Balance design for robust foliar nutrient diagnosis of "Prata" banana (Musa spp.).
ABSTRACT: The "Cavendish" and "Prata" subgroups represent respectively 47% and 24% of the world banana production. Compared to world average progressing from 10.6 to 20.6 t ha-1 between 1961 and 2016, and despite sustained domestic demand and the introduction of new cultivars, banana yield in Brazil has stagnated around 14.5?t ha-1 mainly due to nutrient and water mismanagement. "Prata" is now the dominant subgroup in N-E Brazil and is fertigated at high costs. Nutrient balances computed as isometric log-ratios (ilr) provide a comprehensive understanding of nutrient relationships in the diagnostic leaf at high yield level by combining raw concentration data. Although the most appropriate method for multivariate analysis of compositional balances may be less efficient due to non-normal data distribution and limited nutrient mobility in the plant, robustness of the nutrient balance approach could be improved using Box-Cox exponents assigned to raw foliar concentrations. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of nutrient balances to diagnose fertigated "Prata" orchards. The dataset comprised 609 observations on fruit yields and leaf tissue compositions collected from 2010 to 2016 in Ceará state, N-E Brazil. Raw nutrient concentration ranges were ineffective as diagnostic tool due to considerable overlapping of concentration ranges for low- and high-yielding subpopulations at cutoff yield of 40?Mg ha-1. Nutrient concentrations were combined into isometric log-ratios (ilr) and normalized by Box-Cox corrections between 0 and 1 which may also account for restricted nutrient transfer from leaf to fruit. Despite reduced ilr skewness, Box-Cox coefficients did not improve model robustness measured as the accuracy of the Cate-Nelson partition between yield and the multivariate distance across ilr values. Sensitivity was 94%, indicating that low yields are attributable primarily to nutrient imbalance. There were 148 false-positive specimens (high yield despite nutrient imbalance) likely due to suboptimal nutrition, contamination, or luxury consumption. The profitability of "Prata" orchards could be enhanced by rebalancing nutrients using ilr standards with no need for Box-Cox correction.
Project description:Microgreens are gaining more and more interest, but little information is available on the effects of the chemical composition of the nutrient solution on the microgreen yield. In this study, three Brassica genotypes (B. oleracea var. italica, B. oleracea var. botrytis, and Brassica rapa L. subsp. sylvestris L. Janch. var. esculenta Hort) were fertigated with three modified strength Hoagland nutrient solutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 strength) or with three modified half-strength Hoagland nutrient solutions with three different NH4:NO3 molar ratios (5:95, 15:85, and 25:75). Microgreen yields and content of inorganic ions, dietary fiber, proteins, ?-tocopherol, and ?-carotene were evaluated. Micro cauliflower showed the highest yield, as well as a higher content of mineral elements and ?-tocopherol (10.4 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight (FW)) than other genotypes. The use of nutrient solution at half strength gave both a high yield (0.23 g cm-2) and a desirable seedling height. By changing the NH4:NO3 molar ratio in the nutrient solution, no differences were found on yield and growing parameters, although the highest ?-carotene content (6.3 mg 100 g-1 FW) was found by using a NH4:NO3 molar ratio of 25:75. The lowest nitrate content (on average 6.8 g 100 g-1 dry weight) was found in micro broccoli and micro broccoli raab by using a nutrient solution with NH4:NO3 molar ratios of 25:75 and 5:95, respectively. Micro cauliflower fertigated with a NH4:NO3 molar ratio of 25:75 showed the highest dry matter (9.8 g 100 g-1 FW) and protein content (4.2 g 100 g-1 FW).
Project description:The Brazilian guava processing industry generates 5.5 M Mg guava waste year(-1) that could be recycled sustainably in guava agro-ecosystems as slow-release fertilizer. Our objectives were to elaborate nutrient budgets and to diagnose soil, foliar, and fruit nutrient balances in guava orchards fertilized with guava waste. We hypothesized that (1) guava waste are balanced fertilizer sources that can sustain crop yield and soil nutrient stocks, and (2) guava agroecosystems remain productive within narrow ranges of nutrient balances. A 6-year experiment was conducted in 8-year old guava orchard applying 0-9-18-27-36 Mg ha(-1) guava waste (dry mass basis) and the locally recommended mineral fertilization. Nutrient budgets were compiled as balance sheets. Foliar and fruit nutrient balances were computed as isometric log ratios to avoid data redundancy or resonance due to nutrient interactions and the closure to measurement unit. The N, P, and several other nutrients were applied in excess of crop removal while K was in deficit whatever the guava waste treatment. The foliar diagnostic accuracy reached 93% using isometric log ratios and knn classification, generating reliable foliar nutrient and concentration ranges at high yield level. The plant mined the soil K reserves without any significant effect on fruit yield and foliar nutrient balances involving K. High guava productivity can be reached at lower soil test K and P values than thought before. Parsimonious dosage of fresh guava waste should be supplemented with mineral K fertilizers to recycle guava waste sustainably in guava agroecosystems. Brazilian growers can benefit from this research by lowering soil test P and K threshold values to avoid over-fertilization and using fresh guava waste supplemented with mineral fertilizers, especially K. Because yield was negatively correlated with fruit acidity and Brix index, balanced plant nutrition and fertilization diagnosis will have to consider not only fruit yield targets but also fruit quality to meet requirements for guava processing.
Project description:More than 60% of phosphorus (P) taken up by rice (<i>Oryza</i> spp.) is accumulated in the grains at harvest and hence exported from fields, leading to a continuous removal of P. If P removed from fields is not replaced by P inputs then soil P stocks decline, with consequences for subsequent crops. Breeding rice genotypes with a low concentration of P in the grains could be a strategy to reduce maintenance fertilizer needs and slow soil P depletion in low input systems. This study aimed to assess variation in grain P concentrations among rice genotypes across diverse environments and evaluate the implications for field P balances at various grain yield levels. Multi-location screening experiments were conducted at different sites across Africa and Asia and yield components and grain P concentrations were determined at harvest. Genotypic variation in grain P concentration was evaluated while considering differences in P supply and grain yield using cluster analysis to group environments and boundary line analysis to determine minimum grain P concentrations at various yield levels. Average grain P concentrations across genotypes varied almost 3-fold among environments, from 1.4 to 3.9 mg g<sup>-1</sup>. Minimum grain P concentrations associated with grain yields of 150, 300, and 500 g m<sup>-2</sup> varied between 1.2 and 1.7, 1.3 and 1.8, and 1.7 and 2.2 mg g<sup>-1</sup> among genotypes respectively. Two genotypes, Santhi Sufaid and DJ123, were identified as potential donors for breeding for low grain P concentration. Improvements in P balances that could be achieved by exploiting this genotypic variation are in the range of less than 0.10 g P m<sup>-2</sup> (1 kg P ha<sup>-1</sup>) in low yielding systems, and 0.15-0.50 g P m<sup>-2</sup> (1.5-5.0 kg P ha<sup>-1</sup>) in higher yielding systems. Improved crop management and alternative breeding approaches may be required to achieve larger reductions in grain P concentrations in rice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to identify the factors that predict distant recurrence and survival outcome after patients with primary positive hormone receptor-positive (HR+) invasive breast cancer undergo complete excision for isolated local recurrence (ILR). METHODS:From January 2000 to December 2009, we performed a retrospective review of our database and identified 51 patients with HR + invasive breast cancer who underwent complete excision for ILR as a component of salvage therapy. The distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) from the time of ILR were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Of the 51 cases of ILR, 28 were of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and 23 were of chest wall recurrence. By receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, the cut-off time point for time to ILR was determined to be 29 months. According to time to ILR (?29 vs. >29 months) and primary tumor size (?2 vs. >2 cm), patients were divided into four risk groups as variables for analysis. On multivariate analysis, two independent prognostic factors for DMFS and OS after ILR were identified: risk groups (ILR?29 months with primary tumor size >2 cm vs. ILR>29 months with primary tumor size ? 2 cm, HR = 8.53 for DMFS and HR = 11.18 for OS) and primary tumor grade (2/3 vs. 1, HR = 6.10 for DMFS and 4.27 for OS). CONCLUSION:We demonstrated that poor DMFS and OS are associated with high risk group defined as short time to ILR (?29 months) with primary tumor size (>2 cm) and higher primary tumor grade (2/3) among patients with HR + invasive breast cancer treated with complete excision for ILR. Therapeutic strategies for ILR based on hormone therapy with new agents should be explored in future prospective studies, especially for patients with poor outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An implantable loop recorder (ILR) is an effective tool for diagnosing unexplained syncope (US). We examined the diagnostic utility of an ILR in detecting arrhythmic causes of US and determining which clinical factors are associated with pacemaker (PM) implantation. METHODS:This retrospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted from February 2006 to April 2018 at 11 hospitals in Korea. Eligible patients with recurrent US received an ILR to diagnose recurrent syncope and document arrhythmia. RESULTS:A total of 173 US patients (mean age, 67.6 ± 16.5 years; 107 men [61.8%]) who received an ILR after a negative conventional workup were enrolled. During a mean follow-up of 9.4 ± 11.1 months, 52 patients (30.1%) had recurrent syncope, and syncope-correlated arrhythmia was confirmed in 34 patients (19.7%). The ILR analysis showed sinus node dysfunction in 24 patients (70.6%), supraventricular tachyarrhythmia in 4 (11.8%), ventricular arrhythmia in 4 (11.8%), and sudden atrioventricular block in 2 (5.9%). Overall, ILR detected significant arrhythmia in 99 patients (57.2%) irrespective of syncope. Among patients with clinically relevant arrhythmia detected by ILR, PM implantation was performed in 60 (34.7%), an intra-cardiac defibrillator in 5 (2.9%), and catheter ablation in 4 (2.3%). In a Cox regression analysis, history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) (hazard ratio [HR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-4.12; P < 0.01) and any bundle branch block (BBB) (HR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.09-5.85; P = 0.03) were significantly associated with PM implantation. CONCLUSION:ILR is useful for detecting syncope-correlated arrhythmia in patients with US. The risk of PM is high in US patients with a history of PAF and any BBB.
Project description:Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation leaves behind around 20 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of biomass residue after harvest and processing. We investigated the potential for sequestering carbon (C) in soil with these residues by partially converting them into biochar (recalcitrant carbon-rich material). First, we modified the RothC model to allow changes in soil C arising from additions of sugarcane-derived biochar. Second, we evaluated the modified model against published field data, and found satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted soil C accumulation. Third, we used the model to explore the potential for soil C sequestration with sugarcane biochar in São Paulo State, Brazil. The results show a potential increase in soil C stocks by 2.35?±?0.4 t C ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup> in sugarcane fields across the State at application rates of 4.2 t biochar ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>. Scaling to the total sugarcane area of the State, this would be 50 Mt of CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent year<sup>-1</sup>, which is 31% of the CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent emissions attributed to the State in 2016. Future research should (a) further validate the model with field experiments; (b) make a full life cycle assessment of the potential for greenhouse gas mitigation, including additional effects of biochar applications on greenhouse gas balances.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To estimate the short- and long-term financial impact of early referral for implantable loop recorder diagnostic (ILR) versus conventional diagnostic pathway (CDP) in the management of unexplained syncope (US) in the Portuguese National Health Service (PNHS). METHODS: A Markov model was developed to estimate the expected number of hospital admissions due to US and its respective financial impact in patients implanted with ILR versus CDP. The average cost of a syncope episode admission was estimated based on Portuguese cost data and landmark papers. The financial impact of ILR adoption was estimated for a total of 197 patients with US, based on the number of syncope admissions per year in the PNHS. Sensitivity analysis was performed to take into account the effect of uncertainty in the input parameters (hazard ratio of death; number of syncope events per year; probabilities and unit costs of each diagnostic test; probability of trauma and yield of diagnosis) over three-year and lifetime horizons. RESULTS: The average cost of a syncope event was estimated to be between 1,760€ and 2,800€. Over a lifetime horizon, the total discounted costs of hospital admissions and syncope diagnosis for the entire cohort were 23% lower amongst patients in the ILR group compared with the CDP group (1,204,621€ for ILR, versus 1,571,332€ for CDP). CONCLUSION: The utilization of ILR leads to an earlier diagnosis and lower number of syncope hospital admissions and investigations, thus allowing significant cost offsets in the Portuguese setting. The result is robust to changes in the input parameter values, and cost savings become more pronounced over time.
Project description:Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) places a major constraint on lettuce production worldwide. The most sustainable strategy known to date for controlling BLS is the use of resistant cultivars. The nutrient elemental signature (ionome) of ten lettuce cultivars with three levels of resistance was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) to determine which nutrient balances are linked to resistance to BLS, and to assess the effect of Xcv infection on the ionome. The elemental concentrations were preprocessed with isometric log-ratios to define nutrient balances. Using this approach, 4 out of 11 univariate nutrient balances were found to significantly influence the resistance of lettuce cultivars to BLS (P < 0.05). These significant balances were the overall nutritional status balancing all measured nutrients with their complementary in the dry mass, as well as balances [Mn | Zn,Cu], [Zn | Cu], and [S,N | P]. Moreover, the infection of lettuce cultivars mostly affected the lettuce ionome on the [N,S | P] balance, where infection tended to lean the balance toward the N,S part relatively to P. This study shows that nutrient uptake in lettuce can be affected by BLS infection and that nutrient status influences resistance to BLS infection.
Project description:Restriction in nutrient acquisition is one of the primary causes for reduced growth and yield in water deficient soils. Sulfur (S) is an important secondary macronutrient that interacts with several stress metabolites to improve performance of food crops under various environmental stresses including drought. Increased S supply influences uptake and distribution of essential nutrients to confer nutritional homeostasis in plants exposed to limited water conditions. The regulation of S metabolism in plants, resulting in synthesis of numerous S-containing compounds, is crucial to the acclimation response to drought stress. Two different experiments were laid out in semi-controlled conditions to investigate the effects of different S sources on physiological and biochemical mechanisms of maize (Zea mays L. cv. P1574). Initially, the rate of S application in maize was optimized in terms of improved biomass and nutrient uptake. The maize seedlings were grown in sandy loam soil fertigated with various doses (0, 15, 30 and 45?kg?ha-1) of different S fertilizers viz. K2SO4, FeSO4, CuSO4 and Na2SO4. The optimized S dose of each fertilizer was later tested in second experiment to determine its role in improving drought tolerance of maize plants. A marked effect of S fertilization was observed on biomass accumulation and nutrients uptake in maize. In addition, the optimized doses significantly increased the gas exchange characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes to improve yield of maize. Among various S sources, application of K2SO4 resulted in maximum photosynthetic rate (43%), stomatal conductance (98%), transpiration rate (61%) and sub-stomatal conductance (127%) compared to no S supply. Moreover, it also increased catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities by 55, 87 and 65%, respectively that ultimately improved maize yield by 33% with respect to control under water deficit conditions. These results highlight the importance of S fertilizers that would likely be helpful for farmers to get better yield in water deficient soils.
Project description:Sweet basil (<i>Ocimum basilicum</i> L.) is a highly versatile and globally popular culinary herb, and a rich source of aromatic and bioactive compounds. Particularly for leafy vegetables, nutrient management allows a more efficient and sustainable improvement of crop yield and quality. In this work, we investigated the effects of balanced modulation of the concentration of two antagonist anions (nitrate and chlorine) in basil. Specifically, we evaluated the changes in yield and leaf metabolic profiles in response to four different NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>:Cl<sup>-</sup> ratios in two consecutive harvests, using a full factorial design. Our work indicated that the variation of the nitrate-chloride ratio exerts a large effect on both metabolomic profile and yield in basil, which cannot be fully explained only by an anion-anion antagonist outcome. The metabolomic reprogramming involved different biochemical classes of compounds, with distinctive traits as a function of the different nutrient ratios. Such changes involved not only a response to nutrients availability, but also to redox imbalance and oxidative stress. A network of signaling compounds, including NO and phytohormones, underlined the modeling of metabolomic signatures. Our work highlighted the potential and the magnitude of the effect of nutrient solution management in basil and provided an advancement towards understanding the metabolic response to anion antagonism in plants.