Data Mapping From Food Diaries to Augment the Amount and Frequency of Foods Measured Using Short Food Questionnaires.
ABSTRACT: Collecting accurate and detailed dietary intake data is costly at a national level. Accordingly, limited dietary assessment tools such as Short Food Questionnaires (SFQs) are increasingly used in large surveys. This paper describes a novel method linking matched datasets to improve the quality of dietary data collected. Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) is a nationally representative longitudinal study of infants in the Republic of Ireland which used a SFQ (with no portion sizes) to assess the intake of "healthy" and "unhealthy" food and drink by 3 years old preschool children. The National Preschool Nutrition Survey (NPNS) provides the most accurate estimates available for dietary intake of young children in Ireland using a detailed 4 days weighed food diary. A mapping algorithm was applied using food name, cooking method, and food description to fill all GUI food groups with information from the NPNS food datafile which included the target variables, frequency, and amount. The augmented data were analyzed to examine all food groups described in NPNS and GUI and what proportion of foods were covered, non-covered, or partially-covered by GUI food groups, as a percentage of the total number of consumptions. The term non-covered indicated a specific food consumption that could not be mapped using a GUI food group. "High sugar" food items that were non-covered included ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, fruit juice, sugars, syrups, preserves and sweeteners, and ice-cream. The average proportion of consumption frequency and amount of foods not covered by GUI was 44 and 34%, respectively. Through mapping food codes in this manner, it was possible, using density plots, to visualize the relative performance of the brief dietary instrument (SFQ) compared to the more detailed food diary (FD). The SFQ did not capture a substantial portion of habitual foods consumed by 3-year olds in Ireland. Researchers interested in focussing on specific foods, could use this approach to assess the proportion of foods covered, non-covered, or partially-covered by reference to the mapped food database. These results can be used to improve SFQs for future studies and improve the capacity to identify diet-disease relationships.
Project description:Estimating dietary intake is challenging in patients with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to calibrate the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire (BFFQ) using 3-day food diary records among patients on dialysis.Data from 3-day food diary records from 146 patients new to dialysis were reviewed and entered into National Cancer Institute self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24), a web-based dietary interview system. The information was then re-entered omitting foods reported in the diaries that were not in the BFFQ to generate a "BFFQ-restricted" set of intakes. We modeled each major dietary component (i.e., energy [total calories], protein, carbohydrate, fat) separately using linear regression. The main independent variables were BFFQ-restricted food diary estimates computed as the average of the 3 days of diaries, restricted to items included in the BFFQ, with the unrestricted 3-day food diary averages as dependent variables.The BFFQ-restricted diary energy estimate of 1,325 ± 545 kcal was 87% of the energy intake in the full food diary (1,510.3 ± 510.4, P < .0001). The BFFQ-restricted diary carbohydrate intake was 83% of the full food diary (156.7 ± 78.7 g vs. 190.4 ± 72.7, P < .0001). The BFFQ-restricted fat intake was 90% of the full-diary-reported fat intake (50.1 ± 24.1 g vs. 56.4 ± 21.6 g, P < .0001). Daily protein intake assessments were not statistically different by BFFQ-restricted diary and full diary assessment (63.1 ± 28.5 vs. 64.1 ± 21.4 g, P = .60). The associations between BFFQ-restricted diary intake and unrestricted intake were linear. Three-day diary-reported intake could be estimated from BFFQ-restricted intake with r2 ranging from 0.36 to 0.56 (P < .0001 for energy [total calories], protein, carbohydrate, and fat). Final equations did not include adjustments for age, sex, or race because the patterns of associations were not significantly different.Energy and macronutrient estimates by BFFQ are lower than estimates from 3-day food diaries, but simple calibration equations can be used to approximate total intake from BFFQ responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Food source and eating location are important factors associated with the quality of dietary intake. In Chile the main food sources and eating locations of preschool children and adolescents and how these relate to dietary quality are unknown. METHODS:We analyzed 24 h dietary recalls collected in 2016 from low- and middle-income Chilean preschool children (3-6 years, n = 839) and adolescents (12-14 years, n = 643) from southeastern Santiago. Surveys collected the food source and eating location for each food reported during the recall. We estimated the mean intake of calories and key nutrients of concern, such as saturated fats, total sugars, and sodium, by food source and eating location. RESULTS:Foods obtained and eaten at home contributed the greatest proportion of total calories and the key nutrients of concern. Foods obtained at home tended to have lower caloric densities but higher sugar and sodium densities than foods obtained away from home in both age groups. With regard to location, for preschool children foods consumed at home had lower caloric and sugar densities than foods eaten at school, while for adolescents foods consumed at home had lower caloric, saturated fat, and sugar densities than foods eaten at school. For both children and adolescents, home was the primary source of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) calories. SSBs were important calorie contributors among foods across all settings, but the highest absolute amount of calories from these beverages was consumed at home. CONCLUSIONS:While most of Chilean youths' calories and key nutrients of concern are obtained and consumed at home, these foods tended to have lower caloric densities than foods obtained and consumed away from home. Home was the main food source for SSBs, but the relative consumption of these beverages was high in all eating locations. More research will be needed to inform and evaluate policies and interventions to improve children's dietary quality across settings.
Project description:To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns.Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation.Parental physical activity (p = 0.03-0.008), size of backyard (p = 0.001) and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003) were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p < 0.001) and presence of playstation (p = 0.02) were associated with more indoor sedentary time. Higher fruit and vegetable intake was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.02) and restricting high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.009). Lower intake of non-core foods was associated with restricting children's access to fruit juice (p = 0.007), cordial/carbonated drinks (p < 0.001) and high fat/sugar snacks (p = 0.003). Lower fruit and vegetable intake was associated with reminding child to 'eat up' (p = 0.007) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). Higher intake of non-core foods was associated with giving food 'treats' (p = 0.03) and offering food rewards to eat main meal (p = 0.04). The availability of food groups in the home was associated with children's intake of these foods (fruit and vegetables, p < 0.001; fat in dairy, p = <0.001; sweetened beverages, p = 0.004-<0.001; non-core foods, p = 0.01-<0.001).Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. METHODS: We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2-4 years, n=207), school-age children (5-7 years, n=157), parents of young children (n=446), and older adults (n=149). We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds (acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin) based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study. RESULTS: Cancer benchmark levels were exceeded by all children (100%) for arsenic, dieldrin, DDE, and dioxins. Non-cancer benchmarks were exceeded by >95% of preschool-age children for acrylamide and by 10% of preschool-age children for mercury. Preschool-age children had significantly higher estimated intakes of 6 of 11 compounds compared to school-age children (p<0.0001 to p=0.02). Based on self-reported dietary data, the greatest exposure to pesticides from foods included in this analysis were tomatoes, peaches, apples, peppers, grapes, lettuce, broccoli, strawberries, spinach, dairy, pears, green beans, and celery. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods (meat, dairy, and fish) to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.
Project description:School meals make significant contributions to healthy dietary behaviour, at a time when eating habits and food preferences are being formed. We provide an overview of the approaches to the provision, regulation, and improvement of preschool and primary school meals in the UK, Sweden, and Australia, three countries which vary in their degree of centralisation and regulation of school meals. Sweden has a centralised approach; all children receive free meals, and a pedagogical approach to meals is encouraged. Legislation demands that meals are nutritious. The UK system is varied and decentralised. Meals in most primary schools are regulated by food-based standards, but preschool-specific meal standards only exist in Scotland. The UK uses food groups (starchy foods, fruit and vegetables, proteins and dairy) in a healthy plate approach. Australian States and Territories all employ guidelines for school canteen food, predominantly using a "traffic light" approach outlining recommended and discouraged foods; however, most children bring food from home and are not covered by this guidance. The preschool standards state that food provided should be nutritious. We find that action is often lacking in the preschool years, and suggest that consistent policies, strong incentives for compliance, systematic monitoring, and an acknowledgement of the broader school eating environment (including home provided food) would be beneficial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The application of technology in the area of dietary assessment has resulted in the development of an array of tools, which are often specifically designed for a particular country or region. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe the development, validation, and user evaluation of a Web-based dietary assessment tool "Foodbook24." METHODS:Foodbook24 is a Web-based, dietary assessment tool consisting of a 24-hour dietary recall (24HDR) and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) alongside supplementary questionnaires. Validity of the 24HDR component was assessed by 40 participants, who completed 3 nonconsecutive, self-administered 24HDR using Foodbook24 and a 4-day semi-weighed food diary at separate time points. Participants also provided fasted blood samples and 24-hour urine collections for the identification of biomarkers of nutrient and food group intake during each recording period. Statistical analyses on the nutrient and food group intake data derived from each method were performed in SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc). Mean nutrient intakes (and standard deviations) recorded using each method of dietary assessment were calculated. Spearman and Pearson correlations, Wilcoxon Signed Rank and Paired t test were used to investigate the agreement and differences between the nutritional output from Foodbook24 (test method) and the 4-day semi-weighed food diary (reference method). Urinary and plasma biomarkers of nutrient intake were used as an objective validation of Foodbook24. To investigate the user acceptability of Foodbook24, participants from different studies involved with Foodbook24 were asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire. RESULTS:For nutrient intake, correlations between the dietary assessment methods were acceptable to very good in strength and statistically significant (range r=.32 to .75). There were some significant differences between reported mean intakes of micronutrients recorded by both methods; however, with the exception of protein (P=.03), there were no significant differences in the reporting of energy or macronutrient intake. Of the 19 food groups investigated in this analysis, there were significant differences between 6 food groups reported by both methods. Spearman correlations for biomarkers of nutrient and food group intake and reported intake were similar for both methods. A total of 118 participants evaluated the acceptability of Foodbook24. The tool was well-received and the majority, 67.8% (80/118), opted for Foodbook24 as the preferred method for future dietary intake assessment when compared against a traditional interviewer led recall and semi-weighed food diary. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study demonstrate the validity and user acceptability of Foodbook24. The results also highlight the potential of Foodbook24, a Web-based dietary assessment method, and present a viable alternative to nutritional surveillance in Ireland.
Project description:University students are commonly overlooked when diet of populations is measured and there is a lack of comprehensive dietary assessment in whole university student populations. To measure diet of undergraduate students, a new online 121-item Food Recall Checklist (FoRC) was designed as an alternative to a non-weighed record (food diary). This article reports the comparison between the new dietary assessment method (FoRC) and the food diary as a measure of energy (kJ), fat (g), Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP) (g), fruit and vegetables (g), breakfast cereal (g) and bread (g) and alcohol (units) intake.Fifty-three students at the University of Aberdeen completed four days of FoRC then four days food diary. Median agreement and correlation between the two methods was assessed for foods and nutrients using the Spearman's rank correlation co-efficient and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Agreement between FoRC and food diary was assessed using the Bland-Altman method.The mean time taken to complete FoRC for one day was 7.4 minutes. Intakes of fat (g and % food energy), NSP and bread were similar between FoRC and the food diary. Median energy intake was 8185 kJ in the food diary and 8007 kJ in FoRC. However, FoRC recorded significantly lower intakes of energy and alcohol and significantly higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and breakfast cereal compared with the food diary. There was considerable variation in agreement between methods at the individual level. For all variables except alcohol and percentage energy from fat, correlation co-efficients were statistically significant and greater than 0.5.At the group level, four days of FoRC showed good median agreement with the food diary and there was high correlation between methods for most foods and nutrients. This suggests that this novel method of assessing diet can provide a useful alternative for assessing group mean intakes but that individual intakes may need to be interpreted with care.
Project description:We described the contribution of ultra-processed foods in the U.K. diet and its association with the overall dietary content of nutrients known to affect the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Cross-sectional data from the U.K. National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008?2014) were analysed. Food items collected using a four-day food diary were classified according to the NOVA system. The average energy intake was 1764 kcal/day, with 30.1% of calories coming from unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 4.2% from culinary ingredients, 8.8% from processed foods, and 56.8% from ultra-processed foods. As the ultra-processed food consumption increased, the dietary content of carbohydrates, free sugars, total fats, saturated fats, and sodium increased significantly while the content of protein, fibre, and potassium decreased. Increased ultra-processed food consumption had a remarkable effect on average content of free sugars, which increased from 9.9% to 15.4% of total energy from the first to the last quintile. The prevalence of people exceeding the upper limits recommended for free sugars and sodium increased by 85% and 55%, respectively, from the lowest to the highest ultra-processed food quintile. Decreasing the dietary share of ultra-processed foods may substantially improve the nutritional quality of diets and contribute to the prevention of diet-related NCDs.
Project description:Valid and reliable non-objective assessments of guardian and preschool personnel reports are necessary when estimating young children's health behaviors. This study examines the test-retest reproducibility of (a) guardian and preschool personnel questionnaires about correlates of preschool-aged children's energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), (b) a screen time diary, and (c) a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reported by a guardian. A sample of guardians having preschool-aged children (N = 69) and preschool personnel (N = 61) completed questionnaires twice within a five-week time interval during April?May 2018 in Finland. Intra-class correlations (ICC), kappas, and percentage agreement were calculated to test the test-retest-reproducibility. The guardian questionnaire for correlates of the children's EBRBs demonstrated mainly moderate to good reproducibility whereas the preschool personnel questionnaire of preschool correlates for children's EBRBs was mostly good. The reproducibility of the screen time diary was good and FFQ food items showed mostly moderate reproducibility. The reproducibility of the FFQ foods items for vegetables, fruit, and berries was slightly better for the amount consumed than for the frequency of consumption. To conclude, all the instruments are acceptable for use in future studies.
Project description:Diet is a modifiable contributor to many chronic diseases including childhood obesity. The local food environment may influence children's diet but this area of research is understudied. This study explores if distance to and the number of supermarkets and convenience stores in the local area around households are associated with dietary quality in nine year olds whilst controlling for household level socio-economic factors. This is a secondary analysis of Wave 1 (2007/2008) of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) Child Cohort Study, a sample of 8568 nine year olds from the Republic of Ireland. Dietary intake was assessed using a short, 20-item parent reported food frequency questionnaire and was used to create a dietary quality score (DQS) whereby a higher score indicated a higher diet quality. Socio-economic status was measured using household class, household income, and maternal education. Food availability was measured as road network distance to and the number of supermarkets and convenience stores around households. Separate fixed effects regression models assessed the association between local area food availability and dietary quality, stratified by sex. The DQS ranged from -5 to 25 (mean 9.4, SD 4.2). Mean DQS was higher in those who lived furthest (distance in quintiles) from their nearest supermarket (p<0.001), and in those who lived furthest from their nearest convenience store (p<0.001). After controlling for socio-economic characteristics of the household, there was insufficient evidence to suggest that distance to the nearest supermarket or convenience store was associated with dietary quality in girls or boys. The number of supermarkets or convenience stores within 1000 m of the household was not associated with dietary quality. Food availability had a limited effect on dietary quality in this study. Issues associated with conceptualising and measuring the food environment may explain the findings of the current study.