CD44 directed nanomicellar payload delivery platform for selective anticancer effect and tumor specific imaging of triple negative breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumor subtype, lacking estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) receptors. Thus, early detection and targeted therapy of TNBC is an urgent need. Herein, we have developed a CD44 targeting Hyaluronic Acid (HA) decorated biocompatible oligomer, containing FDA approved vitamin E TPGS and Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA) (HA-SMA-TPGS) for targeting TNBC. The self-assembling HA-SMA-TPGS was encapsulated with poorly water soluble, potent curcumin analogue (CDF) to form nanomicelles (NM), HA-SMA-TPGS-CDF has demonstrated excellent nanoparticle characteristics for parenteral delivery. The targeted NM can selectively kill TNBC cells through CD44 mediated apoptosis pathway. Tumor imaging using phase-2 clinical trial near infrared (NIR)-fluorescent dye (S0456) conjugate, HA-SMA-TPGS-S0456 showed excellent TNBC tumor accumulation with minimum liver and spleen uptake. To our best of knowledge, for the first time, we are reporting a promising platform for CD44 mediated multimodal NIR imaging and cytotoxin delivery to TNBC.
Project description:Well-regulated differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts (MF) is critical for skin wound healing. Neoexpression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), an established marker for MF differentiation, is driven by TGF? receptor (TGF?R)-mediated signaling. Hyaluronan (HA) and its receptor CD44 may also participate in this process. To further understand this process, primary mouse skin fibroblasts were isolated and treated in vitro with recombinant TGF-?1 (rTGF-?1) to induce ?-SMA expression. CD44 expression was also increased. Paradoxically, CD44 knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) led to increased ?-SMA expression and ?-SMA-containing stress fibers. Removal of extracellular HA or inhibition of HA synthesis had no effect on ?-SMA levels, suggesting a dispensable role for HA. Exploration of mechanisms linking CD44 knockdown to ?-SMA induction, using RNAi and chemical inhibitors, revealed a requirement for noncanonical TGF?R signaling through p38MAPK. Decreased monomeric G-actin but increased filamentous F-actin following CD44 RNAi suggested a possible role for myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a known regulator of ?-SMA transcription and itself regulated by G-actin binding. CD44 RNAi promoted nuclear accumulation of MRTF and the binding to its transcriptional cofactor SRF. MRTF knockdown abrogated the increased ?-SMA expression caused by CD44 RNAi, suggesting that MRTF is required for CD44-mediated regulation of ?-SMA. Finally, chemical inhibition of p38MAPK reversed nuclear MRTF accumulation after rTGF-?1 addition or CD44 RNAi, revealing a central involvement of p38MAPK in both cases. We concluded that CD44 regulates ?-SMA gene expression through cooperation between two intersecting signaling pathways, one mediated by G-actin/MRTF and the other via TGF?R/p38MAPK.
Project description:Drug resistance is one of the significant clinical burden in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The development of drug resistance is attributed to many factors, including impairment of apoptosis, elevation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX, a marker of tumor hypoxia), and infiltration of tumorigenic immune cells. To alleviate the drug resistance, we have used Sorafenib (Sor) in combination with tumor hypoxia directed nanoparticle (NP) loaded with a new class of apoptosis inducer, CFM 4.16 (C4.16), namely CA IX-C4.16. The NP is designed to selectively deliver the payload to the hypoxic tumor (core), provoke superior cell death in parental (WT) and Everolimus-resistant (Evr-res) RCC and selectively downmodulate tumorigenic M2-macrophage. Copper-free 'click' chemistry was utilized for conjugating SMA-TPGS with Acetazolamide (ATZ, a CA IX-specific targeting ligand). The NP was further tagged with a clinically approved NIR dye (S0456) for evaluating hypoxic tumor core penetration and organ distribution. Imaging of tumor spheroid treated with NIR dye-labeled CA IX-SMA-TPGS revealed remarkable tumor core penetration that was modulated by CA IX-mediated targeting in hypoxic-A498 RCC cells. The significant cell killing effect with synergistic combination index (CI) of CA IX-C4.16 and Sor treatment suggests efficient reversal of Evr-resistance in A498?cells. The CA IX directed nanoplatform in combination with Sor has shown multiple benefits in overcoming drug resistance through (i) inhibition of p-AKT, (ii) upregulation of tumoricidal M1 macrophages resulting in induction of caspase 3/7 mediated apoptosis of Evr-res A498?cells in macrophage-RCC co-culturing condition, (iii) significant in vitro and in vivo Evr-res A498 tumor growth inhibition as compared to individual therapy, and (iv) untraceable liver and kidney toxicity in mice. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging of CA IX-SMA-TPGS-S0456 in Evr-res A498 RCC model exhibited significant accumulation of CA IX-oligomer in tumor core with >3-fold higher tumor uptake as compared to control. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study demonstrates versatile tumor hypoxia directed nanoplatform that can work in synergy with existing drugs for reversing drug-resistance in RCC accompanied with re-education of tumor-associated macrophages, that could be applied universally for several hypoxic tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Realizing the therapeutic benefits of quercetin is mostly hampered by its low water solubility and poor absorption. In light of the advantages of nanovehicles in the delivery of flavanoids, we aimed to deliver quercetin perorally with nanomicelles made from the diblock copolymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-derivatized phosphatidylethanolamine (PE).<h4>Methods</h4>Quercetin-loaded nanomicelles were prepared by using the film casting method, and were evaluated in terms of drug incorporation efficiency, micelle size, interaction with Caco-2 cells, and anticancer activity in the A549 lung cancer cell line and murine xenograft model.<h4>Results</h4>The incorporation efficiency into the nanomicelles was ?88.9% when the content of quercetin was up to 4% w/w, with sizes of 15.4-18.5 nm and polydispersity indices of <0.250. Solubilization of quercetin by the nanomicelles increased its aqueous concentration by 110-fold. The quercetin nanomicelles were stable when tested in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) and intestinal (pH 7.4) fluids, and were non-toxic to the Caco-2 cells as reflected by reversible reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance and ?25% lactose dehydrogenase release. The anticancer activity of quercetin could be significantly improved over the free drug through the nanomicellar formulation when tested using the A549 cancer cell line and murine xenograft model. The nanomicellar quercetin formulation was well tolerated by the tumor-bearing animals, with no significant weight loss observed at the end of the 10-week study period.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A stable PEG-PE nanomicellar formulation of quercetin was developed with enhanced peroral anticancer activity and no apparent toxicity to the intestinal epithelium.
Project description:Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is considered as the most onerous cancer subtype, lacking the estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Evaluating new markers is an unmet need for improving targeted therapy against TNBC. TNBC depends on several factors, including hypoxia development, which contributes to therapy resistance, immune evasion, and tumor stroma formation. In this study, we studied the curcumin analogue (3,4-Difluorobenzylidene Curcumin; CDF) encapsulated bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle for tumor targeting. For tumor targeting, we conjugated Acetazolamide (ATZ) with CDF and encapsulated it in the BSA to form a nanoparticle (namely BSA-CDF-ATZ). The in vitro cytotoxicity study suggested that BSA-CDF-ATZ is more efficient when compared to free CDF. The BSA-CDF-ATZ nanoparticles showed significantly higher cell killing in hypoxic conditions compared to normoxic conditions, suggesting better internalization of the nanoparticles into cancer cells under hypoxia. Fluorescent-dye labeled BSA-CDF-ATZ revealed higher cell uptake of the nanoparticle compared to free dye indicative of better delivery, substantiated by a high rate of apoptosis-mediated cell death compared to free CDF. The significantly higher tumor accumulation and low liver and spleen uptake in TNBC patient-derived tumor xenograft models confirm the significant potential of BSA-CDF-ATZ for targeted TNBC imaging and therapy.
Project description:Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) represent the most aggressive and clinically relevant breast carcinomas. On the basis of specific molecular signature, the majority of TNBC can be classified as basal-like breast carcinoma. Here, we report data showing that in basal-like breast carcinoma cells ?Np63 is capable of sustaining the production of the hyaluronic acid (HA), one of the major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). At molecular level, we found that ?Np63 regulates the expression of HA-related genes, such as the HA synthase HAS3, the hyaluronidase HYAL-1 and CD44, the major HA cell membrane receptor. By controlling this pathway, ?Np63 contributes to maintain the self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells. Importantly, high HAS3 expression is a negative prognostic factor of TNBC patients. Our data suggest that in basal-type breast carcinoma ?Np63 might favor a HA-rich microenviroment, which can sustain tumor proliferation and stemness.
Project description:Amentoflavone (AMF) is a kind of biflavonoids existing in Ginkgo biloba leaves. It has many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, anti-tumor and inducing apoptosis. However, its solubility and bioavailability are poor and there are a few studies on it <i>in vivo</i>. In this study, to improve its solubility and bioavailability, the nanomicelles were prepared with TPGS and soluplus as carriers for the first time. The particle size, Zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, stability, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and metabolites in rats were studied. Cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and metabolites in rats of AMF-loaded TPGS/soluplus mixed micelles were compared with those of AMF. As a result, AMF-loaded TPGS/soluplus mixed micelles with a particle size of 67.33 ± 2.01 nm and Zeta potential of -0.84133 ± 0.041405 mV were successfully prepared. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the mixed nanomicelles were 99.18 ± 0.76% and 2.47 ± 0.01%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of the mixed micelles were stable within 60 d, and the cytotoxicity of the mixed micelles was much greater than that of AMF monomers. Thirty-four kinds of metabolites of AMF were identified in rats. The metabolites were mainly distributed in rat feces. No metabolites were detected in bile and plasma. 14 kinds of metabolites of the mixed micelles in rats were detected, including 11 in feces, 6 in urine, and 3 in plasma, which indicated that the bioavailability of AMF has been improved. And the toxicity to cancer cells was enhanced, which laid a foundation for the development of new drugs.
Project description:Gambogic acid (GA) is a naturally derived potent anticancer agent with extremely poor biocompatibility. In the present study, a novel of redox/pH dual-responsive multifunctional magnetic complex micelle (sPEG/HA/CSO-SS-Hex/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/GA), which consisted of a reducible hexadecanol-modified chitosan oligosaccharide polymer micelle (CSO-SS-Hex) coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) and DCA grafted sheddable PEG-PLL (sPEG) copolymers and loaded with gambogic acid (GA) and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoparticles were developed for parenteral delivery for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The ex vivo study showed that the sPEG shielded cationic HA/CSO-SS-Hex/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/GA core at physiological pH but quickly shed off to re-expose the core due to its charge reversible property. The sPEG/HA/CSO-SS-Hex/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/GA micelles effectively facilitated tumor-targeted GA delivery by HA, which is a targeting ligand for CD44 receptor of TNBC cells, meanwhile increase GA uptake at the acidic condition but diminished the drug uptake at neutral pH. The in vitro cellular uptake study and in vivo biodistribution and antitumor activity of the formulations were determined, all results showed that the complex micelle enhanced TNBC tumor cellular uptake and fast drug release due to the combined effect of magnet targeting, CD44 receptor-mediated internalization and redox/pH dual-responsive drug release. Hence, tumor-targeted delivery of GA with redox/pH dual-responsive multifunctional magnetic complex micelle sPEG/HA/CSO-SS-Hex/Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>/GA might have potential implications for the chemotherapy of TNBC.
Project description:Fluorescent imaging agents that can specifically highlight tumor cells could have a significant impact on image-guided tumor removal. Here, fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) derived from hyaluronic acid (HA) are investigated. HA is a ligand for the receptor CD44, which is a common biomarker present on many primary tumor cells, cancer-initiating cells, and tumor-associated fibroblasts. In addition, a family of enzymes that degrade HA, called hyaluronidases (HYALs), are also overexpressed with increased activity in many tumors. We report the design and development of a panel of targeted imaging agents using the near-infrared (NIR) dye, Cy7.5, that was directly conjugated to hydrophobically-modified HA. Two different molecular weights of HA, 10kDa and 100kDa, and three different degrees of hydrophobic moiety conjugation (0, 10, and 30mol%) were utilized to develop a panel of NPs with variable size that ranged from 50 to 400nm hydrodynamic diameter (HD) depending HA molecular weight, extent of fluorescence quenching (25-50%), kinetics of cellular uptake, and targeting to CD44+ cells. The kinetics and energy-dependence of cellular uptake in breast and prostate cancer cell lines, MDA-MB 231 and PC-3 cells, respectively, showed increased uptake with longer incubation times (at 4 and 8h compared to 1h), as well as uptake at 37°C but not 4°C, which indicated energy-dependent endocytosis. NP uptake studies in the presence of excess free HA showed that pre-treatment of cells with excess high molecular weight (MW) free HA decreased NP uptake by up to 50%, while no such trend was observed with low MW HA. These data lay the foundation for selection of optimized HA-derived NPs for image-guided surgery.Here, hyaluronic acid (HA), a well-studied biomacromolecule, is modified with a near infrared fluorophore and a hydrophobic moiety. The significance of this work, especially for imaging applications, is that the impact of HA molecular weight and the hydrophobic moiety conjugation degree on fluorescence and cell interaction can be predicted. With respect to existing literature, the eventual use of these HA-based NPs is image-guided surgery; thus, we focus on the dye, Cy7.5, for conjugation, which is more NIR than most existing HA literature. Furthermore, HA is a ligand for CD44, which is associated with cancer and tumor microenvironment cells. Systematic studies in this work highlight that HA can be tuned to maximize or minimize CD44 binding.
Project description:The third-generation designer amphiphile/surfactant, "Nok" (i.e., SPGS-550-M; ?-sitosterol methoxypolyethyleneglycol succinate), soon to be commercially available from Aldrich, can be prepared in two steps using an abundant plant feedstock and ?-sitosterol, together with succinic anhydride and PEG-550-M. Upon dissolution in water, it forms nanomicelles that serve as nanoreactors, which can be characterized by both cryo-TEM and dynamic light scattering analyses. Several transition-metal-catalyzed reactions have been run under micellar conditions to evaluate this surfactant relative to results obtained in nanoparticles composed of TPGS-750-M (i.e., a second-generation surfactant). It is shown that Nok usually affords yields that are, in general, as good or better than those typically obtained with TPGS-750-M, and yet is far less costly.
Project description:A robust and green protocol for the reduction of functionalized nitroarenes to the corresponding primary amines has been developed. It relies on inexpensive zinc dust in water containing nanomicelles derived from the commercially available designer surfactant TPGS-750-M. This mild process takes place at room temperature and tolerates a wide range of functionalities. Highly selective reductions can also be achieved in the presence of common protecting groups.