High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I and Clinical Risk Scores in Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays can help to identify patients who are at low risk of myocardial infarction in the emergency department. We aimed to determine whether the addition of clinical risk scores would improve the safety of early rule-out pathways for myocardial infarction. METHODS:In 1935 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of 2 rule-out pathways alone or in conjunction with low-risk TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) (0 or 1), GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) (?108), EDACS (Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score) (<16), or HEART (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, Troponin) (?3) scores. The European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway uses a single diagnostic threshold (99th percentile), whereas the High-STEACS (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) pathway applies different thresholds to rule out (<5 ng/L) and rule in (>99th percentile) myocardial infarction. RESULTS:Myocardial infarction or cardiac death during the index presentation or at 30 days occurred in 14.3% of patients (276/1935). The European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out 70%, with 27 missed events giving a negative predictive value of 97.9% (95% CI, 97.1-98.6). The addition of a HEART score ?3 reduced the proportion ruled out by the European Society of Cardiology pathway to 25% but improved the negative predictive value to 99.7% (95% CI, 99.0-100; P<0.001). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 65%, with 3 missed events for a negative predictive value of 99.7% (95% CI, 99.4-99.9). No risk score improved the negative predictive value of the High-STEACS pathways, but all reduced the proportion ruled out (24% to 47%; P<0.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS:Clinical risk scores significantly improved the safety of the European Society of Cardiology 3-hour pathway, which relies on a single cardiac troponin threshold at the 99th percentile to rule in and rule out myocardial infarction. Where lower thresholds are used to rule out myocardial infarction, as applied in the High-STEACS pathway, risk scores halve the proportion of patients ruled out without improving safety. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01852123.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable myocardial infarction to be ruled out earlier, but the optimal approach is uncertain. We compared the European Society of Cardiology rule-out pathway with a pathway that incorporates lower cardiac troponin concentrations to risk stratify patients. METHODS:Patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=1218) underwent high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurement at presentation and 3 and 6 or 12 hours. We compared the European Society of Cardiology pathway (<99th centile at presentation or at 3 hours if symptoms <6 hours) with a pathway developed in the High-STEACS study (High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) population (<5 ng/L at presentation or change <3 ng/L and <99th centile at 3 hours). The primary outcome was a comparison of the negative predictive value of both pathways for index type 1 myocardial infarction or type 1 myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. We evaluated the primary outcome in prespecified subgroups stratified by age, sex, time of symptom onset, and known ischemic heart disease. RESULTS:The primary outcome occurred in 15.7% (191 of 1218) patients. In those less than the 99th centile at presentation, the European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out myocardial infarction in 28.1% (342 of 1218) and 78.9% (961 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, respectively, missing 18 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 97.9%; 95% confidence interval, 96.9-98.7). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 40.7% (496 of 1218) and 74.2% (904 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, missing 2 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 99.5%; 95% confidence interval, 99.0-99.9; P<0.001 for comparison). The negative predictive value of the High-STEACS pathway was greater than the European Society of Cardiology pathway overall (P<0.001) and in all subgroups, including those presenting early or known to have ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS:Use of the High-STEACS pathway incorporating low high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations rules out myocardial infarction in more patients at presentation and misses 5-fold fewer index myocardial infarctions than guideline-approved pathways based exclusively on the 99th centile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01852123.
Project description:This study compared diagnostic accuracy of conventional troponin/traditional coronary artery disease (CAD) assessment and highly sensitive troponin (hsTn) I/advanced CAD assessment for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during the index hospitalization.hsTnI and advanced assessment of CAD using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) are promising candidates to improve the accuracy of emergency department evaluation of patients with suspected ACS.We performed an observational cohort study in patients with suspected ACS enrolled in the ROMICAT II (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia using Computer Assisted Tomography) trial and randomized to coronary CTA who also had hsTnI measurement at the time of the emergency department presentation. We assessed coronary CTA for traditional (no CAD, nonobstructive CAD, ?50% stenosis) and advanced features of CAD (?50% stenosis, high-risk plaque features: positive remodeling, low <30-Hounsfield units plaque, napkin-ring sign, spotty calcium).Of 160 patients (mean age: 53 ± 8 years, 40% women) 10.6% were diagnosed with ACS. The ACS rate in patients with hsTnI below the limit of detection (n = 9, 5.6%), intermediate (n = 139, 86.9%), and above the 99th percentile (n = 12, 7.5%) was 0%, 8.6%, and 58.3%, respectively. Absence of ?50% stenosis and high-risk plaque ruled out ACS in patients with intermediate hsTnI (n = 87, 54.4%; ACS rate 0%), whereas patients with both ?50% stenosis and high-risk plaque were at high risk (n = 13, 8.1%; ACS rate 69.2%) and patients with either ?50% stenosis or high-risk plaque were at intermediate risk for ACS (n = 39, 24.4%; ACS rate 7.7%). hsTnI/advanced coronary CTA assessment significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy for ACS as compared to conventional troponin/traditional coronary CTA (area under the curve 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80 to .88 vs. 0.74, 95% CI: 0.70 to 0.78; p < 0.001).hsTnI at the time of presentation followed by early advanced coronary CTA assessment improves the risk stratification and diagnostic accuracy for ACS as compared to conventional troponin and traditional coronary CTA assessment. (Multicenter Study to Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia by Cardiac Computed Tomography [ROMICAT-II]; NCT01084239).
Project description:AIMS:The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the ability of serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurements to rule out acute myocardial infarction and (b) the ability of a single high baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurement to rule in acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain. METHODS AND RESULTS:Embase, Medline, Cochrane, Web of Science and Google scholar were searched for prospective cohort studies that evaluated parameters of diagnostic accuracy of serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T to rule out acute myocardial infarction and a single baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value>50 ng/l to rule in acute myocardial infarction. The search yielded 21 studies for the systematic review, of which 14 were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 11,929 patients and an overall prevalence of acute myocardial infarction of 13.0%. For rule-out, six studies presented the sensitivity of serial measurements <14 ng/l. This cut-off classified 60.1% of patients as rule-out and the summary sensitivity was 96.7% (95% confidence interval: 92.3-99.3). Three studies presented the sensitivity of a one-hour algorithm with a baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value<12 ng/l and delta 1 hour <3 ng/l. This algorithm classified 60.2% of patients as rule-out and the summary sensitivity was 98.9% (96.4-100). For rule-in, six studies reported the specificity of baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value>50 ng/l. The summary specificity was 94.6% (91.5-97.1). CONCLUSION:Serial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurement strategies to rule out acute myocardial infarction perform well, and a single baseline high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T value>50 ng/l to rule in acute myocardial infarction has a high specificity.
Project description:Measures of cardiac troponin (cTn) may have lower specificity for myocardial infarction in patients with CKD. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of baseline and serial high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI) measurements for myocardial infarction and 30- and 180-day mortality according to renal function. hs-cTnI was measured (Abbott assay) using sex-specific 99th percentiles (women, 16 ng/L; men, 34 ng/L) in 1555 adults presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggesting ischemia (NCT02060760). Myocardial infarction was adjudicated along universal definition classification. Renal function did not significantly affect sensitivity or negative predictive values. Specificity decreased with impaired renal function from 93%-95% with normal function (eGFR?90 ml/min per 1.73 m2; n=722) to 57%-61% with severely impaired renal function (eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2; n=81) and 40%-41% on dialysis (n=78). Positive predictive values decreased with decreasing renal function from 51%-57% with normal function to 27%-42% with severely impaired function and 15%-32% on dialysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve areas trended lower at baseline and 3 hours with renal impairment. Mortality increased significantly with increasing hs-cTnI tertile (1.3%, 6.0%, and 10.4%, respectively). Patients with hs-cTnI concentration exceeding concentrations in the 99th percentiles had a mortality rate (11.7%) significantly higher than that of patients with concentrations between 99th percentile concentrations and limit of detection (6.2%) or below limit of detection (1.1%). Renal dysfunction and dialysis reduced the rule-in performance but not the rule-out performance of hs-cTnI for myocardial infarction, and mortality increased in patients with higher hs-cTnI concentrations and any level of renal dysfunction.
Project description:Background:The ideal high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) cutoff for identifying those at low risk of 30 days events is debated; however, the 99th percentile overall or gender-specific upper reference limit (URL) is most commonly used. The magnitude of risk and the best management strategy for those with low-level hsTn elevation hasn't been extensively studied. Methods:We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis including 4396 chest pain patients (542 with low-level hsTn elevation) who ruled out for myocardial infarction (MI), had a stable high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) levels (defined as < 5 ng/l inter-measurements increase in hsTnT levels), and were discharged from the emergency department without further ischemic testing. The aim of the study was to compare the 30-day incidence of adverse cardiac events (ACE) between patients with undetectable high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) (group 1), patients with hsTnT within the 99th percentile sex-specific URL (group 2), and patients with low-level hsTnT elevation (between the 99th percentile URL and ? 50 ng/l) (group 3). Results:30-day event rates were very low 0.1%, 0.6%, and 0.4% for hsTnT groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (overall P = 0.041, for groups 2 & 3 interaction P = 0.74). 30-day all-cause mortality, as well as 1-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities, occurred more frequently in those with low-level hsTnT elevation as did 1-year composite ACE. Conclusion:In conclusion, 30-day adverse event rates were very low in those with stable low-level hsTnT elevation who ruled out for MI and were discharged from the emergency department without further inpatient testing.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) is a key endpoint in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but heterogeneous definitions limit comparisons across RCTs or meta-analyses. The 2000 European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology MI redefinition and the 2007 universal MI definition consensus documents made recommendations to address this issue. In cardiovascular randomized trials, we evaluated the impact of implementation of three key recommendations from these reports-troponin use to define MI; separate reporting of spontaneous and procedure-related MI; and infarct size reporting. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and MEDLINE databases for cardiovascular RCTs with more than 500 patients in which enrolment began between September 2000 and July 2012 and that listed MI in the primary endpoint. We searched English-language publications with primary results or design papers. Of 3222 studies screened, 96 (3.0%) met our criteria. We extracted enrolment start date, number of patients and MI events, follow-up duration, and coronary revascularization rate. Data extraction quality was assessed by duplicated extractions. Of 96 RCTs, 80 had a primary results publication, comprising 608 091 patients and 43 621 endpoint MIs. Myocardial infarction represented 45.3% (95% confidence interval, 40.2-50.4) of events in the primary composite endpoint. Troponin defined MI in 57% (53/93) of trials with an MI definition available. Of these RCTs, three used troponin only if creatine kinase-MB was unavailable, six used troponin to define peri-procedural MI, seven specified the 99th percentile as the MI decision limit, and three reported spontaneous and procedure-related MI separately. None reported biomarker-based infarct size, but five reported MI as multiples of the assay upper limit of normal. Although MI is a major component of cardiovascular RCT primary endpoints, standardized MI reporting and implementation of consensus document recommendations for MI definition are limited. Developing appropriate strategies for uniform implementation is required.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVE:High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable myocardial infarction to be excluded in the emergency department (ED). As part of a prospective clinical trial, we explore how introducing an early rule-out pathway may affect patient experience of chest pain. METHODS:In a qualitative study, participants presenting to the ED with suspected acute coronary syndrome, and for whom the diagnosis of myocardial infarction was excluded, were interviewed before (n=23) or after (n=26) implementation of an early rule-out pathway. Preimplementation, diagnosis of myocardial infarction was excluded on serial troponin testing requiring admission to the hospital. Postimplementation, diagnosis could be excluded in the ED, enabling direct patient discharge. Semistructured interviews exploring the patients' illness experience were conducted approximately 1 week postdischarge, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Themes emerging pre- and postimplementation are described. RESULTS:Common themes emerged across both pathways: participants commonly sought health care advice before presenting to the ED; a discordance may exist between the objective interpretation of troponin results by clinicians and the patients' experience of illness; and pretest information, trust in the clinician, and active listening may enhance reassurance gained from negative test results. Other themes related to the care pathway were that routine care procedures appeared to be a source of frustration for participants requiring hospital admission, and patients assessed with the early rule-out pathway appeared less likely to appraise their future health status. CONCLUSION:The early rule-out of myocardial infarction may be enhanced by recognition of patient out-of-hospital experience and improved communication surrounding reassurance and future cardiovascular health goals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Common ECG criteria such as ST-segment changes are of limited value in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and bundle branch block or wide QRS complex. A large proportion of these patients do not suffer from an AMI, whereas those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) equivalent AMI benefit from an aggressive treatment. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic information of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in hemodynamically stable patients with wide QRS complex and suspected AMI. METHODS:In 417 out of 1818 patients presenting consecutively between 01/2007 and 12/2008 in a prospective multicenter observational study with suspected AMI a prolonged QRS duration was observed. Of these, n = 117 showed significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) used as diagnostic outcome variable. cTnI was determined at admission. RESULTS:Patients with significant CAD had higher cTnI levels compared to individuals without (median 250ng/L vs. 11ng/L; p<0.01). To identify patients needing a coronary intervention, cTnI yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.849. Optimized cut-offs with respect to a sensitivity driven rule-out and specificity driven rule-in strategy were established (40ng/L/96ng/L). Application of the specificity optimized cut-off value led to a positive predictive value of 71% compared to 59% if using the 99th percentile cut-off. The sensitivity optimized cut-off value was associated with a negative predictive value of 93% compared to 89% provided by application of the 99th percentile threshold. CONCLUSION:cTnI determined in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected AMI and wide QRS complex using optimized diagnostic thresholds improves rule-in and rule-out with respect to presence of a significant obstructive CAD.
Project description:To assess the relation between troponin concentration, assay precision, and clinical outcomes in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Cohort study.Tertiary centre in Scotland.2092 consecutive patients admitted with suspected acute coronary syndrome were stratified with a sensitive troponin I assay into three groups (<0.012, 0.012-0.049, and ?0.050 µg/L) based on the 99th centile for troponin concentration (0.012 µg/L; coefficient of variation 20.8%) and the diagnostic threshold (0.050 µg/L; 7.2%).One year survival without events (recurrent myocardial infarction, death) in patients grouped by troponin concentration.Troponin I concentrations were <0.012 µg/L in 988 patients (47%), 0.012-0.049 µg/L in 352 patients (17%), and ?0.050 µg/L in 752 patients (36%). Adoption of the 99th centile would increase the number of people receiving a diagnosis of myocardial infarction from 752 to 1104: a relative increase of 47%. At one year, patients with troponin concentrations of 0.012-0.049 µg/L were more likely to be dead or readmitted with recurrent myocardial infarction than those with troponin concentrations <0.012 µg/L (13% v 3%, P<0.001; odds ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 7.9). Compared with troponin ?0.050 µg/L, patients with troponin 0.012-0.049 µg/L had a higher risk profile but were less likely to have a diagnosis of, or be investigated and treated for, acute coronary syndrome.Lowering the diagnostic threshold to the 99th centile and accepting greater assay imprecision would identify more patients with acute coronary syndrome at risk of recurrent myocardial infarction and death but would increase the diagnosis of myocardial infarction by 47%. It remains to be established whether reclassification of these patients and treatment for myocardial infarction would improve outcome.
Project description:Physicians need information on how to use the first available high-sensitivity troponin (hsTnT) assay in the United States to identify patients at very low risk for 30-day adverse cardiac events (ACE).To determine whether a negative hsTnT assay at 0 and 3 hours following emergency department presentation could identify patients at less than 1% risk of a 30-day ACE.A prospective, observational study at 15 emergency departments in the United States between 2011 and 2015 that included individuals 21 years and older, presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Of 1690 eligible individuals, 15 (no cardiac troponin T measurement) and 320 (missing a 0-hour or 3-hour sample) were excluded from the analyses.Serial hsTnT measurements (fifth-generation Roche Elecsys hsTnT assay).Serial blood samples from each patient were collected after emergency department presentation (once identified as a potential patient with acute coronary syndrome) and 3 hours, 6 to 9 hours, and 12 to 24 hours later. Adverse cardiac events were defined as myocardial infarction, urgent revascularization, or death. The upper reference level for the hsTnT assay, defined as the 99th percentile, was established as 19 ng/L in a separate healthy US cohort. Patients were considered ruled out for acute myocardial infarction if their hsTnT level at 0 hours and 3 hours was less than the upper reference level. Gold standard diagnoses were determined by a clinical end point committee. Evaluation of assay clinical performance for acute myocardial infarction rule-out was prespecified; the hypothesis regarding 30-day ACE was formulated after data collection.In 1301 healthy volunteers (50.4% women; median age, 48 years), the upper reference level was 19 ng/L. In 1600 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (48.4% women; median age, 55 years), a single hsTnTlevel less than 6 ng/L at baseline had a negative predictive value for AMI of 99.4%. In 974 patients (77.1%) with both 0-hour and 3-hour hsTnT levels of 19 ng/L or less, the negative predictive value for 30-day ACE was 99.3% (95% CI, 99.1-99.6). Using sex-specific cutpoints, C statistics for women (0.952) and men (0.962) were similar for acute myocardial infarction.A single hsTnT level less than 6 ng/L was associated with a markedly decreased risk of AMI, while serial levels at 19 ng/L or less identified patients at less than 1% risk of 30-day ACE.