyzing clinical tumor samples, the abnormal expression of galectins is known to be linked to the development, progression and metastasis of cancers. Galectins also have diverse functions on different immune cells that either promote inflammation or dampen T cell-mediated immune responses, depending on cognate receptors on target cells. Thus, tumor-derived galectins can have bifunctional effects on tumor and immune cells. This review focuses on the biological effects of galectin-1, galectin-3 and galectin-9 in various cancers and discusses anticancer therapies that target these molecules.
Project description:Galectins are ?-galcotosid-binding lectins. The function of galectins varies with their tissue-specific and subcellular location, and their binding to carbohydrates makes them key players in several intra- and extracellular processes where they bind to glycosylated proteins and lipids. In humans, there are 12 identified galectins, some with tissue-specific distribution. Galectins are found inside cells and in the nucleus, cytosol, and organelles, as well as extracellularly. Galectin-1, -2, -3, -4, -7, -8, -9, and -12 can all induce T-cell apoptosis and modulate inflammation. In the context of metabolic control and loss of the same in, for example, diabetes, galectin-1, -2, -3, -9, and -12 are especially interesting. This review presents information on galectins relevant to the control of inflammation and metabolism and the potential to target galectins for therapeutic purposes.
Project description:The biological recognition of human milk glycans (HMGs) is poorly understood. Because HMGs are rich in galactose we explored whether they might interact with human galectins, which bind galactose-containing glycans and are highly expressed in epithelial cells and other cell types. We screened a number of human galectins for their binding to HMGs on a shotgun glycan microarray consisting of 247 HMGs derived from human milk, as well as to a defined HMG microarray. Recombinant human galectins (hGal)-1, -3, -4, -7, -8 and -9 bound selectively to glycans, with each galectin recognizing a relatively unique binding motif; by contrast hGal-2 did not recognize HMGs, but did bind to the human blood group A Type 2 determinants on other microarrays. Unlike other galectins, hGal-7 preferentially bound to glycans expressing a terminal Type 1 (Gal?1-3GlcNAc) sequence, a motif that had eluded detection on non-HMG glycan microarrays. Interactions with HMGs were confirmed in a solution setting by isothermal titration microcalorimetry and hapten inhibition experiments. These results demonstrate that galectins selectively bind to HMGs and suggest the possibility that galectin-HMG interactions may play a role in infant immunity.
Project description:Glycosaminoglycan chains of keratan sulfate proteoglycans appear to be physiologically significant by pairing with tissue lectins. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize interactions of corneal keratan sulfate (KS), its desulfated form, as well as di-, tetra- (N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-tetraose) and octasaccharides with adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins, in particular galectin-3 (Gal-3). The KS contact region involves the lectin canonical binding site, with estimated KD values in the low µM range and stoichiometry of?~?8 to?~?20 galectin molecules binding per polysaccharide chain. Compared to Gal-3, the affinity to Gal-7 is relatively low, signaling preferences among galectins. The importance of the sulfate groups was delineated by using desulfated analogs that exhibit relatively reduced affinity. Binding studies with two related di- and tetrasaccharides revealed a similar decrease that underscores affinity enhancement by repetitive arrangement of disaccharide units. MD-based binding energies of KS oligosaccharide-loaded galectins support experimental data on Gal-3 and -7, and extend the scope of KS binding to Gal-1 and -9N. Overall, our results provide strong incentive to further probe the relevance of molecular recognition of KS by galectins in terms of physiological processes in situ, e.g. maintaining integrity of mucosal barriers, intermolecular (lattice-like) gluing within the extracellular meshwork or synaptogenesis.
Project description:Among glycan-binding proteins, galectins, ?-galactoside-binding lectins, exhibit relevant biological roles and are implicated in many diseases, such as cancer and inflammation. Their involvement in crucial pathologies makes them interesting targets for drug discovery. In this review, we gather the last approaches toward the specific design of glycomimetics as potential drugs against galectins. Different approaches, either using specific glycomimetic molecules decorated with key functional groups or employing multivalent presentations of lactose and N-acetyl lactosamine analogs, have provided promising results for binding and modulating different galectins. The review highlights the results obtained with these approximations, from the employment of S-glycosyl compounds to peptidomimetics and multivalent glycopolymers, mostly employed to recognize and/or detect hGal-1 and hGal-3.