Differential sonographic features of the extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture and other finger tendons rupture in the setting of hand and wrist trauma.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To investigate the difference between sonographic findings in extensor pollicis longus tendons rupture and other finger tendons rupture in patients sustaining hand and wrist trauma. METHODS:Twenty-four patients who presented with signs and symptoms clinically suspicious for tendon injury and surgically confirmed tendon rupture were included in this study. We analyzed 6 sonographic features: discontinuity of the tendon, pseudomass formation, decreased echogenicity of the tendon, retraction of the ruptured tendon, fluid collection within the tendon sheath, and the motion of the tendon. We compared the sonographic features of ruptured extensor pollicis longus tendons with the other ruptured finger tendons. RESULTS:Discontinuity of the tendon was the most common sonographic findings and retraction of the ruptured tendon was the second most common findings. Fourteen of 16 cases with a dynamic study on sonography showed loss of normal motion of the tendon. Pseudomass formation was the second most common feature in ruptured extensor pollicis longus tendons, in contrast to the other ruptured finger tendons (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Using ultrasonography, detection of discontinuity of the tendon, retraction of the ruptured tendon, and limitation of tendon motion could be very helpful for diagnosing a tendon rupture in hand and wrist trauma. Pseudomass formation could be more specific for diagnosing extensor pollicis longus tendon ruptures compared with other finger tendons.
Project description:RATIONALE:Spontaneous closed extensor tendon rupture is a rare complication of Kienböck disease with only 23 cases reported in the English literature. PATIENT CONCERNS:We present a case of painless attritional rupture of the extensor tendons of the right fourth finger in a 69-year-old woman with Kienböck disease and review reported cases of Kienböck disease with subcutaneous closed tendon rupture. DIAGNOSES:Physical examination had shown mild painless swelling of the dorsum of the right hand. Plain radiographs showed a dorsally displaced fragment of collapsed lunate bone fracture (Lichtman grade IIIb). Although surgery was recommended, the patient did not desire surgery because she had no pain and no interference with the activities of daily living. Six months later, however, the patient returned to our hospital with complaints of loss of spontaneous extension of the fourth finger. CT and MRI showed aseptic necrosis and large dorsally displaced fragments of the lunate under the extensor tendons of the fingers, suggesting a subcutaneous fourth extensor tendon rupture. INTERVENTIONS:Surgery was performed to achieve functional recovery of the ring extensor and to prevent further subcutaneous tendon rupture. The extensor digitorum communis (EDC) of the ring finger was found to be ruptured and the EDCs to the third and fifth fingers were frayed due to attrition from the protrusion of the dorsal fragmented lunate bone. Inspection of the floor of the compartment revealed that the dorsally displaced fragment of the lunate bone had perforated the wrist capsule and protruded into the fourth compartment. The dorsal and volar fragments of the lunate bone were excised completely and scaphocapitate arthrodesis followed by the reconstruction of the fourth extensor tendon was performed. OUTCOMES:A year after the surgery, radiography showed complete union of the scaphocapitate arthrodesis. The joint motion reached 45% of normal without any pain and there was full active extension of the fourth finger. LESSONS:Because dorsally displacement of collapsed lunate bone fragments is a risk factor for attritional closed rupture of tendons, radiography, and MRI are essential to diagnose and to treat any closed tendon rupture.
Project description:We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), with a heterozygous mutation (c.806A > G, p.Asp269Gly) located in the Type 3 repeats domain of the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene, who complained of the unusual symptom of painful locking of the wrist. Her condition was caused by a non-traumatic enlargement of the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) tendons along with bulbous swelling of the synoviums around them. Surgical treatment resolved these unusual tendon-related symptoms. Repetitive mechanical loading of the wrist in daily activities, including distal intersection tenosynovitis between the extensor pollicis longus tendon and ECRL and ECRB tendons, may have contributed to changes in the structural integrity of the tendons. We should pay more attention to tendon-related symptoms in patients with PSACH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While some traumatic closed index extensor tendon ruptures at the musclotendinous junction have been previously reported, closed index extensor tendon pseudorupture due to intertendinous attenuation is exceedingly rare with only one case report of a gymnastics-related sports injury in the English literature. Herein, we report two non-sports injury related cases of traumatic index extensor tendon attenuation mimicking closed tendon rupture, including the pathological findings and intraoperative video of the attenuated extensor indicis proprius tendon. CASE PRESENTATION:A 28-year-old man and a 30-year-old man caught their hands in a high-speed drill and lathe, respectively, which caused a sudden forced flexion of their wrists. They could not actively extend the metacarpophalangeal joints of their index fingers. Intraoperatively, although the extensor indicis proprius and index extensor digitorum communes tendons were in continuity without ruptures, both tendons were attenuated and stretched. The attenuated index extensor tendons were reconstructed either with shortening by plication or step-cut when the tendon damage was less severe or, in severely attenuated tendons, with tendon grafting (ipsilateral palmaris longus) or tendon transfer. Six months after the operation, the active extension of the index metacarpophalangeal joints had recovered well. CONCLUSIONS:Two cases of traumatic index extensor tendon attenuation were treated successfully by shortening the attenuated tendon in combination with tendon graft or transfer. We recommend WALANT (wide-awake local anesthesia and no tourniquet) in the reconstruction surgery of index extensor tendon attenuation to determine the appropriate amount of tendon shortening or optimal tension for tendon grafting or transfer. Intraoperative voluntary finger movement is essential, as it is otherwise difficult to judge the stretch length of intratendinous elongation and extent of traumatic intramuscular damage affecting tendon excursion.
Project description:The purpose of this case report is to describe the value of musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) in diagnosing both distal intersection syndrome (DIS) and rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon in the same patient. A 38-year-old female presented for evaluation of a painful bump of unknown etiology on the dorsolateral aspect of her non-dominant wrist. US demonstrated tenosynovitis distal to Lister's tubercle of the EPL and extensor carpi radialis tendon sheaths, consistent with DIS. Immobilization therapy was employed, during which time the patient suffered rupture of the EPL tendon. Follow-up US examination confirmed this additional diagnosis. Characteristic US findings of DIS and EPL tendon rupture were observed. Surgical intervention was required and the patient recovered without complication. Although EPL rupture is relatively common in the literature, DIS is rare. This is the first known case of imaging-proven DIS progressing to EPL tendon rupture. This case underscores the value of US as a widely available, cost effective, and dynamic imaging modality for evaluation of wrist complaints.
Project description:Four cases of flexor tendon problems which developed after volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures are presented. All cases were associated with close contact of the screws or distal edge of the plate with the flexor tendons. Poor bone stock or multiple bone fragments allowing loosening of the plate or non-locking screws cause the hardware to irritate the flexor tendons and ultimately lead to rupture. The flexor tendons involved include the flexor carpi radialis, flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum superficialis, and flexor digitorum profundus to the index and long fingers.
Project description:Subject-specific musculoskeletal models require accurate values of muscle moment arms. The aim of this study was to compare moment arms of wrist tendons obtained from non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to those obtained from an in vitro experimental approach. MRI was performed on ten upper limb cadaveric specimens to obtain the centrelines for the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), and abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendons. From these, the anatomical moment arms about each of the flexion-extension (FE) and radioulnar deviation (RUD) axes of the wrist were calculated. Specimens were mounted on a physiologic wrist simulator to obtain functional measurements of the moment arms using the tendon excursion method. No differences were observed between anatomical and functional values of the FE and RUD moment arms of FCR, ECRL and ECRB, and the RUD moment arm of ECU (p?>?.075). Scaling the anatomical moment arms relative to ECRB in FE and ECU in RUD reduced differences in the FE moment arm of FCU and the RUD moment arm of APL to less than 15% (p?>?.139). However, differences persisted in moment arms of FCU in RUD, and ECU and APL in FE (p?<?.008). This study shows that while measurements of moment arms of wrist tendons using imaging do not always conform to values obtained using in vitro experimental approaches, a stricter protocol could result in the acquisition of subject-specific moment arms to personalise musculoskeletal models.
Project description:Extensor mechanism deficiency in the knee may occur due to neglected patellar and quadriceps tendons rupture or may be caused by chronic fractures of the patella. Older patients can tolerate nonunion with impaired function including extension limitation or persistent muscle weakness. In young patients, performing rigid internal fixation with reoperation should be considered when a nonunion occurs. However, delayed and neglected nonunion in patella fractures require performing different surgical procedures. We report two cases, operated for a patella fracture, in whom nonunion occurred and accompanied by patellar migration and retraction of quadriceps tendon because of a fixation failure. We reconstructed the extensor mechanism with peroneus longus tendon autograft and, owing to this method, we achieved excellent functional results during a 2-year follow-up period.
Project description:de Quervain's disease is a commonly encountered problem; its management is multimodal, and often, there is recurrence which is commonly associated with anatomical variation in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Our purpose was to find out the anatomical variation of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist in the general population to assess the anatomical basis of de Quervain's disease and its recurrence. In this cadaveric study, 86 wrists in 46 patients were dissected to search out the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and its content tendons, presence of septa in the compartment, and insertion of the tendons. Supernumerary tendons in the first dorsal compartment were seen in 74.41 % of cases. The most commonly found tendon arrangement was two abductor pollicis longus (APL) and one extensor pollicis brevis (EPB). In all cases, there was a fixed insertion of APL to the base of the first metacarpal. Among other sites, the most common site of insertion of APL is the trapezium, which was 56.14 %. Variations of EPB with respect to number, site of insertion, thickness, and bilaterality were also found. The presence of septations was found in 37.20 % of dissected cadaveric wrists. We had found supernumerary tendons or slips in the first dorsal compartment very commonly. The presence of a septum was less frequently found. So, it may be concluded that there is immense anatomical variation present in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, supernumerary tendons/tendon slips are commonly found, there is a variation of insertions present in the population, septum/aberrant compartment are also present, and bilateral variations are present in the population. These variations may be responsible for recurrence and unilateral affection in de Quervain's disease.
Project description:Background:Spontaneous rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon is a rare condition often found in patients actively having regular extensive use of hands and fingers especially the thumb. In this article, we report 7 cases of spontaneous rupture of EPL tendon and investigate the associated factors and treatment outcome. Methods:Retrospectively, the databases for the 7 cases were retrieved and studied. These cases represent all cases of spontaneous rupture of EPL in our institution. Demographic data, clinical presentation, any history of trauma or steroid injection, laboratory and clinical findings suggestive for rheumatoid arthritis, co-morbidities and imaging findings were obtained. In addition, the operative technique and findings were retrieved. Moreover, histopathological studies and follow-up assessment were included. Results:Six males and one female were included. The mean age was 45.2 years. No prior history of trauma, rheumatological disease or steroid use was detected in any patient. All patients experienced prodromal pain in the radial side. Clinical examination was the most effective diagnostic measure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to confirm the diagnosis and to look for other abnormalities that may predispose to rupture. Five patients underwent extensor indicis proprius to EPL tendon transfer employing Pulvertaft weave technique and one patient underwent primary repair as there was a little gap in the tendon ends. In this study, one patient refused any treatment. All patients achieved a favorable outcome at the last follow?-up. Conclusion:Diagnosis of spontaneous ruptures of EPL tendon can be confirmed through clinical examination and MRI for patients with restricted thumb movement even with the absence of any identifiable predisposing risk factor. During surgery, detailed attention must be drawn towards the tendon ends which can have unusual gaps and bone abnormalities.
Project description:Spontaneous ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee are very rare. They tend to increase considerably in patients with metabolic diseases such as chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, diabetes, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The reported case regards a 48-year-old man with chronic, spontaneous and simultaneous quadriceps, and contra-lateral patellar tendon rupture. The patient suffered from chronic renal failure and for the past year from tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Ruptured tendons were repaired and both knee were evaluated monthly for the next 12 months. Good functional recovery was achieved on both knees without relapse. This case emphasizes the importance of long-term high parathyroid hormone level in the etiology of tendons ruptures.