FcαRI binding at the IgA1 CH2-CH3 interface induces long-range conformational changes that are transmitted to the hinge region.
ABSTRACT: IgA effector functions include proinflammatory immune responses triggered upon clustering of the IgA-specific receptor, FcαRI, by IgA immune complexes. FcαRI binds to the IgA1-Fc domain (Fcα) at the CH2-CH3 junction and, except for CH2 L257 and L258, all side-chain contacts are contributed by the CH3 domain. In this study, we used experimental and computational approaches to elucidate energetic and conformational aspects of FcαRI binding to IgA. The energetic contribution of each IgA residue in the binding interface was assessed by alanine-scanning mutagenesis and equilibrium surface plasmon resonance (SPR). As expected, hydrophobic residues central to the binding site have strong energetic contributions to the FcαRI:Fcα interaction. Surprisingly, individual mutation of CH2 residues L257 and L258, found at the periphery of the FcαRI binding site, dramatically reduced binding affinity. Comparison of antibody:receptor complexes involving IgA or its precursor IgY revealed a conserved receptor binding site at the CH2-CH3 junction (or its equivalent). Given the importance of residues near the CH2-CH3 junction, we used coarse-grained Langevin dynamics simulations to understand the functional dynamics in Fcα. Our simulations indicate that FcαRI binding, either in an asymmetric (1:1) or symmetric (2:1) complex with Fcα, propagated long-range conformational changes across the Fc domains, potentially impacting the hinge and Fab regions. Subsequent SPR experiments confirmed that FcαRI binding to the Fcα CH2-CH3 junction altered the kinetics of HAA lectin binding at the IgA1 hinge. Receptor-induced long-distance conformational transitions have important implications for the interaction of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 with anti-glycan autoantibodies in IgA nephropathy.
Project description:Host survival depends on an effective immune system and pathogen survival on the effectiveness of immune evasion mechanisms. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes a number of molecules to modulate host immunity, including the SSL family of which SSL7 binds IgA and inhibits Fcα receptor I (FcαRI)-mediated function. Other Gram-positive bacterial pathogens produce IgA binding proteins, which, similar to SSL7, also bind the Fc at the CH2/CH3 interface (the junction between constant domains 2 and 3 of the heavy chain). The opposing activities of the host FcαRI-IgA receptor ligand pair and the pathogen decoy proteins select for host and pathogen variants, which exert stronger protection or evasion, respectively. Curiously, mouse but not rat IgA contains a putative N-linked glycosylation site in the center of this host receptor and pathogen-binding site. Here, we demonstrate that this site is glycosylated and that the effect of amino acid changes and glycosylation of the CH2/CH3 interface inhibits interaction with the pathogen IgA binding protein SSL7, while maintaining binding of pIgR, essential to the biosynthesis and transport of SIgA.
Project description:In mammals, the most striking IgA system belongs to Lagomorpha. Indeed, 14 IgA subclasses have been identified in European rabbits, 11 of which are expressed. In contrast, most other mammals have only one IgA, or in the case of hominoids, two IgA subclasses. Characteristic features of the mammalian IgA subclasses are the length and amino acid sequence of their hinge regions, which are often rich in Pro, Ser and Thr residues and may also carry Cys residues. Here, we describe a new IgA that was expressed in New Zealand White domestic rabbits of IGHVa1 allotype. This IgA has an extended hinge region containing an intriguing stretch of nine consecutive Ser residues and no Pro or Thr residues, a motif exclusive to this new rabbit IgA. Considering the amino acid properties, this hinge motif may present some advantage over the common IgA hinge by affording novel functional capabilities. We also sequenced for the first time the IgA14 CH2 and CH3 domains and showed that IgA14 and IgA3 are expressed.
Project description:The M protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi known as fibrinogen-binding protein (FgBP) is a cell wall-associated protein with antiphagocytic activity that binds IgG. Recombinant versions of the seven equine IgG subclasses were used to investigate the subclass specificity of FgBP. FgBP bound predominantly to equine IgG4 and IgG7, with little or no binding to the other subclasses. Competitive binding experiments revealed that FgBP could inhibit the binding of staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G to both IgG4 and IgG7, implicating the Fc interdomain region in binding to FgBP. To identify which of the two IgG Fc domains contributed to the interaction with FgBP, we tested two human IgG1/IgA1 domain swap mutants and found that both domains are required for full binding, with the CH3 domain playing a critical role. The binding site for FgBP was further localized using recombinant equine IgG7 antibodies with single or double point mutations to residues lying at the CH2-CH3 interface. We found that interaction of FgBP with equine IgG4 and IgG7 was able to disrupt C1q binding and antibody-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, demonstrating an effective means by which S. equi may evade the immune response. The mode of interaction of FgBP with IgG fits a common theme for bacterial Ig-binding proteins. Remarkably, for those interactions studied in detail, it emerges that all the Ig-binding proteins target the CH2-CH3 domain interface, regardless of specificity for IgG or IgA, streptococcal or staphylococcal origin, or host species (equine or human).
Project description:The full potential of recombinant Immunoglobulin A as therapeutic antibody is not fully explored, owing to the fact that structure-function relationships of these extensively glycosylated proteins are not well understood. Here monomeric IgA1, IgA2m(1), and IgA2m(2) variants of the anti-HER2 antibody (IgG1) trastuzumab were expressed in glyco-engineered Nicotiana benthamiana plants and in human HEK293-6E cells. All three IgA isotypes were purified and subjected to biophysical and biochemical characterization. While no differences in assembly, antigen binding, and glycosylation occupancy were observed, both systems vary tremendously in terms of glycan structures and heterogeneity of glycosylation. Mass-spectrometric analysis of site-specific glycosylation revealed that plant-produced IgAs carry mainly complex-type biantennary N-glycans. HEK293-6E-produced IgAs, on the contrary, showed very heterogeneous N-glycans with high levels of sialylation, core-fucose, and the presence of branched structures. The site-specific analysis revealed major differences between the individual N-glycosylation sites of each IgA subtype. Moreover, the proline-rich hinge region from HEK293-6E cell-derived IgA1 was occupied with mucin-type O-glycans, whereas IgA1 from N. benthamiana displayed numerous plant-specific modifications. Interestingly, a shift in unfolding of the CH2 domain of plant-produced IgA toward lower temperatures can be observed with differential scanning calorimetry, suggesting that distinct glycoforms affect the thermal stability of IgAs.
Project description:Human IgG4, normally the least abundant of the four subclasses of IgG in serum, displays a number of unique biological properties. It can undergo heavy-chain exchange, also known as Fab-arm exchange, leading to the formation of monovalent but bispecific antibodies, and it interacts poorly with Fc?RII and Fc?RIII, and complement. These properties render IgG4 relatively "non-inflammatory" and have made it a suitable format for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production. However, IgG4 is also known to undergo Fc-mediated aggregation and has been implicated in auto-immune disease pathology. We report here the high-resolution crystal structures, at 1.9 and 2.35 Å, respectively, of human recombinant and serum-derived IgG4-Fc. These structures reveal conformational variability at the CH3-CH3 interface that may promote Fab-arm exchange, and a unique conformation for the FG loop in the CH2 domain that would explain the poor Fc?RII, Fc?RIII and C1q binding properties of IgG4 compared with IgG1 and -3. In contrast to other IgG subclasses, this unique conformation folds the FG loop away from the CH2 domain, precluding any interaction with the lower hinge region, which may further facilitate Fab-arm exchange by destabilisation of the hinge. The crystals of IgG4-Fc also display Fc-Fc packing contacts with very extensive interaction surfaces, involving both a consensus binding site in IgG-Fc at the CH2-CH3 interface and known hydrophobic aggregation motifs. These Fc-Fc interactions are compatible with intact IgG4 molecules and may provide a model for the formation of aggregates of IgG4 that can cause disease pathology in the absence of antigen.
Project description:A receptor for IgA was purified from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) by affinity chromatography on human serum IgA-Sepharose. The receptor appeared on SDS/polyacrylamide gels as a diffuse band with an apparent molecular mass of 50-70 kDa, whether reduced or non-reduced. During purification, the protein showed remarkable stability to proteolytic digestion by endogenous PMN proteinases. Purified radioiodinated receptor re-bound to IgA-Sepharose, but not to IgG-Sepharose or BSA-Sepharose. The binding of the receptor to IgA-Sepharose was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by human serum IgA1 or IgA2 or secretory IgA1 or IgA2, but not by IgG or IgM. Binding of receptor to IgA-Sepharose was also inhibited by the Fc fragment of IgA, but not by the Fab fragment. An IgA fragment produced by digestion with pepsin which lacks the CH3 domain also inhibited binding, but to a more limited extent than did the whole IgA molecule.
Project description:An interesting format in the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies uses the crystallizable fragment of IgG1 as starting scaffold. Engineering of its structural loops allows generation of an antigen binding site. However, this might impair the molecule's conformational stability, which can be overcome by introducing stabilizing point mutations in the CH3 domains. These point mutations often affect the stability and unfolding behavior of both the CH2 and CH3 domains. In order to understand this cross-talk, molecular dynamics simulations of the domains of the Fc fragment of human IgG1 are reported. The structure of human IgG1-Fc obtained from X-ray crystallography is used as a starting point for simulations of the wild-type protein at two different pH values. The stabilizing effect of a single point mutation in the CH3 domain as well as the impact of the hinge region and the glycan tree structure connected to the CH2 domains is investigated. Regions of high local flexibility were identified as potential sites for engineering antigen binding sites. Obtained data are discussed with respect to the available X-ray structure of IgG1-Fc, directed evolution approaches that screen for stability and use of the scaffold IgG1-Fc in the design of antigen binding Fc proteins.
Project description:Aberrancies in IgA1 glycosylation have been linked to the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), a kidney disease characterized by deposits of IgA1-containing immune complexes in the glomerular mesangium. IgA1 from IgAN patients is characterized by the presence of galactose (Gal)-deficient O-glycans in the hinge region that can act as epitopes for anti-glycan IgG or IgA1 antibodies. The resulting circulating immune complexes are trapped in the glomerular mesangium of the kidney where they trigger localized inflammatory responses by activating mesangial cells. Certain lectins recognize the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-containing O-glycans on Gal-deficient IgA1 and can be potentially used as diagnostic tools. To improve our understanding of GalNAc recognition by these lectins, we have conducted binding studies to assess the interaction of Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) and Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) with Gal-deficient IgA1. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy revealed that both HAA and HPA bind to a Gal-deficient synthetic hinge region glycopeptide (HR-GalNAc) as well as various aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 myeloma proteins. Despite having six binding sites, both HAA and HPA bind IgA1 in a functionally bivalent manner, with the apparent affinity for IgA1 related to the number of exposed GalNAc groups in the IgA1 hinge. Finally, HAA and HPA were shown to discriminate very effectively between the IgA1 secreted by cell lines derived from peripheral blood cells of patients with IgAN and that from cells of healthy controls. These studies provide insight into lectin recognition of the Gal-deficient IgA1 hinge region and lay the groundwork for the development of reliable diagnostic tools for IgAN.
Project description:IgA nephropathy is a chronic renal disease characterized by mesangial immunodeposits that contain autoantigen, which is aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 with some hinge-region O-glycans deficient in galactose. Macroscopic hematuria during an upper respiratory tract infection is common among patients with IgA nephropathy, which suggests a connection between inflammation and disease activity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine involved in IgA immune response. We previously showed that IL-6 selectively increases production of galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA1-secreting cells from patients with IgA nephropathy.We characterized IL-6 signaling pathways involved in the overproduction of galactose-deficient IgA1. To understand molecular mechanisms, IL-6 signaling was analyzed by kinomic activity profiling and Western blotting, followed by confirmation assays using siRNA knock-down and small-molecule inhibitors.STAT3 was differentially activated by IL-6 in IgA1-secreting cells from patients with IgA nephropathy compared with those from healthy control subjects. Specifically, IL-6 induced enhanced and prolonged phosphorylation of STAT3 in the cells from patients with IgA nephropathy, which resulted in overproduction of galactose-deficient IgA1. This IL-6-mediated overproduction of galactose-deficient IgA1 could be blocked by small molecule inhibitors of JAK/STAT signaling.Our results revealed that IL-6-induced aberrant activation of STAT3-mediated overproduction of galactose-deficient IgA1. STAT3 signaling pathway may thus represent a new target for disease-specific therapy of IgA nephropathy.
Project description:IgA nephropathy, the most common primary glomerulonephritis in the world and a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease, is characterized by typical mesangial deposits of IgA1, as described by Berger and Hinglaise in 1968. Since then, it has been discovered that aberrant IgA1 O-glycosylation is involved in disease pathogenesis. Progress in glycomic, genomic, clinical, analytical, and biochemical studies has shown autoimmune features of IgA nephropathy. The autoimmune character of the disease is explained by a multihit pathogenesis model, wherein overproduction of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1, galactose-deficient in some O-glycans, by IgA1-secreting cells leads to increased levels of circulatory galactose-deficient IgA1. These glycoforms induce production of autoantibodies that subsequently bind hinge-region of galactose-deficient IgA1 molecules, resulting in the formation of nephritogenic immune complexes. Some of these complexes deposit in the kidney, activate mesangial cells, and incite glomerular injury. Thus, galactose-deficient IgA1 is central to the disease process. In this article, we review studies concerning IgA1 O-glycosylation that have contributed to the current understanding of the role of IgA1 in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.