Identification of Carboxylesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Acetylcholinesterase, Paraoxonase, and Albumin Pseudoesterase in Guinea Pig Plasma through Nondenaturing Gel Electrophoresis.
ABSTRACT: Drugs to protect against nerve agent toxicity are tested in animals. The current preferred small animal model is guinea pigs because their plasma bioscavenging capacity resembles that of NHP. We stained nondenaturing polyacrylamide slab gels with a variety of substrates, inhibitors, and antibodies to identify the esterases in heparinized guinea pig plasma. An intense band of carboxylesterase activity migrated behind albumin. Minor carboxylesterase bands were revealed after background activity from paraoxonase was inhibited by using EDTA. The major butyrylcholinesterase band was a disulfide-linked dimer. Incubation with the antihuman butyrylcholinesterase antibody B2 18-5 shifted the butyrylcholinesterase dimer band to slower migrating complexes. Carboxylesterases were distinguished from butyrylcholinesterase by their sensitivity to inhibition by bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Acetylcholinesterase tetramers formed a complex with the antihuman acetylcholinesterase antibody HR2. Organophosphorus toxicants including cresyl saligenin phosphate, dichlorvos, and chlorpyrifos oxon irreversibly inhibited the serine esterases but not paraoxonase. Albumin pseudoesterase activity was seen in gels stained with ?- or ?-naphthyl acetate and fast blue RR. We conclude that guinea pig plasma has 2 types of carboxylesterase, butyrylcholinesterase dimers and 5 minor butyrylcholinesterase forms, a small amount of acetylcholinesterase tetramers, paraoxonase, and albumin pseudoesterase activity. A knockout mouse with no carboxylesterase activity in plasma is available and may prove to be a better model for studies of nerve agent toxicology than guinea pigs.
Project description:Mouse blood contains four esterases that detoxify organophosphorus compounds: carboxylesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, and paraoxonase-1. In contrast human blood contains the latter three enzymes but not carboxylesterase. Organophosphorus compound toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Symptoms of intoxication appear after approximately 50% of the acetylcholinesterase is inhibited. However, complete inhibition of carboxylesterase and butyrylcholinesterase has no known effect on an animal's well being. Paraoxonase hydrolyzes organophosphorus compounds and is not inhibited by them. Our goal was to determine the effect of plasma carboxylesterase deficiency on response to sublethal doses of 10 organophosphorus toxicants and one carbamate pesticide. Homozygous plasma carboxylesterase deficient ES1(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates were observed for toxic signs and changes in body temperature after treatment with a single sublethal dose of toxicant. Inhibition of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and plasma carboxylesterase was measured. It was found that wild-type mice were protected from the toxicity of 12.5mg/kg parathion applied subcutaneously. However, both genotypes responded similarly to paraoxon, cresyl saligenin phosphate, diisopropylfluorophosphate, diazinon, dichlorvos, cyclosarin thiocholine, tabun thiocholine, and carbofuran. An unexpected result was the finding that transdermal application of chlorpyrifos at 100mg/kg and chlorpyrifos oxon at 14mg/kg was lethal to wild-type but not to ES1(-/-) mice, showing that with this organochlorine, the presence of carboxylesterase was harmful rather than protective. It was concluded that carboxylesterase in mouse plasma protects from high toxicity agents, but the amount of carboxylesterase in plasma is too low to protect from low toxicity compounds that require high doses to inhibit acetylcholinesterase.
Project description:The esterase activity of guinea-pig serum was investigated. A 3-fold purification was achieved by removing the serum albumin by Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity chromatography. The partially purified enzyme preparation had carboxylesterase and cholinesterase activities of 1.0 and 0.22 mumol of substrate/min per mg of protein respectively. The esterases were labelled with [3H]di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DiPF) and separated electrophoretically on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels. Two main labelled bands were detected: band I had Mr 80 000 and bound 18-19 pmol of [3H]DiPF/mg of protein, and band II had Mr 58 000 and bound 7 pmol of [3H]DiPF/mg of protein. Bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate (a selective inhibitor of carboxylesterase) inhibited most of the labelling of bands I and II. The residual labelling (8%) of band I but not band II (4%) was removed by preincubation of partially purified enzyme preparation with neostigmine (a selective inhibitor of cholinesterase). Paraoxon totally prevented the [3H]DiPF labelling of the partially purified enzyme preparation. Isoelectrofocusing of [3H]DiPF-labelled and uninhibited partially purified enzyme preparation revealed that there were at least two separate carboxylesterases, which had pI3.9 and pI6.2, a cholinesterase enzyme (pI4.3) and an unidentified protein that reacts with [3H]DiPF and has a pI5.0. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of these enzymes showed that the carboxylesterase enzymes at pI3.9 and pI6.2 corresponded to the 80 000-Mr subunit (band I) and 58 000-Mr subunit (band II). The cholinesterase enzyme was also composed of 80 000-Mr subunits (i.e. the residual labelling in band I after bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate treatment). The unidentified protein at pI5.0 corresponded to the residual labelling in band II (Mr 58 000), which was insensitive to neostigmine and bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. These studies show that the carboxylesterase activity of guinea-pig serum is the result of at least two separate and distinct enzymes.
Project description:We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine O?. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its k cat/K m for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the ?-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1). We discuss the use of pNBE as a surrogate scaffold for the mammalian esterases, and the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases.
Project description:Exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides can lead to neurotoxic effects through inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme can detoxify oxon derivatives of some organophosphates. Lower PON1, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities have been reported in newborns relative to adults, suggesting increased susceptibility to organophosphate exposure in young children. We determined PON1, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities in Mexican-American mothers and their 9-year-old children (n=202 pairs) living in an agricultural community. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare enzymatic activities among mothers and their children, and analysis of variance to identify factors associated with enzyme activities. Substrate-specific PON1 activities were slightly lower in children than their mothers; however, these differences were only statistically significant for the paraoxon substrate. We observed significantly lower acetylcholinesterase but higher butyrylcholinesterase levels in children compared with their mothers. Mean butyrylcholinesterase levels were strongly associated with child obesity status (body mass index Z scores >95%). We observed highly significant correlations among mother-child pairs for each of the enzymatic activities analyzed; however, PON1 activities did not correlate with acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase activities. Our findings suggest that by age 9 years, PON1 activities approach adult levels, and host factors including sex and obesity may affect key enzymes involved in pesticide metabolism.
Project description:Herb?drug interactions strongly challenge the clinical combined application of herbs and drugs. Herbal products consist of complex pharmacological-active ingredients and perturb the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS)-based drugs are often combined with aspirin in vascular disease treatment in China. PNS was found to exhibit inhibitory effects on aspirin hydrolysis using Caco-2 cell monolayers. In the present study, a total of 22 components of PNS were separated and identified by UPLC-MS/MS. Using highly selective probe substrate analysis, PNS exerted robust inhibitory potency on human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2), while had a minor influence on hCE1, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase (PON). These effects were also verified through molecular docking analysis. PNS showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on hydrolytic activity of aspirin in HepaRG cells. The protein level of hCE2 in HepaRG cells was suppressed after PNS treatment, while the level of BChE or PON1 in the extracellular matrix were elevated after PNS treatment. Insignificant effect was observed on the mRNA expression of the esterases. These findings are important to understand the underlying efficacy and safety of co-administration of PNS and aspirin in clinical practice.
Project description:Five mouse anti-human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) monoclonal antibodies bind tightly to native human BChE with nanomolar dissociation constants. Pairing analysis in the Octet system identified the monoclonal antibodies that bind to overlapping and independent epitopes on human BChE. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 4 monoclonal antibodies are deposited in GenBank. Our goal was to determine which of the 5 monoclonal antibodies recognize BChE in the plasma of animals. Binding of monoclonal antibodies 11D8, B2 18-5, B2 12-1, mAb2 and 3E8 to BChE in animal plasma was measured using antibody immobilized on Pansorbin cells and on Dynabeads Protein G. A third method visualized binding by the shift of BChE activity bands on nondenaturing gels stained for BChE activity. Gels were counterstained for carboxylesterase activity. The three methods agreed that B2 18-5 and mAb2 have broad species specificity, but the other monoclonal antibodies interacted only with human BChE, the exception being 3E8, which also bound chicken BChE. B2 18-5 and mAb2 recognized BChE in human, rhesus monkey, horse, cat, and tiger plasma. A weak response was found with rabbit BChE. Monoclonal mAb2, but not B2 18-5, bound pig and bovine BChE. Gels stained for carboxylesterase activity confirmed that plasma from humans, monkey, pig, chicken, and cow does not contain carboxylesterase, but plasma from horse, cat, tiger, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse, and rat has carboxylesterase. Rabbit plasma carboxylesterase hydrolyzes butyrylthiocholine. In conclusion monoclonal antibodies B2 18-5 and mAb2 can be used to immuno extract BChE from the plasma of humans, monkey and other animals.
Project description:Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the toxic metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos, causes developmental neurotoxicity in humans and rodents. CPO is hydrolyzed by paraoxonase-1 (PON1), with protection determined by PON1 levels and the human Q192R polymorphism. To examine how the Q192R polymorphism influences fetal toxicity associated with gestational CPO exposure, we measured enzyme inhibition and fetal-brain gene expression in wild-type (PON1(+/+)), PON1-knockout (PON1(-/-)), and tgHuPON1R192 and tgHuPON1Q192 transgenic mice. Pregnant mice exposed dermally to 0, 0.50, 0.75, or 0.85 mg/kg/d CPO from gestational day (GD) 6 through 17 were sacrificed on GD18. Biomarkers of CPO exposure inhibited in maternal tissues included brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), red blood cell acylpeptide hydrolase (APH), and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CES). Fetal plasma BChE was inhibited in PON1(-/-) and tgHuPON1Q192, but not PON1(+/+) or tgHuPON1R192 mice. Fetal brain AChE and plasma CES were inhibited in PON1(-/-) mice, but not in other genotypes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified five gene modules based on clustering of the correlations among their fetal-brain expression values, allowing for correlation of module membership with the phenotypic data on enzyme inhibition. One module that correlated highly with maternal brain AChE activity had a large representation of homeobox genes. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed multiple gene sets affected by gestational CPO exposure in tgHuPON1Q192 but not tgHuPON1R192 mice, including gene sets involved in protein export, lipid metabolism, and neurotransmission. These data indicate that maternal PON1 status modulates the effects of repeated gestational CPO exposure on fetal-brain gene expression and on inhibition of both maternal and fetal biomarker enzymes.
Project description:Albumin is covalently modified by organophosphorus toxicants (OP) on tyrosine 411, but less than 1% of albumin is modified in humans by lethal OP doses that inhibit 95% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase. A method that enriches OP-modified albumin peptides could aid analysis of low dose exposures. Soman or chlorpyrifos oxon treated human plasma was digested with pepsin. Albumin peptides were enriched by binding to Fe(3+) beads at pH 11 and eluted with pH 2.6 buffer. Similarly, mouse and guinea pig albumin modified by chlorpyrifos oxon were digested with pepsin and enriched by binding to Fe(3+) beads. Peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. PHOS-select iron affinity beads specifically enriched albumin peptides VRY411TKKVPQVST and LVRY411TKKVPQVST in a pepsin digest of human plasma. The unmodified as well as OP-modified peptides bound to the beads. The binding capacity of 500 ?L of beads was the pepsin digest of 2.1 ?L of human plasma. The limit of detection was 0.2% of OP-modified albumin peptide in 0.43 ?L of plasma. Enrichment of OP-modified albumin peptides by binding to Fe(3+) beads is a method with potential application to diagnosis of OP pesticide and nerve agent exposure in humans, mice, and guinea pigs.
Project description:Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the toxic metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos, causes developmental neurotoxicity in humans and rodents. CPO is hydrolyzed by paraoxonase-1 (PON1), with protection determined by PON1 levels and the human Q192R polymorphism. To examine how the Q192R polymorphism influences fetal toxicity associated with gestational CPO exposure, we measured biomarker inhibition and fetal-brain gene expression in wild-type (PON1+/+), PON1-knockout (PON1-/-), and tgHuPON1R192 and tgHuPON1Q192 transgenic mice. Pregnant mice exposed dermally to 0, 0.50, 0.75 or 0.85 mg/kg/d CPO from gestational days (GD) 6 through 17 were sacrificed on GD18. Biomarkers of CPO exposure inhibited in maternal tissues included brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), RBC acylpeptide hydrolase (APH), plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CES). Fetal plasma BChE was inhibited in PON1-/- and tgHuPON1Q192, but not PON1+/+ or tgHuPON1R192 mice. Fetal brain AChE and plasma CES were inhibited in PON1-/- mice, but not in other genotypes. Pregnant mice (wild type (WT), PON1-knockout (KO), tgHuPON1R192 (R-tg) and tgHuPON1Q192 (Q-tg)) were exposed to various amounts of CPO (0, 0.5, 0.75 and 0.85 mg/kg/d) for 12 days (gestational days 6-17). On gestational day 18, dams were sacrificed and fetal brains were collected. A total of 264 fetal brains from 80 dams were processed to extract total RNA using TRIZOL and the QIAamp Tissue kit from QIAGEN. Microarray analysis was performed using the fetuses of 5 dams per experimental group (total RNA was pooled from individual fetal brains from each dam). The dams used for fetal-brain microarray analysis were selected using a random-number generator, after first eliminating dams with brain AChE activities > 1.5 SD compared to the mean for their treatment group. RNA samples isolated from individual fetal brains from each dam were combined, then labeled and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST microarrays.
Project description:Aspirin-hydrolysing activity in guinea-pig liver is located mainly in the microsomal fraction. This activity was found by electrophoresis to be due to a single carboxylesterase band, out of 12 bands revealed with alpha-naphthyl acetate as substrate. The activity is inhibited completely and irreversibly by the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis-(-4-nitrophenyl) hydrogen phosphate, and also by thiol-blocking reagents.