Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Myrtenal-Based 4-Methyl-1,2,4-triazole-thioethers.
ABSTRACT: A series of novel myrtenal derivatives bearing 1,2,4-triazole moiety were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Their structures were confirmed by using UV-vis, FTIR, NMR, and ESI-MS analysis. Antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, and Gibberella zeae at 50 µg/mL. Compounds 6c (R = i-Pr), 6l (R = o-NO? Bn), and 6a (R = Et) exhibited excellent antifungal activity against P. piricola with inhibition rates of 98.2%, 96.4%, and 90.7%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin with a 96.0% inhibition rate, which served as a positive control.
Project description:A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E-Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, Gibberella zeae,Rhizoeotnia solani, Bipolaris maydis, and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola, in which compounds (Z)-4r (R = ?-pyridyl), (Z)-4q (R = ?-thienyl), (E)-4f' (R = p-F Ph), (Z)-4i (R = m-Me Ph), (Z)-4j (R = p-Me Ph), and (Z)-4p (R = ?-furyl) had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound (Z)-4r (R = ?-pyridyl) displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.
Project description:A series of (R)-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxamide derivatives containing a diacylhydrazine moiety were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by melting points, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis (EA). Their antifungal and insecticidal activities were evaluated. The antifungal activity result indicated that most title compounds against Cercospora arachidicola, Alternaria solani, Phytophthora capsici, and Physalospora piricola exhibited apparent antifungal activities at 50 mg/L, and better than chlorothalonil or carbendazim. The EC50 values of (R)-N'-benzoyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carbohydrazide (I-5) against six tested phytopathogenic fungi were comparable to those of chlorothalonil. The CoMSIA model showed that a proper hydrophilic group in the R1 position, as well as a proper hydrophilic and electron-donating group in the R2 position, could improve the antifungal activity against Physalospora piricola, which contributed to the further optimization of the structures. Meanwhile, most title compounds displayed good insecticidal activities, especially compound (R)-N'-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carbohydrazide (III-3). The insecticidal mechanism results indicated that compound III-3 can serve as effective insect Ca2+ level modulators by disrupting the cellular calcium homeostasis in Mythimna separata.
Project description:A series of novel (Z)- and (E)-3-caren-5-one oxime sulfonates were designed and synthesized in search of potent antifungal agents. The structures of the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, and ESI-MS. The in vitro antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated against Cercospora arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Rhizoeotnia solani, Bipolaris maydis and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The bioassay results indicated that the target compounds exhibited the best antifungal activity against P. piricola, in which compounds 4b, 4f, 4m, 4e, 4j, 4l, 4y, 4d, and 4p had excellent inhibition rates of 100%, 100%, 100%, 92.9%, 92.9%, 92.9%, 92.9%, 85.7%, and 85.7%, respectively, showing much better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Both the compounds 4y and 4x displayed outstanding antifungal activity of 100% against B. myadis, and the former also displayed outstanding antifungal activity of 100% against R. solani. In order to design more effective antifungal compounds against P. piricola, the analysis of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) was carried out using the CoMFA method, and a reasonable and effective 3D-QSAR model (r² = 0.990, q² = 0.569) has been established.
Project description:Twenty-seven (<i>Z</i>)- and (<i>E</i>)-verbenone derivatives bearing an oxime ester moiety were designed and synthesized in search of novel bioactive molecules. Their structures were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal and herbicidal activities of the target compounds were preliminarily evaluated. As a result, compound (<i>E</i>)-<b>4n</b> (R = <i>?</i>-pyridyl) exhibited excellent antifungal activity with growth inhibition percentages of 92.2%, 80.0% and 76.3% against <i>Alternaria solani</i>, <i>Physalospora piricola</i>, and <i>Cercospora arachidicola</i> at 50 µg/mL, showing comparable or better antifungal activity than the commercial fungicide chlorothalonil with growth inhibition of 96.1%, 75.0% and 73.3%, respectively, and 1.7-5.5-fold more growth inhibition than its stereoisomer (<i>Z</i>)-<b>4n</b> (R = <i>?</i>-pyridyl) with inhibition rates of 22.6%, 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. In addition, seven compounds displayed significant growth inhibition activity of over 90% against the root of rape (<i>Brassica campestris</i>) at 100 µg/mL, exhibiting much better herbicidal activity than the commercial herbicide flumioxazin with a 63.0% growth inhibition. Among these seven compounds, compound (<i>E</i>)-<b>4n</b> (R = <i>?</i>-pyridyl) inhibited growth by 92.1%, which was 1.7-fold more than its stereoisomer (<i>Z</i>)-<b>4n</b> (R = <i>?</i>-pyridyl) which inhibited growth by 54.0%.
Project description:Two series of novel cuminaldehyde derivatives containing pyrazoline and isoxazoline moieties have been designed and synthesized. All of the compounds were characterized <i>via</i> <sup>1</sup>H-NMR,<sup>13</sup>C-NMR, and HRMS. The antifungal activities were evaluated against six plant-pathogenic fungi. 3-(2-Fluorophenyl)-5-(4-isopropylphenyl) isoxazoline (<b>2d</b>) and 1-acetyl-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-isopropylphenyl)-2-pyrazoline (<b>3d</b>) displayed higher antifungal activities than commercial fungicides against <i>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum</i>, <i>Physalospora piricola</i> and <i>Pyricularia oryzae</i>. The title compounds (<b>2d</b> and <b>3d</b>) with strong antifungal activities are worth being further evaluated <i>in vivo</i> and in the field.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early leaf spot (ELS) caused by Cercospora arachidicola (Hori) is a serious foliar disease in peanut worldwide, which causes considerable reduction of yield. Identification of resistance genes is important for both conventional and molecular breeding. Few resistance genes have been identified and the mechanism of defense responses to this pathogen remains unknown. RESULTS:We detected several genes involved in disease resistance to ELS through transcriptome analysis. Using RNA-seq technology, one hundred thirty-three differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between resistant and susceptible lines. Among these DEGs, coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) type resistance genes were identified as duplicated R genes on the chromosome B2. Peanut phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) regulator of effector-triggered immunity mediated by NLR resistance proteins and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes play important roles in early leaf spot resistance. Our study provides the useful information on plant response to C. arachidicola infection in peanut. The results suggest that a few major genes and several factors mediate the resistance to ELS disease, showing the characteristics of quantitative trait in defense responses.
Project description:The human ?-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been considered as an effective drug target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, Urechis unicinctus (U. unicinctus), which is a Far East specialty food known as innkeeper worm, ethanol extract was studied by bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation to examine its potential ?-site amyloid cleaving enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. The following compounds were characterized: hecogenin, cholest-4-en-3-one, cholesta-4,6-dien-3-ol, and hurgadacin. These compounds were identified by their mass spectrometry, ¹H, and 13C NMR spectral data, comparing those data with NIST/EPA/NIH Mass spectral database (NIST11) and published values. Hecogenin and cholest-4-en-3-one showed significant inhibitory activity against BACE1 with EC50 values of 116.3 and 390.6 µM, respectively. Cholesta-4,6-dien-3-ol and hurgadacin showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, particularly strongly against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella enterica (S. enterica), Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida), and Physalospora piricola (P. piricola), with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.46 to 0.94 mg/mL. This is the first report regarding those four known compounds that were isolated from U. unicinctus and their anti-BACE1 and antimicrobial activity, highlighting the fact that known natural compounds may be a critical source of new medicine leads. These findings provide scientific evidence for potential application of those bioactive compounds for the development of AD drugs and antimicrobial agents.
Project description:Microorganisms related to plant roots are vital for plant growth and health and considered to be the second genome of the plant. When the plant is attacked by plant pathogens, the diversity and community structure of plant-associated microbes might be changed. The goal of this study is to characterize differences in root-associated endophytic actinobacterial community composition and antifungal activity between Fusarium wilt diseased and healthy cucumber and screen actinobacteria for potential biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber. In the present research, three healthy plants (also termed "islands") and three obviously diseased plants (naturally infected by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum) nearby the islands collected from the cucumber continuous cropping greenhouse were chosen as samples. Results of culture-independent and culture-dependent analysis demonstrated that actinomycetes in the healthy roots were significantly more abundant than those of diseased roots. Moreover, there were seven strains with antifungal activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in healthy cucumber roots, but only one strain in diseased cucumber roots. Out of these eight strains, the isolate HAAG3-15 was found to be best as it had the strongest antifungal activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, and also exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Thus, strain HAAG3-15 was selected for studying its biocontrol efficacy under greenhouse conditions. The results suggested that the disease incidence and disease severity indices of cucumber Fusarium wilt greatly decreased (p < 0.05) while the height and shoot fresh weight of cucumber significantly increased (p < 0.05) after inoculating strain HAAG3-15. On the basis of morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical properties and 100% 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces sporoclivatus NBRC 100767T, the isolate was assigned to the genus Streptomyces. Moreover, azalomycin B was isolated and identified as the bioactive compound of strain HAAG3-15 based on analysis of spectra using a bioactivity-guided method. The stronger antifungal activity against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, the obvious effect on disease prevention and growth promotion on cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse assay, and the excellent broad-spectrum antifungal activities suggest that strain HAAG3-15 could be developed as a potential biocontrol agent against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum used in organic agriculture. These results suggested that the healthy root nearby the infected plant is a good source for isolating biocontrol and plant growth-promoting endophytes.
Project description:Twenty-four novel 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (POT) analogues, benzo[d]oxazole-2-thiol, benzo[d]thiazole-2-thiol and 5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol-substituted N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) (5a-d, 6a-d, 7a-d, 10a-d, 13a-d, 16a-d) were prepared and characterised by FTIR, NMR and elemental analysis. Part of target compounds (5d, 6d, 7d, 10d, 13d, 16d) displayed potent antimicrobial effect against ten common pathogens (S. aureus, ?-H-tococcus, ?-H-tococcus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Canidia Albicans, Cytospora mandshurica, Physalospora piricola, Aspergillus niger) and had relatively low cytotoxity against two human cell lines (HaCat and LO2). TEM and SEM images of E. coli and S. aureus morphologies treated with 7d showed that the antibacterial mechanism might be the QAS fixing on cell wall surfaces and puncturing to result in the release of bacterial cytoplasm. This study provides new information of QAS, which could be used to design novel antimicrobial agents applied in clinic or agriculture.