First insight into microbiome profile of fungivorous thrips Hoplothrips carpathicus (Insecta: Thysanoptera) at different developmental stages: molecular evidence of Wolbachia endosymbiosis.
ABSTRACT: Insects' exoskeleton, gut, hemocoel, and cells are colonized by various microorganisms that often play important roles in their host life. Moreover, insects are frequently infected by vertically transmitted symbionts that can manipulate their reproduction. The aims of this study were the characterization of bacterial communities of four developmental stages of the fungivorous species Hoplothrips carpathicus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), verification of the presence of Wolbachia, in silico prediction of metabolic potentials of the microorganisms, and sequencing its mitochondrial COI barcode. Taxonomy-based analysis indicated that the bacterial community of H. carpathicus contained 21 bacterial phyla. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacterioidetes and Firmicutes, and the most abundant classes were Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, with different proportions in the total share. For pupa and imago (adult) the most abundant genus was Wolbachia, which comprised 69.95% and 56.11% of total bacterial population respectively. Moreover, similarity analysis of bacterial communities showed that changes in microbiome composition are congruent with the successive stages of H. carpathicus development. PICRUSt analysis predicted that each bacterial community should be rich in genes involved in membrane transport, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, replication and repair processes.
Project description:Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are the insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The gut bacterial communities affect the development of T. cruzi inside the vector, making the characterization of its composition important in the understanding of infection development. We collected 54 triatomine bugs corresponding to four genera in different departments of Colombia. DNA extraction and PCR were performed to evaluate T. cruzi presence and to determine the discrete typing unit (DTU) of the parasite. PCR products of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were pooled and sequenced. Resulting reads were denoised and QIIME 2 was used for the identification of amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). Diversity (alpha and beta diversity) and richness analyses, Circos plots, and principal component analysis (PCA) were also performed. The overall T. cruzi infection frequency was 75.9%, with TcI being the predominant DTU. Approximately 500,000 sequences were analyzed and 27 bacterial phyla were identified. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria (33.9%), Actinobacteria (32.4%), Firmicutes (19.6%), and Bacteroidetes (7.6%), which together accounted for over 90% of the gut communities identified in this study. Genera were identified for these main bacterial phyla, revealing the presence of important bacteria such as Rhodococcus, Serratia, and Wolbachia. The composition of bacterial phyla in the gut of the insects was significantly different between triatomine species, whereas no significant difference was seen between the state of T. cruzi infection. We suggest further investigation with the evaluation of additional variables and a larger sample size. To our knowledge, this study is the first characterization of the gut bacterial structure of the main triatomine genera in Colombia.
Project description:Bacterial symbionts of insects affect a wide array of host traits including fitness and immunity. Octodonta nipae (Maulik), commonly known as hispid leaf beetle is a destructive palm pest around the world. Understanding the dynamics of microbiota is essential to unravel the complex interplay between O. nipae and its bacterial symbionts. In this study, bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 region was targeted to decipher the diversity and dynamics of bacterial symbionts across different life stages [eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult (male and female)] and reproductive organs (ovaries and testis) of O. nipae. Clustering analysis at ?97% similarity threshold produced 3,959 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that belonged to nine different phyla. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represented the bulk of taxa that underwent notable changes during metamorphosis. Enterobacteriaceae and Dermabacteraceae were the most abundant families in immature stages (eggs, larvae, and pupae), while Anaplasmataceae family was dominated in adults (male and female) and reproductive organs (ovaries and testis). The genus Serratia and Lactococcus were most abundant in eggs, whereas Pantoea and Brachybacterium represented the bulk of larvae and pupae microbiota. Interestingly the genus Wolbachia found positive to all tested samples and was recorded extremely high (>64%) in the adults and reproductive organs. The bacteria varied across the developmental stages and responsible for various metabolic activities. Selection choice exerted by the insect host as a result of its age or developmental stage could be the main reason to ascertain the shift in the bacteria populations. Maternally inherited Wolbachia was found to be an obligate endosymbiont infecting all tested life stages, body parts, and tissues. These outcomes foster our understanding of the intricate associations between bacteria and O. nipae and will incorporate in devising novel pest control strategies against this palm pest.
Project description:Application of chemical fertilizer or manure can affect soil microorganisms directly by supplying nutrients and indirectly by altering soil pH. However, it remains uncertain which effect mostly shapes microbial community structure. We determined soil bacterial diversity and community structure by 454 pyrosequencing the V1-V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes after 7-years (2007-2014) of applying chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers, composted manure or their combination to acidic (pH 5.8), near-neutral (pH 6.8) or alkaline (pH 8.4) Eutric Regosol soil in a maize-vegetable rotation in southwest China. In alkaline soil, nutrient sources did not affect bacterial Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) richness or Shannon diversity index, despite higher available N, P, K, and soil organic carbon in fertilized than in unfertilized soil. In contrast, bacterial OTU richness and Shannon diversity index were significantly lower in acidic and near-neutral soils under NPK than under manure or their combination, which corresponded with changes in soil pH. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance showed that bacterial community structure was significantly affected across these three soils, but the PCoA ordination patterns indicated the effect was less distinct among nutrient sources in alkaline than in acidic and near-neural soils. Distance-based redundancy analysis showed that bacterial community structures were significantly altered by soil pH in acidic and near-neutral soils, but not by any soil chemical properties in alkaline soil. The relative abundance (%) of most bacterial phyla was higher in near-neutral than in acidic or alkaline soils. The most dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (24.6%), Actinobacteria (19.7%), Chloroflexi (15.3%) and Acidobacteria (12.6%); the medium dominant phyla were Bacterioidetes (5.3%), Planctomycetes (4.8%), Gemmatimonadetes (4.5%), Firmicutes (3.4%), Cyanobacteria (2.1%), Nitrospirae (1.8%), and candidate division TM7 (1.0%); the least abundant phyla were Verrucomicrobia (0.7%), Armatimonadetes (0.6%), candidate division WS3 (0.4%) and Fibrobacteres (0.3%). In addition, Cyanobacteria and candidate division TM7 were more abundant in acidic soil, whereas Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and candidate division WS3 were more abundant in alkaline soil. We conclude that after 7-years of fertilization, soil bacterial diversity and community structure were shaped more by changes in soil pH rather than the direct effect of nutrient addition.
Project description:Formica polyctena belongs to the red wood ant species group. Its nests provide a stable, food rich, and temperature and humidity controlled environment, utilized by a wide range of species, called myrmecophiles. Here, we used the high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina platform for identification of the microbiome profiles of six selected myrmecophilous beetles (Dendrophilus pygmaeus, Leptacinus formicetorum, Monotoma angusticollis, Myrmechixenus subterraneus, Ptenidium formicetorum and Thiasophila angulata) and their host F. polyctena. Analyzed bacterial communities consisted of a total of 23 phyla, among which Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were the most abundant. Two known endosymbionts-Wolbachia and Rickettsia-were found in the analyzed microbiome profiles and Wolbachia was dominant in bacterial communities associated with F. polyctena, M. subterraneus, L. formicetorum and P. formicetorum (>90% of reads). In turn, M. angusticollis was co-infected with both Wolbachia and Rickettsia, while in the microbiome of T. angulata, the dominance of Rickettsia has been observed. The relationships among the microbiome profiles were complex, and no relative abundance pattern common to all myrmecophilous beetles tested was observed. However, some subtle, species-specific patterns have been observed for bacterial communities associated with D. pygmaeus, M. angusticollis, and T. angulata.
Project description:The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål), the most destructive pest of rice, has been identified, including biotypes with high virulence towards previously resistant rice varieties. There have also been many reports of a yeast-like symbiont of N. lugens, but little is known about the bacterial microbes. In this study, we examined the bacterial microbes in N. lugens and identified a total of 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) by sequencing and analyzing 16S rRNA gene libraries obtained from three populations of N. lugens, which were maintained on the rice varieties TN1, Mudgo, and ASD7. Several of the OTUs were similar to previously reported secondary symbionts of other insects, including an endosymbiont of the psyllid Glycapsis brimblecombei, an Asaia sp. found in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, and Wolbachia, found in the mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. However, the species and numbers of the detected OTUs differed substantially among the N. lugens populations. Further, in situ hybridization analysis using digoxigenin-labeled probes indicated that OTU 1 was located in hypogastrium tissues near the ovipositor and ovary in biotype 1 insects, while OTU 2 was located in the front of the ovipositor sheath in biotype 2 insects. In addition, masses of bacterium-like organisms were observed in the tubes of salivary sheaths in rice plant tissues that the insects had fed upon. The results provide indications of the diversity of the bacterial microbes harbored by the brown planthopper and of possible associations between specific bacterial microbes and biotypes of N. lugens.
Project description:Currently, there is a need of non-computationally-intensive bioinformatics tools to cope with the increase of large datasets produced by Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We present a simple and robust bioinformatics pipeline to search for novel enzymes in metagenomic sequences. The strategy is based on pattern searching using as reference conserved motifs coded as regular expressions. As a case study, we applied this scheme to search for novel proteases S8A in a publicly available metagenome. Briefly, (1) the metagenome was assembled and translated into amino acids; (2) patterns were matched using regular expressions; (3) retrieved sequences were annotated; and (4) diversity analyses were conducted. Following this pipeline, we were able to identify nine sequences containing an S8 catalytic triad, starting from a metagenome containing 9,921,136 Illumina reads. Identity of these nine sequences was confirmed by BLASTp against databases at NCBI and MEROPS. Identities ranged from 62 to 89% to their respective nearest ortholog, which belonged to phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacterioidetes, and Cyanobacteria, consistent with the most abundant phyla reported for this metagenome. All these results support the idea that they all are novel S8 sequences and strongly suggest that our methodology is robust and suitable to detect novel enzymes.
Project description:The gut microbial community structure of adult Thrips tabaci collected from 10 different agro-climatically diverse locations of India was characterized by using the Illumina MiSeq platform to amplify the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria present in the sampled insects. Analyses were performed to study the bacterial communities associated with Thrips tabaci in India. The complete bacterial metagenome of T. tabaci was comprised of 1662 OTUs of which 62.25% belong to known and 37.7% of unidentified/unknown bacteria. These OTUs constituted 21 bacterial phyla of 276 identified genera. Phylum Proteobacteria was predominant, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. Additionally, the occurrence of the reproductive endosymbiont, Wolbachia was detected at two locations (0.56%) of the total known OTUs. There is high variation in diversity and species richness among the different locations. Alpha-diversity metrics indicated the higher gut bacterial diversity at Bangalore and lowest at Rahuri whereas higher bacterial species richness at T. tabaci samples from Imphal and lowest at Jhalawar. Beta diversity analyses comparing bacterial communities between the samples showed distinct differences in bacterial community composition of T. tabaci samples from different locations. This paper also constitutes the first record of detailed bacterial communities associated with T. tabaci. The location-wise variation in microbial metagenome profile of T. tabaci suggests that bacterial diversity might be governed by its population genetic structure, environment and habitat.
Project description:The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations.
Project description:Paleomicrobiological investigations of a 14(th)-century coprolite found inside a barrel in Namur, Belgium were done using microscopy, a culture-dependent approach and metagenomics. Results were confirmed by ad hoc PCR--sequencing. Investigations yielded evidence for flora from ancient environment preserved inside the coprolite, indicated by microscopic observation of amoebal cysts, plant fibers, seeds, pollens and mold remains. Seventeen different bacterial species were cultured from the coprolite, mixing organisms known to originate from the environment and organisms known to be gut inhabitants. Metagenomic analyses yielded 107,470 reads, of which known sequences (31.9%) comprised 98.98% bacterial, 0.52% eukaryotic, 0.44% archaeal and 0.06% viral assigned reads. Most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The 16 S rRNA gene dataset yielded 132,000 trimmed reads and 673 Operational Taxonomic Units. Most abundant bacterial phyla observed in the 16 S rRNA gene dataset belonged to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chlamydia. The Namur coprolite yielded typical gut microbiota inhabitants, intestinal parasites Trichuris and Ascaris and systemic pathogens Bartonella and Bordetella. This study adds knowledge to gut microbiota in medieval times.
Project description:Asobara tabida wasps are fly endoparasitoids that naturally harbor three Wolbachia strains, which induce cytoplasmic incompatibility and control oogenesis. To investigate whether other bacteria play a role in wasp biology, we surveyed the bacterial communities of wild A. tabida populations originating from different regions of France and of laboratory colonies using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and culture methods. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were found to be the main phyla represented in these populations. Among these were several cultured and uncultured representatives of the genera Acetobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Duganella, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. In addition to Wolbachia, wild individuals harbored Rickettsia, which tended to be lost when insects were reared in the laboratory. The antibiotic treatment used to generate wasp sublines singly infected with Wolbachia also affected the overall bacterial composition, with most fingerprint sequences being characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We also screened for potentially heritable endosymbionts by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in stable laboratory lines, with only Wolbachia being consistently found in wasp ovaries.