A Hypergraph-Based Blockchain Model and Application in Internet of Things-Enabled Smart Homes.
ABSTRACT: With the fast development and expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT), billions of smart devices are being continuously connected, and smart homes, as a typical IoT application, are providing people with various convenient applications, but face security and privacy issues. The idea of Blockchain (BC) theory has brought about a potential solution to the IoT security problem. The emergence of blockchain technology has brought about a change of decentralized management, providing an effective solution for the protection of network security and privacy. On the other hand, the smart devices in IoT are always lightweight and have less energy and memory. This makes the application of blockchain difficult. Against this background, this paper proposes a blockchain model based on hypergraphs. The aims of this model are to reduce the storage consumption and to solve the additional security issues. In the model, we use the hyperedge as the organization of storage nodes and convert the entire networked data storage into part network storage. We discuss the design of the model and security strategy in detail, introducing some use cases in a smart home network and evaluating the storage performance of the model through simulation experiments and an evaluation of the network.
Project description:Smart grid systems have become popular and necessary for the development of a sustainable power grid. These systems use different technologies to provide optimized services to the users of the network. Regarding computing, these systems optimize electrical services by processing a large amount of the data generated. However, privacy and security are essential in this kind of system. With a large amount of data generated, it is necessary to protect the privacy of users, because this data may reveal the users' personal information. Today, blockchain technology has proven to be an efficient architecture for solving privacy and security problems in different scenarios. Over the years, different blockchain platforms have emerged, attempting to solve specific problems in different areas. However, the use of different platforms fragmented the market, which was no different in the smart grid scenario. This work proposes a blockchain architecture that uses sidechains to make the system scalable and adaptable. We used three blockchains to ensure privacy, security, and trust in the system. To universalize the proposed solution, we used the Open Smart Grid Protocol and smart contracts. The results show that architecture security and privacy are guaranteed, making it feasible for implementation in real systems; although scalability issues regarding the storage of the data generated still exist.
Project description:The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm has revolutionized several industries (e.g., manufacturing, health, transport, education, among others) by allowing objects to connect to the Internet and, thus, enabling a variety of novel applications. In this sense, IoT devices have become an essential component of smart cities, allowing many novel and useful services, but, at the same time, bringing numerous cybersecurity threats. The paper at hand proposes BlockSIEM, a blockchain-based and distributed Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solution framework for the protection of the aforementioned smart city services. The proposed SIEM relies on blockchain technology to securely store and access security events. Such security events are generated by IoT sentinels that are in charge of shielding groups of IoT devices. The IoT sentinels may be deployed in smart city scenarios, such as smart hospitals, smart transport systems, smart airports, among others, ensuring a satisfactory level of protection. The blockchain guarantees the non-repudiation and traceability of the registry of security events due to its features. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, our proposal is implemented using Ethereum and validated through different use cases and experiments.
Project description:Presently modern technology makes a significant contribution to the transition from traditional healthcare to smart healthcare systems. Mobile health (mHealth) uses advances in wearable sensors, telecommunications and the Internet of Things (IoT) to propose a new healthcare concept centered on the patient. Patients' real-time remote continuous health monitoring, remote diagnosis, treatment, and therapy is possible in an mHealth system. However, major limitations include the transparency, security, and privacy of health data. One possible solution to this is the use of blockchain technologies, which have found numerous applications in the healthcare domain mainly due to theirs features such as decentralization (no central authority is needed), immutability, traceability, and transparency. We propose an mHealth system that uses a private blockchain based on the Ethereum platform, where wearable sensors can communicate with a smart device (a smartphone or smart tablet) that uses a peer-to-peer hypermedia protocol, the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS), for the distributed storage of health-related data. Smart contracts are used to create data queries, to access patient data by healthcare providers, to record diagnostic, treatment, and therapy, and to send alerts to patients and medical professionals.
Project description:In the medical system, the verification, preservation and synchronization of electronic medical records has always been a difficult problem, and the random dissemination of patient records will bring various risks to patient privacy. Therefore, how to achieve secure data sharing on the basis of ensuring users' personal privacy becomes the key. In recent years, blockchain has been proposed to be a promising solution to achieve data sharing with security and privacy preservation due to its advantages of immutability. So, a distributed electronic medical records searchable scheme was proposed by leveraging blockchain and smart contract technology. Firstly, we perform a hash calculation on the electronic medical data and store the corresponding value on the blockchain to ensure its integrity and authenticity. Then, we encrypt the electronic medical data and store it in the interplanetary file system which is a distributed storage protocol. These operations not only can solve centralized data store of servers of several medical institutions, but also be good at lowering stress from data store and high-frequency access to blockchain. Secondly, the encrypted keyword index information of electronic medical records was stored on the Ethereum blockchain, meanwhile a smart contract deployed in the Ethereum blockchain is used to realize keyword search instead of depending on a centralized third party. Furthermore, we use attribute-based encryption scheme to ensure that only the attributes meeting the access policy can decrypt the encrypted electronic medical records. Finally, our performance analysis and security analysis show that the scheme is secure and efficient.
Project description:The Internet of Things (IoT) is a widely hyped concept, with its focus on the connection of smart devices to the Internet rather than on people. IoT for consumers is often called the smart home market, and a large part of that market consists of home security devices. Consumers are often motivated to purchase smart home security devices to prevent burglaries, which they fear may lead to damage to their property or threats to their families. However, they also understand that IoT home security devices may be a threat to the privacy of their personal information. To determine the relative roles of fear and privacy concerns in the decision to purchase IoT home security devices, we conducted a survey of American consumers. We used the Theory of Reasoned Action as the theoretical basis for the study. We found that fear positively affected consumer attitudes toward purchasing smart home security devices, while concerns about privacy negatively affected attitudes. We found that attitudes toward purchase, the opinions of important others, and experience with burglaries all affected intent to purchase. We also found that the relationship between privacy concerns and intent to purchase is completely mediated by attitudes, while fear has both direct and indirect effects on intent.
Project description:With the gradual popularization of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications and the development of wireless networking technologies, the use of heterogeneous devices and runtime verification of task fulfillment with different constraints are required in real-world IoT scenarios. As far as IoT systems are concerned, most of them are built on centralized architectures, which reveal various assailable points in data security and privacy threats. Hence, this paper aims to investigate these issues by delegating the responsibility of a verification monitor from a centralized architecture to a decentralized manner using blockchain technology. We present a smart contract-based task management scheme to provide runtime verification of device behaviors and allows trustworthy access control to these devices. The business logic of the proposed system is specified by the smart contract, which automates all time-consuming processes cryptographically and correctly. The usability of the proposed solution is further demonstrated by implementing a prototype application in which the Hyperledger Fabric is utilized to implement the business logic for runtime verification and access control with one desktop and one Raspberry Pi. A comprehensive evaluation experiment is conducted, and the results indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system.
Project description:Access control is a critical aspect for improving the privacy and security of IoT systems. A consortium is a public or private association or a group of two or more institutes, businesses, and companies that collaborate to achieve common goals or form a resource pool to enable the sharing economy aspect. However, most access control methods are based on centralized solutions, which may lead to problems like data leakage and single-point failure. Blockchain technology has its intrinsic feature of distribution, which can be used to tackle the centralized problem of traditional access control schemes. Nevertheless, blockchain itself comes with certain limitations like the lack of scalability and poor performance. To bridge the gap of these problems, here we present a decentralized capability-based access control architecture designed for IoT consortium networks named IoT-CCAC. A blockchain-based database is utilized in our solution for better performance since it exhibits favorable features of both blockchain and conventional databases. The performance of IoT-CCAC is evaluated to demonstrate the superiority of our proposed architecture. IoT-CCAC is a secure, salable, effective solution that meets the enterprise and business's needs and adaptable for different IoT interoperability scenarios.
Project description:The top priority of today's healthcare system is delivering medicine directly from the manufacturer to end-user. The pharmaceutical supply chain involves some level of commingling of a collection of stakeholders such as distributors, manufacturers, wholesalers, and customers. The biggest challenge associated with this supply chain is temperature monitoring as well as counterfeit drug prevention. Many drugs and vaccines remain viable within a specific range of temperatures. If exposed beyond this temperature range, the medicine no longer works as intended. In this paper, an Internet of Things (IoT) sensor-based blockchain framework is proposed that tracks and traces drugs as they pass slowly through the entire supply chain. On the one hand, these new technologies of blockchain and IoT sensors play an essential role in supply chain management. On the other hand, they also pose new challenges of security for resource-constrained IoT devices and blockchain scalability issues to handle this IoT sensor-based information. In this paper, our primary focus is on improving classic blockchain systems to make it suitable for IoT based supply chain management, and as a secondary focus, applying these new promising technologies to enable a viable smart healthcare ecosystem through a drug supply chain.
Project description:Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) is one of the enabling technologies of the Internet of Things (IoT), and focuses on providing long distance connectivity for a vast amount of smart devices. Currently, LoRa is one of the leading LPWAN solutions available for public use. In LPWANs, especially in LoRa, security is a major concern due to the resource constraints of the devices, the sensitivity level of the transmitted data, the large amount of connected devices, among other reasons. This paper studies the key management mechanism of LoRaWAN environments. A secure architecture for key management based on smart contracts and permissioned blockchain to enhance security and availability in LoRaWAN networks is proposed. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed blockchain-based LoRaWAN architecture, a working prototype has been created using open-source tools and commodity hardware. Performance analysis shows that the prototype presents similar execution time and latency values, when compared to a traditional system, especially for small and medium-sized LoRaWAN networks. We also discuss why the proposed solution can be used in environments with a large number of end-devices.
Project description:One of the significant challenges in the Internet of Things (IoT) is the provisioning of guaranteed security and privacy, considering the fact that IoT devices are resource-limited. Oftentimes, in IoT applications, remote users need to obtain real-time data, with guaranteed security and privacy, from resource-limited network nodes through the public Internet. For this purpose, the users need to establish a secure link with the network nodes. Though the IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPAN) adaptation layer standard offers IPv6 compatibility for resource-limited wireless networks, the fundamental 6LoWPAN structure ignores security and privacy characteristics. Thus, there is a pressing need to design a resource-efficient authenticated key exchange (AKE) scheme for ensuring secure communication in 6LoWPAN-based resource-limited networks. This paper proposes a resource-efficient secure remote user authentication scheme for 6LoWPAN-based IoT networks, called SRUA-IoT. SRUA-IoT achieves the authentication of remote users and enables the users and network entities to establish private session keys between themselves for indecipherable communication. To this end, SRUA-IoT uses a secure hash algorithm, exclusive-OR operation, and symmetric encryption primitive. We prove through informal security analysis that SRUA-IoT is secured against a variety of malicious attacks. We also prove the security strength of SRUA-IoT through formal security analysis conducted by employing the random oracle model. Additionally, we prove through Scyther-based validation that SRUA-IoT is resilient against various attacks. Likewise, we demonstrate that SRUA-IoT reduces the computational cost of the nodes and communication overheads of the network.