Cognitive function after spinal cord injury: A systematic review.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To systematically examine the incidence of cognitive impairment in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as identify potential contributing and confounding factors. METHODS:Studies quantitatively reporting cognitive ability after spinal cord injury were searched electronically via Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO. Manual screening for references within articles was also performed. A total of 2,481 studies were screened and a total of 70 were included in this review, 21 reporting cognitive function after SCI compared to an able-bodied control group and 49 with no able-bodied controls. Studies were analyzed for the incidence of impairment and the interactions with concomitant traumatic brain injury, psychological or somatic complaints, decentralized cardiovascular control, sleep apnea, neurologic level of injury, and age. RESULTS:There is a high volume of evidence reporting substantial cognitive impairment in individuals with SCI. Potential co-contributors include concomitant brain injury, psychological or somatic comorbidities, decentralized cardiovascular control, and sleep apnea. Cognitive functioning was negatively correlated with age. No clear agreement was found for the incidence of cognitive impairment or its association with level of injury. CONCLUSION:Current evidence suggests that individuals with SCI should be examined and addressed for cognitive impairment. Future studies aimed at identifying potential secondary causative factors should employ stringent controls for co-occurring brain trauma since it appears to be a major contributor and confounder to impaired cognition.
Project description:A lower risk of prostate cancer has been reported in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) as compared to that observed in able-bodied subjects. As injury-related consequences can have opposite effects on prostate pathophysiology, this meta-analysis aimed to (1) establish the existence/quantify the extent of decreased prostate cancer risk following SCI and (2) find out if there is any statistically significant difference in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels between SCI and able-bodied subjects. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases were used. Only studies reporting a prostate cancer diagnosis and/or PSA levels following SCI and in able-bodied controls were included. Five studies provided information about prostate cancer on 35 293 subjects with SCI and 158 140 controls. Six studies were included in PSA analysis which reported information on 391 men with SCI and 1921 controls. Pooled estimates indicated that SCI reduced the prostate cancer risk by approximately 50% as compared to controls, whereas differences in PSA levels were not statistically significant. Funnel plots suggested the presence of publication bias only in PSA analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was established and when, according to meta-regression models, analysis was restricted to studies including men with mean age over 55 years, prostate cancer risk in SCI decreased up to 65.0% than that in controls with no heterogeneity (P = 0.33, I2 = 9%). In conclusion, in men over 55 years old, SCI decreases the prostate cancer risk up to 65.0% than that in controls. The large between-study heterogeneity on PSA confirms its poor reliability as a screening tool for prostate cancer in SCI.
Project description:Whether interlimb reflexes emerge only after a severe insult to the human spinal cord is controversial. Here the aim was to examine interlimb reflexes at rest in participants with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury (SCI, n = 17) and able-bodied control participants (n = 5). Cutaneous reflexes were evoked by delivering up to 30 trains of stimuli to either the superficial peroneal nerve on the dorsum of the foot or the radial nerve at the wrist (5 pulses, 300 Hz, approximately every 30 s). Participants were instructed to relax the test muscles prior to the delivery of the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally in proximal and distal arm and leg muscles. Superficial peroneal nerve stimulation evoked interlimb reflexes in ipsilateral and contralateral arm and contralateral leg muscles of SCI and control participants. Radial nerve stimulation evoked interlimb reflexes in the ipsilateral leg and contralateral arm muscles of control and SCI participants but only contralateral leg muscles of control participants. Interlimb reflexes evoked by superficial peroneal nerve stimulation were longer in latency and duration, and larger in magnitude in SCI participants. Interlimb reflex properties were similar for both SCI and control groups for radial nerve stimulation. Ascending interlimb reflexes tended to occur with a higher incidence in participants with SCI, while descending interlimb reflexes occurred with a higher incidence in able-bodied participants. However, the overall incidence of interlimb reflexes in SCI and neurologically intact participants was similar which suggests that the neural circuitry underlying these reflexes does not necessarily develop after central nervous system injury.
Project description:Understanding the presentation of spinal cord injury (SCI) due to tumours considering population distribution and temporal trends is key to managing SCI health services. This study quantified incidence rates, function scores, and trends of SCI due to tumour or metastasis over an 18-year time period in a defined region in Spain.A retrospective cohort study included in-and outpatients with nontraumatic SCI due to tumour or metastasis admitted to a metropolitan hospital in Spain between 1991 and 2008. Main outcome measures were crude and age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates, tumour location and type, distribution by spinal level, neurological level of injury, and impairment ASIA scores.Primary tumour or metastasis accounted for 32.5% of nontraumatic SCI with an incidence rate of 4.1 per million population. Increasing rates with age and over time were observed. Major pathology groups were intradural-extramedullary masses from which meningiomas and neurinomas accounted for 40%. Lesions were mostly incomplete with predominant ASIA Grade D.Increasing incidence rates of tumour-related SCI over time in the middle-aged and the elderly suggest a growing need for neurooncology health resources in the future.
Project description:A high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been reported in the literature; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We sought to determine the effect of the withdrawal of the wakefulness drive to breathe on the degree of hypoventilation in SCI patients and able-bodied controls. We studied 18 subjects with chronic cervical and thoracic SCI (10 cervical, 8 thoracic SCI; 11 males; age 42.4 ± 17.1 years; body mass index 26.3 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)) and 17 matched able-bodied subjects. Subjects underwent polysomnography, which included quantitative measurement of ventilation, timing, and upper airway resistance (RUA) on a breath-by-breath basis during transitions from wake to stage N1 sleep. Compared to able-bodied controls, SCI subjects had a significantly greater reduction in tidal volume during the transition from wake to N1 sleep (from 0.51 ± 0.21 to 0.32 ± 0.10 L vs. 0.47 ± 0.13 to 0.43 ± 0.12 L; respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, end-tidal CO2 and end-tidal O2 were significantly altered from wake to sleep in SCI (38.9 ± 2.7 mmHg vs. 40.6 ± 3.4 mmHg; 94.1 ± 7.1 mmHg vs. 91.2 ± 8.3 mmHg; respectively, P < 0.05), but not in able-bodied controls (39.5 ± 3.2 mmHg vs. 39.9 ± 3.2 mmHg; 99.4 ± 5.4 mmHg vs. 98.9 ± 6.1 mmHg; respectively, P = ns). RUA was not significantly altered in either group. In conclusion, individuals with SCI experience hypoventilation at sleep onset, which cannot be explained by upper airway mechanics. Sleep onset hypoventilation may contribute to the development SDB in the SCI population.
Project description:To review prospective and randomized trials studying anticholinergic therapy for neurogenic bladder in SCI to identify whether trials included standardized clinical evaluation tools and reporting measures now recognized to enhance clinical trial data.A systematic search via EMBASE, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), HTA (Health Technology Assessment), CMR (Comprehensive Microbial Resource), HAPI (Health and Psychosocial Instruments) and PsycINFO using the key term spinal cord injury crossed with oxybutynin, tolterodine, darifenacin, solifenacin, fesoterodine, trospium chloride, propiverine, propantheline and anticholinergic(s) for 1946-2015 inclusive. We then collated whether standardized clinical tools, measures and descriptors were used within each study identified: American Spine Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale; symptom scores validated in SCI; technical methodology for urodynamics/video urodynamics; urinary diaries; and standardized urologic terminology.A total of 1225 entries with 610 unique articles were identified, 14 randomized and 16 prospective studies. In 6/30 the population comprised SCI patients with neurogenic bladder alone; the remainder included mixed neurogenic etiologies. Classification using the ASIA impairment scale was used in <10% of studies; none used symptom scores validated in SCI; <50% reported urodynamic test methodology fully, incorporated urinary diaries or used International Continence Society Standardization Subcommittee urinary tract terminology.Integrative review of trials from 1946 to 2015 identified infrequent use of standardized clinical evaluation tools and reporting measures. Data from future trials evaluating therapies for neurogenic bladder would likely be more applicable to specific SCI patients if current standardized classification and descriptors now available were used consistently: for example, the ASIA scale, symptom scores validated in SCI, standardized urodynamic methodology, urinary diaries and urinary tract terminology. Studies recruiting SCI patients exclusively would also provide additional benefit.
Project description:To investigate dietary intake and adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied individuals.A pilot study of dietary intake among a sample of individuals with SCI >1 year ago from a single site compared with able-bodied individuals.One hundred black or white adults aged 38-55 years old with SCI >1 year and 100 age-, sex-, and race-matched adults enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Dietary intake was assessed by the CARDIA dietary history. Linear regression analysis was used to compare dietary intake between the subjects with SCI and those enrolled in the CARDIA study. Further, adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for dairy, fruits, and vegetables, and whole-grain foods was assessed.Compared with CARDIA participants, participants with SCI consumed fewer daily servings of dairy (2.10 vs. 5.0, P < 0.001), fruit (2.01 vs. 3.64, P = 0.002), and whole grain foods (1.20 vs. 2.44 P = 0.007). For each food group, fewer participants with SCI met the recommended servings compared with the CARDIA participants. Specifically, the participants with SCI and in CARDIA who met the guidelines were, respectively: dairy, 22% vs. 54% (P < 0.001), fruits and vegetables 39% vs. 70% (P = 0.001), and whole-grain foods 8% vs. 69.6% (P = 0.001).Compared with able-bodied individuals, SCI participants consumed fewer daily servings of fruit, dairy, and whole grain foods than proposed by the 2010 Dietary Guideline recommendations. Nutrition education for this population may be warranted.
Project description:Growing evidence indicates that perceptual-motor codes may be associated with and influenced by actual bodily states. Following a spinal cord injury (SCI), for example, individuals exhibit reduced visual sensitivity to biological motion. However, a dearth of direct evidence exists about whether profound alterations in sensorimotor traffic between the body and brain influence audio-motor representations. We tested 20 wheelchair-bound individuals with lower skeletal-level SCI who were unable to feel and move their lower limbs, but have retained upper limb function. In a two-choice, matching-to-sample auditory discrimination task, the participants were asked to determine which of two action sounds matched a sample action sound presented previously. We tested aural discrimination ability using sounds that arose from wheelchair, upper limb, lower limb, and animal actions. Our results indicate that an inability to move the lower limbs did not lead to impairment in the discrimination of lower limb-related action sounds in SCI patients. Importantly, patients with SCI discriminated wheelchair sounds more quickly than individuals with comparable auditory experience (i.e. physical therapists) and inexperienced, able-bodied subjects. Audio-motor associations appear to be modified and enhanced to incorporate external salient tools that now represent extensions of their body schemas.
Project description:Objectives:To characterize the risk of long-term cognitive impairment associated with delirium in acute neurologic injury patients. Design:We analyzed a 10-year cohort of adult acute neurologic injury patients (stroke and traumatic brain injury) without preexisting mild cognitive impairment or dementia, utilizing administrative databases. Patients were followed for in-hospital delirium and mild cognitive impairment or dementia. We report incidence and adjusted hazard ratios for mild cognitive impairment or dementia associated with delirium. Subgroups analyzed include acute neurologic injury categories, dementia subtypes, repeated delirium exposure, and age strata. Setting:We used state emergency department and state inpatient databases for New York, Florida, and California. All visits are included in the databases regardless of payer status. Patients:We included adult patients with diagnosis of stroke and traumatic brain injury as acute neurologic injury. Patients with preexisting mild cognitive impairment or dementia were excluded. Interventions:None. Measurements and Main Results:Among 911,380 acute neurologic injury patients, 5.2% were diagnosed with delirium. Mild cognitive impairment or dementia incidence among delirium patients was approximately twice that of nondelirium patients. In adjusted models, risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia was higher among patients with delirium (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58). Increased risk was observed across all subgroups including patients less than or equal to 55 years old. Conclusions:Identification, management, and prevention of in-hospital delirium could potentially improve long-term cognitive outcomes in acute neurologic injury patients.
Project description:Study design:Cross-sectional study. Background:Sleep disturbances are frequently reported by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and are associated both with poor quality of life and reduced ability to participate in rehabilitation and daily life activities. Objectives:This study investigated sleep quality based on self-reports and actigraphy in individuals with SCI as compared to able-bodied. We also explored the relationship between sleep quality, physical activity, and neuropathic pain. Setting:Institute Guttmann, Neurorehabilitation Hospital, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain. Methods:Fourteen SCI patients (12 males, 43.10?±?10.59?y.o.) and 10 healthy individuals (7 males, mean age 46.21?±?12.58?y.o.) were enrolled in the study. Participants wore wrist actigraphs for 7 consecutive days to characterize their sleep-wake cycle, rest-activity circadian rhythm and physical activity. Sleep quality, chronotype, daytime sleepiness, neuropathic pain severity and interference were assessed based on questionnaires. Results:SCI individuals reported poorer sleep quality compared to healthy individuals. Actigraphy-based sleep measurements revealed that patients woke up later, spent more time in bed and slept longer compared to the healthy controls but did not differ significantly in the estimated sleep efficacy and number of awakenings from the able-bodied controls. In individuals with SCI greater physical activity predicted higher sleep efficacy and less awakening episodes as well as shorter sleep latency and lower sleep disturbance. Conclusions:The actigraphy-based sleep estimates indicate that patients with SCI spent more time in bed and slept longer but their sleep efficacy was similar to able-bodied controls. Maintaining regular physical activity could improve pain control and sleep quality.